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John Tomlinson analyses the globalization and the culture relationship, Globalization is in the center of modern culture; cultural practices are in the globalization center.Â In John Tomlinson view, globalization and culture could be interpreted as relationship that they complement each other. John Tomlinson thinks that researching Globalization from the fields of political science, economics, sociology and communication to lead the field of culture, cultural practices are designed to reveal the meaning of globalization
On globalization, John Tomlinson thinks the point of view from the daily life experience and to analyze the sense of intimacy, uniqueness.Â On culture, John Tomlinson reflect on the cultural and political and economic relationship between the practice to clarify the complex cultural purposes, that is what makes life full of meaningful experience. John Tomlinson was more concerned about the wide acceptance of the cultural characteristics of
John Tomlinson focused on the "Deterritorialization "of the concept that deterritorialization of our current globalization and cultural conditions, it exists in everyday experience among the grasp of many aspects of cultural globalization. Globalization fundamentally is the place we live, it makes our cultural practices, cultural identity and cultural experience and the relationship between the occurrences of the transition, it reduces or removes the daily dynamic between cultural and territorial positioning Contact; This culture, the opportunities and pitfalls.Â So, John Tomlinson called for world unity.
Hardt, Michael; Negri, Antonio, (2000) "Extract" from Hardt, Michael; Negri, Antonio, Empire pp.xi-xvi,3-21, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press
Hardt, Michael; Negri, Antonio, hardt criticize the globalization, their book"empire" could be considered as the representative of the anti-globalization works. They argue that the globalization is the capitalist production and economic relations have become more autonomous from political controls ,But with the traditional left to some of the different anti-globalization, this book address the global changes in an attempt to put forward in the context of globalization, new practice ideas.
Hardt, Michael; Negri, Antonio book's argument can be roughly simplified as follows: Globalization has led to changes in capitalism, the nation-state boundaries disappear, the new "Empire" has been formed, showing a new form of sovereignty, is composed of many countries and a joint supranational organizationsÂ . Empire "does not establish a power center, nor rely on fixed boundaries or barriers. Empire is a decentralized to the regions with the tools of the rule, and graduallyÂ areas into the global expansion of its open and whole. "Such an abstract rather than concrete "empire" how to rule?
Finally, Hardt, Michael; Negri, Antonio called "the masses" are a utopian construct. Sociology of knowledge that, in the absence of any organized sports, leadership, and the dominant ideology, even if there is no amount of suffering, it will only submit to humiliation.Â The authors argue that "the masses" is the seed of the revolution, they need international links to change the "empire", but these people in today's nation-states under the barrier, how could the international links, how to overcome language differences
Saskia Sassen (2008), "Neither global nor national: novel assemblages of territory",
Authority and rights1Columbia University, USA
Ethics & Global Politics, Vol. 1, No. 1 2, 2008, pp. 61 79
Saskia Sassen is the Professor of Sociology, Columbia Universityï¼Œthe globalization leads the Unequal distribution of material resources, cultural colonialism and the depletion of non-renewable raw materials, the source of political conflict between North and South. "Consequences of this phenomenon, such as global climate change to all social classes and the widening between the poor countriesÂ gap between the rich have led to greater social crisis.
Sassen thinks that the world only about 40 nodes in a transnational influence in the city, most of them located in the North Atlantic global subsystem; Globalization and World Cities Study Group believes that the world only 50 "World City"Â , and another 60 to 70 cities to show the world the city "part of the evidence"
Saskia Sassen states that Economic globalization not look at the globalization of capital accumulation, but also the production process of globalization.Â If the economic globalization, the globalization of the production process as we see more than just capital, capital is only one aspect of economic globalization, it is another aspect of the globalization of labor, especially in the international movement of labor.Â In the process of economic globalization, the cities, especially global cities, a place of convergence of capital and labor, the coordination center of the world economy, and thus become the problem of inequality in the globalization process of strategic interventionÂ place.Â Specifically, how interventions,
A Brief History of Neoliberalism, David Harvey, Oxford university press
David Harvey Examine the "new liberalism" in the past few decades to stir up trouble, and largely reshaped the pattern of international politics, not only for our understanding of the financial crisis, but also for understanding the development of global capitalism.
With the new round of financial crisis sweeping the world and impact on all walks of life, people have tried from all aspects, directly or indirectly, to discuss the origin and development of the crisis, including the re-study of world history over the past few decades in the politicalÂ and economic theory and practice.Â In this context, there is a scholar claim that the capitalist world have long been in crisis for a long time.Â People who make this assertion is David â€¢ Harvey
At the beginning, David Harvey analyze the U.S. war in Iraq, the United States in the implementation of the new Chilean liberal reform, pointed out that "neo-liberal" reforms, but at outside the United States once again in the experiment, then it could be the sample as their internal reform
Of course, we should not forget the teachings of Marx - "In the past philosophers only interpret the world, but the important thing is to change the world." For understanding the status of our world today and the "new liberalism" of the context, although this small book may be many areas for improvement, but still occupies an important position.
Arjun Appadurai, Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy, 1990 7: 295 Theory Culture Society, DOI: 10.1177/026327690007002017.
Arjun Appadurai thinks that disjuncture and difference are normally in the global cultural economy, today, the central issue is the tense relationship between global interaction heterogeneity and cultural homogeneity. "Homogenization" is globalization and the universal, "heterogeneous", that the pursuit of ethnic, indigenous rights and the maintenance of cultural identity.Â As mentioned earlier, the key is, "homogeneity" of the substance at the expense of "heterogeneity" as the price,
The basic efforts are to discuss the disadvantaged and marginalized groups in the cultural status quo from the inequality freed.Â From an academic perspective, the demands of cultural heterogeneity consist of the following reasons: First, the cultural standpoint, it has a position of cultural relativism.Â The need for different cultures to maintain their autonomy, because whether it is strong or weak culture, are equal in rights, no one culture is superior to other cultures, nature.Â Therefore, there is no one culture can be for other cultural legislation, and its own advantages and disadvantages of other cultures for the evaluation criteria.Â
Thus in Arjun Appadurai thinks that which derived from the resistance of a strong culture means that it is not for the emphasis on their own than any other culture their own special appeal, but in Europe or the male-centered center of power has become a universal rule in the context of interculturalÂ the pursuit of equal status.
Ulrich Beck, the Terrorist Threat: World Risk Society Revisited, 2002 19: 39 Theory Culture Society, DOI: 10.1177/0263276402019004003
the British sociologist Ulrich Beck, with his point of view, representation of contemporary social structures and life patterns generated by the many changes in availability of a "second modern" the character, and different from the traditional "modern / post-modern" painting points.
Â In this book, the "second modern" and cosmopolitanism, points out "the first modern" over-development, will turn off the collapse of global market and the nation-state patterns, and will generate reflection type of cultural development.Â Cultural development in the reflection type, the modern rational and the Universe would have been a powerful challenge of all; society will also be the inner self to begin conversion.Â People's cultural experience and experience in space, including the cultivation of various degree of recognition, diversity of life forms of the cross, the Political Action Without Borders, etc., will have a more diversified development.
"Risk society" has the global common foundation, because in the second modernity, whether political, economic or ecological crisis, the risk of the spread is no national boundaries; so modern risk society, must put in the context of globalization down interpretation.Â However, Baker on the "second modern" in the description of the world, the globalization of the past simply is not the same.Â In order to interpret more in line with the concept of global development community, and puts forward a "cosmopolitan", containing the words "all men are brothers",
David held& anthony mcgrew, david goldblatt & jonathan perraton, global transformation
Early in the 20th century, David held and the famous sociologist Anthony Giddens, Professor, who put together the relevant "risk society" of the concepts and theories
Ecological, financial, military, terrorists, biochemical and information, and other risks - in our contemporary world in a way there is overwhelming.Â To the risk we experience everywhere; we could only make the following three types of reaction: denial, indifference and transformation.Â The first approach is largely rooted in modern culture, but it ignored this attitude has denied that the political risks; second approach succumb to the kind of postmodern nihilism which type of argument;Â The third approach led to my theory of world risk society issues raised: the future of man and the diversity of the expected consequences with the risk of changes in how the impact and awareness of modern society, survivalÂ conditions and the system?
Global default is a rational increase in demand uncertainty.Â Caused by industrial society because of the uncertainty does not necessarily lead to confusion or disaster.Â Rather, the uncertainty can not be calculated can also a source of creativity, which is a contingency to allow reason and experiment new things.Â Thus, the current end of a pervasive sense of the kind of odds
Mike Featherstone, Global culture: nationalism, globalization, and modernity :
Mike Featherstone is currently Britain's consumer culture theorists.Â In this book, consumer culture, as his object of study, reviews the theory of consumer culture Featherstone three main aspects: first by an aesthetic theory of everyday life, this is the theory of consumer culture Featherstone core and foundation.Â While the previous practice of daily life and consumption has some research, and creation of daily life for the Featherstone laid the foundation of aesthetic theory, but he did not think life is a tool that strict control of rational consumer space, but alsoÂ do not think life is a fragment of a fragmentation.Â
Featherstone believes that everyday life is consumer spending the main field of practice, and in this field, the emergence of consumer practice of aesthetic tendencies. Featherstone follows the performance of the control and resistance theory. practice in the analysis of consumption during the fight right to speak, on the one hand explains how to control the ideology of everyday life cultural practices of consumers, but also pointed out how consumers the possibility of a boycott., on the whole, daily control of the consumer ideology is growing, but from specific consumer practice, consumers have been symbols of consumer culture transformation and substitution.Â Mike Featherstone lamented that some disorder of literature,
Michael Gurevitch, Culture, Society and the Media
Michael Gurevitch based on the world, from an interdisciplinary and cross-cultural perspective of globalization and democratization of the media between the complex and sometimes mutually reinforcing and sometimes conflicting multi-faceted relationship.Â
This book proposed a new theory about generalities, but not to provide a description of the micro, but the relevant proposition was different theoretical and historical sort, from which new problems.Â firstly discusses the theory of globalization and the globalization of media organizations in the media, marketing, form, movement, effects and management aspects of change, and the media "bottom-up globalization" process and practice.Â Then, the article in English literature of the existing market liberals, liberals in the public domain, and the radical democrats of different concepts of democracy and the spread of globalization and its significance for the different media analysis were reviewed,
Finally, the book was put forward, including media ownership diversity, multi-directional flow of the global media in the political and theoretical significance, the Western model and views the adequacy or relevance media for political information than the broader identityÂ role during the formation of macro issues such as 7, to promote the breadth and depth of study.Â The globalization and democratization of media there are complex interactions between the relationships between two, which is far from even a discussion of two books could come to an end.Â
Â Oliver Boyd-Barrett, Terhi Rantanen. The globalization of news
Â Oliver Boyd-Barrett, Terhi Rantanen research from the social perspective ,and emphasizes the role of government era of globalization, and the Government can play a complementary effect and the market potential to give more attention. Using of statistical methods proved that external risks can not be ignored, but the state is playing an important integral role in providing social security and protection of social justice. Government maintains economic openness and balance between domestic needs of the community as a crucial and irreplaceable role.Â The implication is: If the Government is up to the role that globalization will be able to smooth the contrary, this process will be reversed.Â
Â Oliver Boyd-Barrett,Terhi find some latest new which find the process of globalization, which in many ways is very different.Â For example, today's international financial system from the conclusions of historical research in analysis and interpretation should be applied to contemporary events, there will be quite limited indeed.Â But the basic values of the market mechanism and social hundred years did not occur in a large change fundamentally.Â Since the market's expansion on a global scale in fact has brought individuals and the income gap between countries and the widening gap of economic welfare, just as happened 80 years ago as; it will be useful to draw lessons from history.