Theoretical Framework The Meaning Transfer Model Cultural Studies Essay

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McCraken in his model stated that the capability or efficiency of celebrity endorsement policy depends on the meaning or significance that the celebrity communicates with the help of endorsement process. Celebrities can transfer various meanings to the goods or services and there are without any doubt a large of number of meanings comprised in a celebrity, such as rank, gender, age, way of life, and individuality (Erdogan B. Z., 1999). Hence, it symbolizes for marketers a huge opportunity at their disposal for their campaigns.

This model provides a "conventional path for the movement of cultural meaning in consumer societies" (Erdogan, Baker, &Tagg, 2001). The process is composed of mainly three stages: the construction of celebrity image, the movement from celebrity to product and the transfer of meaning from product to consumers (McCraken, 1989).

According to McCraken (1989), in the first stage, meanings come from a culturally comprised world, a physical and social world constituted by many ranks and laws and standard of the existing culture. In this process, there are many artists that play a vital and significant role. Advertising is a kind of bridge of bringing together consumer wants and needs and the illustration of the culturally composed world. As a consequence, one of the main roles of advertising is to convey the culturally constituted significance or meaning of products to consumers.

The second level is the transfer of meaning from celebrity to product. It is the point where the commodity achieves individuality throughout the process of the transfer of celebrity's meanings. This effort is accomplished by advertising agencies which selects the right celebrity to advertise the product with the correct meanings. Subsequently, the meanings are shifted to the product, they should be shifted to consumers as well (stage 3). According to McCraken, this last transfer is to be completed by the work of the consumers who are ready to take control of the meanings. This development will be accomplished through cultural practice and traditions. In conclusion, this model advances that organizations should consider the actual meanings of celebrities that are favorable for their product or brand. In reality, the performance of the endorser will rely upon in part on the various meanings he/she communicates with the help of endorsement process. .

The theory explained above is related to the undertaken study. Being a celebrity comes along with being famous. Nowadays, the recognition and fame of a lot of celebrities are associated with the attributes and messages that they themselves symbolize. As a particular person they are very much alike to a product or a brand because of what general public believe when they perceive them with eyes. They imitate a particular image and it follows them in any medium they appear in. When a celebrity spokesperson or anyone with popularity come into sight in an advertisement of any kind, their attributes and image follow them.

The comprehensive idea of this procedure is that first an image is associated with the celebrity. Then their image is shifted to that particular product they are advertising, and beyond any doubt their image accounts a switch in the ways of the product to consumers with the help of use and purchase. Marketers' belief that the symbols associated with the celebrities will be associated with their products and in result be joined to the celebrity for coming citations by the general public.

This can be well explained through an example. Fawad Afzal Khan as a celebrity has acquired a cultural meaning of elegance, independence, sophistication and confidence. This meaning is then transferred to Noir by Q-mobile endorsed by Fawad as the attitude par excellence. Doubtlessly, the fit is above suspicion.

CHAPTER 4

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research Methods are a variety of techniques that people use when studying a given phenomenon. They are planned, scientific, and value - neutral. What that means that is that good research methods don't "just happen". Instead they are deliberately employed in way that is designed to maximize the accuracy of the results.

4.1 RESEARCH DESIGN

The research design which the researcher has used is the survey research. The survey method is the technique for gathering data by asking questions to people who are thought to have desired information. Surveys are important to produce information on effective studies, opinions, attitudes.

4.2 RESEARCH TOOL

As per the research design questionnaire sheet is used as the research tool. The data is collected with the help of a questionnaire based on funnel format i.e. from general to specific questions. The questionnaire is be formulated by keeping in mind the objectives and goals of the study.

4.3 POPULATION

The selected universe for this study is the youth of Lahore constituting age 18-24.

4.4 UNIVERSE

Due to limitation of time and financial resources the study is restricted to Kinnaird College for Women, Lahore College for women, University of the Punjab, F.C. College for Boys and G.C. College for boys.

4.5 SAMPLE SIZE

Sample size is simply the number of people or units available to be studied. In this study a sample of 250 respondents age 18-24 will be drawn adopting the procedure of random sampling. A quota of 50 students allotted to each institution to get a sample of 250 students and also a quota of 125 boys and 125 girls.

4.6 STATISTICAL TOOL:

The statistical tool used in this research is Mini tab 15.

4.7 VARIABLES

Independent Variables:

Exposure to advertisements

Fashion advertisements

Dependent Variables:

Brand consciousness

Knowledge about fashion advertisements

Persuasion

4.8 CONCEPTUALIZATION

Exposure to advertisements:

Cambridge dictionary defines exposure as the experience from which someone or something is affected because they are in a particular situation or place. Exposure to advertisements is to view advertisements. It's an independent variable as it cannot be changed and determined by the respondents.

Brand conscious:

According to Cambridge Dictionaries brand conscious is to be aware of popular brands and wanting to buy particular brands rather than others.

Fashion advertisements:

According to Collins Dictionary fashion is a way of life that revolves around the activities, dress, interests, etc. that are most fashionable or fashion can be an art, behavior, cuisine, literature, architecture and music that is followed by a majority of people in a society or culture.

Persuasion:

Webster dictionary defines persuasion as a verb that mean to succeed in causing a person to do or consent to something

Knowledge about fashion advertisements:

Webster dictionary defines knowledge about fashion advertisements as the fact or condition of knowing a way of life that revolves around the activities, dress, interests, etc., that are most fashionable.

4.9 OPERATIONALISATION

Exposure to advertisements

In the circle of study the youth is considered exposed to fashion advertisement when he/she watches the advertisements of fashion products regularly.

Brand consciousness:

In this study the researcher describes youth that becomes brand conscious after watching celebrity fashion advertisements.

Knowledge about Fashion Advertisements:

In the circle of study the researcher describes knowledge as youth having information about fashion advertisements or of being learned about fashion products through advertisements.

Persuasion

In the circle of study youth are considered persuaded when they embrace the same point of view about the product as shown in the advertisement.

Fashion advertisements:

Fashion advertisements in this study refer to the ads of accessories, clothing, cell phones, network services as seen by youth.

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