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Who I am as a learner?
There are many interpretations meaning under self analysis. Self analysis can be interpreted on the basis of the self awareness; evaluate and analyze; diagnostic tools; model and framework and the critical reflection and reflexivity (Barron, 1993).
Furthermore, it been applied the various field on the psychiatric treatment as self development, self analysis and continuing professional development. Nowadays, the managers are aware of the important of it on the economic field (Mumford and Gold, 2004).
The concept is the important of self development, self analysis and continuing professional development to manager in the first place. This three analysis toolkits have different reflection on it and review on the strengths and weakness. The following this paper is involve in the model such as cognitive style and learning strategies.
The style involve in two difference model as cognitive style and learning strategies. The concept of learning styles is based on the learning process; the authors groped them in three domains as learning and meaning oriented processes, instructional preferences and the cognitive skill development (Riding & Rayner., 2002).
Learning style is the concept of personality, advocates of learning style is for student to learn and study in the different ways and it also for student to explore their learning model to achieve more effective learning. Base on my own ways for learning, I have performed a number of test / questionnaire to explore myself and discussion on implication for future career and personal development.
I have attended few tests to explore or understand batter of myself that help my future. My personal learning test as the VARK questionnaire (all this example is proposed in the appendices A ) has provides four scores V=six, A=seven, R=seven and K=six the various combinations of those are in huge number. The following four models that I wish to share are visual, aural/auditory, read/writing and kinaesthetic. Base on the report from the questionnaire show the group have the low score is between 16 and 25, but I get at 26 under the group of whole-sense approach.
The result came out as Visual and Kinaesthetic in the lower range but both are in the scores for 6; I disagree with the result as I expect to be much higher in the read/writing part. As visual is something about what you see in the depiction of information like a graphic or a diagrams as I was learning in Northumbria University and INTI university college, when I come across a subject in Business Law presented in the class using flowchart to talk about my case as I not really like to use the black and white word to present (referee to the appendices B- power point presentation).
This ways I can learn and follow up what I really understand in the subject as well as kinaesthetic that related on experience and practice base on what I learn in Northumbria University seminar that I attend in FN0360 (Ethic and Governance) doing all the task base on the case study as the first few seminar and the following seminar I have much more experience to do the task. Base on what I have learnt about ethical principle the four principles as egoism, utilitarianism, virtue and deontological by looking into differs view in the business for my future. What they have does and whether they are wrong or right in the case study all this show. I must make a judgement by the behaviour on the case and ethic done notÂ have right or wrongÂ answer all this experience about different case study's will lead me to my future career.
My scores on this part are read/writing and aural result show that both is at seven, aural is to describe a preference for information that heard or spoke. Surprise to me is my read is high that my visual. As Read/writing is for displayed as word example text based input or output. When I learn in Northumbria University, I like to combine this two modes into a ways that I preference and believe is the best ways for my learning. Before attending the subject for SM0374 (corporate strategy) I will use the eBook example like listensÂ to the audio or video show inÂ the text book is teaching about and read it when attending the class I will listens what lectures and tutorials about the strategy use in the company and I take note for it . The eBook show as a pre-session outline to reinforcement my subject before my lecture. This ways I can understand more batter that just going to lecture without understanding what the lecturer try to explain in the note.
The report for the VARK test(all this example is proposed in the appendices A ) result show that I am a multimodal person, the report also talk about the personal who is multimodal it clearly the most set of preferences when making decisions about learning(Fleming, 2001). In the report show that are two type of approach as context specific approach and whole-sense approach. I think context specific approach is not suitable for me as this approach as to learning and decision making are in two group with transition between them. For example if I have to learn physical skill like yoga, I will "turn on" my kinaesthetic preference and try it to become practical. I will need to continue to revisit these learning strategies proposed in VARK test on a regular basis to understand and know more about my learning skills.Â
Result show whole-sense approach is more suitable for me as the category for number of the models in combination, to make decisions and to learn and to present materials to other. For example in college or university for the SM0376 (Doing business in Europe, Asia) I might gather some ideas from the teachers subject explanations, and some from discussing and questioning with my group mate. I also add to using textbook, thinking about some practical that I learn in class or look into the daily news and I might also draw out some diagram to let me understand more about the subject. Together these choose using V, A, R and K only satisfied that I really understand something. I disagree with it, whole-sense approach although I might use it for some time but most for the time I will preference not using all the modes in a time, I might like to combine like V and K or R and A modes.
In addition to the VARK test I also performed a questionnaire based upon the Myer-Briggs personality (all this example is proposed in the appendices A), is the best way to understand my personality or psychological. According the research (Reinhold, 2006) show enhancements to recently released "M" edition of inventory were product of landmark normative study involving thousands of people of work by a team of experts in the field of psychometrics to measure personality type, psychological type or the 16 MBTI. I have test the cognitive style inventory, the style inventory will allow me to approximate what MBTI type of preference. I have determine my four type letter as ESTP, this letter I get help me to acquaint with the characteristics and indicators of 16 personality types.
According to Myer-Briggs educator (Poirier, 2009) as the result to understand 16 personality types, she organizes in too four clusters as dominant intuitive types, dominant sensing type, dominant thinking type and dominant feeling type. I result fall into dominant sensing types under ESTP and the four primary type of groups can be sub-divided based on our orientation or attitude (Extraversion Vs Introversion) as my result as under dominant extraverted sensing type (ESFP&ESTP) are the types on practical and realistic with living life to the fullest of the multiplying experiences.
For example when I was attendingÂ in the College doing an assignment of theÂ management project as to know well about the company we decided to interview, understand the company profile and information as the company using what kinds for strategic to build the company. Everything was going smoothly and problem come as my entire group mate have some disagree argument and dislike each other due to their feeling and personal problem and not doing any work and the best ways I can think of is each one enter to my room and I try to solve the problem try to talk with each one whether they like it or not, I will just tell them work out first for project rather than never do any work and finally the interviews run well.
My result show that having the powerful tools to finding ways to fix and repair thing with dexterity, a group most keep it simple and immediate, going with the flow. In a group also helpful in very concrete ways, providing the correct tools or specific service the person requires. This show others similar example to fix in this is the module SM0374 (strategic management and leadership) under a seminar learning about pharmaceutical industry as this is my group to present on this topic but unfortunately one of my group mate cannot make it as the time run out, luckily another group help up to exchange the topic as our group also help to find out the answer and information to another group and we exchange the topic andÂ present the Mark and Spencer topic it also involved in the whole group performing and ability to respond appropriately in case of emergencies.
1.3 BELBIN Inventory
Get me to know better BELBIN(all this example is proposed in the appendices A) helps to understand my self-perception the overview of my behaviour, self-knowledge, understanding among individuals and team as all things can influence behaviour in organisation, whether a new job, promotion or circumstances outside work. BELBIN result it gives advice on how to project my strengths and be aware of potential weaknesses this will lead me to understand better future career. I gain the assessment by team roles in rank order from one to nine , my self-perception show SP, CO, TW, RI , PL , SH , ME , CF and IMP follow the ranking order.
Reefer to the appendix A as the following chart show there are four page reports for the first report is the self-perception team role is based on my result of the self-perception inventory. It shows on the report have three roles as least preferred roles (left), manageable roles (middle) and preferred roles (right). As my report show most of the team-role contribution that I get is at the middle around 30 to 69 and the most least preferred roles is implementer (IMP) well I agree with the result as I am not really good in the role of implementer for bring up to successful issue or perform a task as I use too the slow respond to new possibilities.
But the preferred roles I have in the result but it was litter surprise with it in co-ordinator (CO) and specialist (SP) I good with specialist but in the report said it is single-minded not really a single minded person I also try to resolve thing out using another person ways or other skill to solve and complete the task. Self-starting dedicated and provides knowledge with skills in the rare supply. For example during in Northumbria University when I came accord with one assignment about doing a case study for Mark and Spencer although I am not the leader for this task but first come to my mind is tell them to read the case study and by using my management skills to plan in time, organise each of them do their part and meeting together to do the assignment because most of the people like to do last minute or just not attend the presentation due to some sickness excuse.Â
Not just one assignment all the assignment I have plan in time and management it. Some of the ideas come from my dad advise in planning doing things right, as he is the oneÂ all the time asking me when I going out go to where and when I will be back to home. But the report also talk about the weaknesses that can contributes on limited front and dwells on specialised personal interests. Co-ordinator is also one of the preferred roles I get in my report and I strongly agree with it and it is also similar to the specialist roles just like what the report show is mature, confident. Clarifies goals and bring all the people together to promote team discussions. I good in what I want to do for the group assignment and planning, leading, organizing and controlling by using all this skills for my assignment/ task as bring up successful goals.
Under the BELBIN another report is counselling report, it is something that they feedback and generated from the top two team roles and bottom team roles in the overall raking. The report also show and advice on the adopting a management style which fit in my team role strengths and weakness. To summarize the report that my career has been build up around my knowledge base and my professional and technical experience. It well placed to supervise the work of those who either work for me and the interest that combine in co-ordinating and controlling the work of other and maintaining developing my special expertise on the opens up the field of managerial professionalism.
In the career terms as the problem is not so much of adapting to a different set of demands of engaging in activities that might give me litter job satisfaction. My operating style is one of the progressing professionalism as knowledge can be linked to the challenges of an expanding subject. Lastly, I must take account of the role which is least suited. So if I can work in the harmony with someone who has these complementary qualities, I might improve my performance.
Character profile used strengths and possible weakness and offers advice on the job placement and tell what the interview might ask. Below specified percentages it uses for recruitment and I must bearing in mind my team role profile as my strengths as the balance of the outlook but might have difficulty in finding a perfect role due to an indefinite sense of self image, interview question that they will focus on my professional interest and also my placement that should be a project leader or a service menagerie the field as the need of the accumulation and application of expertise.
2.0 Implication for career choice- Lifelong learning
Lifelong learning mean to explore different aspects of lifelong learning and adult education theory and practice, review key thinker and key ideas. According to national education (1999) the lifelong education resulting from integration of formal, non-formal and informal education so as to create ability for continuous process, going on from birth to the end of our life. It starts from the primary and secondary to tertiary levels. The objective in learning development in four aspects, namely: physical, intellectual, social capacity, emotional and mental development.
Beginning with learning in the primary school start to understand word by word each have it own meaning, when enter into secondary school things get more hard trying to feel like now is the ways we start to walk. Whether it is art class or science class in when to place we will walk by here, if I choose art in class my dad will said try to get first art class in the future will get better ways you. In secondary I have study mathematics, account, economic and many more but I think this is the most people for their starting point.
When come to college my dad make a choice for me said is for my own good study business and since I have no choice to choose but just go for it. Learning business in the first semester I fail most of the subject will beside English subject, I think most of the business subjects I fail. I ring my dad up to tell him about this, he just said what to do try you best again. Once again the subject that retake many times is economic think and understanding what the market world like, focus on the main thing but all it just is from the text book read it and I pass my subject but I think it is not the ways to learn/study business. After the exam finis most of the people will forgot what they study as in Malaysia the system work like this they focus on the exam and the result they dun mind we do practise or exercise. Hence, from the family feedback this can show that I have lack of self understanding that what I have known about by make a wrong decide that can infect my future career.Â
In overseas they do more on the project use the case study everything come with a case from the case we learn by using the skills to find information, using the instructional media, mass media, information technologies, environment and culture all thing have to do with the case. From my experiences during the entire seminar I attend in Northumbria, I gain more knowledge and skill to solving problem. One of the example shows is from my seminar for FN0360 (corporate governance and ethic), to be hones I have no idea what is ethic and corporate governance. They teaching on ethic people think what is right and wrong(praiseworthy/blameworthy) and I come across with the BP case study that show the explosion in the Texas city.
This module is to teach me think like an ethic person show that in the case study BP manager did the right thing to cut the cost of the oil and never care about the safety of the worker. From the business view 15 people died however BP were able to keep costs low so consumer had cheap fuel but based on the deontology view they ignored duty of care.Â I think this is the way of lifelong learning mean as to gain more knowledge and experience by time the more mature I am the thing that I will get to learn. However, all this process just like leading footstep that my future job is not a easy ways to walk without knowing the skills and understanding the important for the culture in the business world.
Lifelong learning not just education but it also can be some activities, elderly people can learn great deal from this activities example art, music, sport, handicraft and social work. Elderly people like my grandmother like to watch TV to gain and learn the social world and beware now this day what kind of people also have killing people of money. All this TV program teach our elder to be smart not to benefits for the conning people, but in my lifelong learning not just but having social activities or voluntary work in organizations also can gain knowledge and provide intellectual support to communities all this work is meaningful and also benefits to society.
2.2 Transferable skills
According to my research transferable skills are the skills developed through experience, which can be used in workplace. Some jobs require specific skills, such as IT skill, skills which may be use in future within or without the area of my study also are usefully in workplace. However I can develop awareness that will make me an attractive prospect for any graduate career. By using all this skills I have as communication skills that communicate in oral or in writing or via electronic example I like to use PowerPoint by using colour and picture to present and highlight the key word to present in class. (Please view at Appendix B)
Another skill is teamwork skill was shown in my college and university by doing the assignment in group, meeting up together as a meeting to discuss the task and most of the contributing practically to the team's success. I have leadership skills to motivate and encourage others and taking the lead not just in academic also involve in social work one for the example is my part time job working the TESCO Malacca as a supervisor sales consultant on the market product. Beside this I also good in computing skills/ IT knowledge as I work an assistant clerk for Nel-Mark system services using the UBS accounting system to enter debtors and creditors accounts and normal software like Microsoft word just like in my CV at Appendix B.
All this part time jobs help me to gain valuable leadership, team working and organizational skills. As problem solving thinking through a right tools and find a ways to fix it, I use most of the problem solving skills in the academic group assignment to determine key issues finding out the problem like communication with each other group mate. Interpersonal skills that relate to other and establish good working relationship, over all the most powerful skill I have is management skills that included problem solving ,teamwork skills, decision making and leadership.
2.3 Justify my career
Firstly, what are the implications for future career mean as a learning organization that profound changed occurring worldwide. As the change in the occupational of environment that can implication the career development in future. (Edagar H. Schein, 1996)Â
My autobiography shows clearly that mine skill from thought test a very good website that I pick up in the "prospects" simple steps by clicking for few tests the website help me to justify my career with analysing the suit me the best together with the income payment to justify my view of career. I find out that I have the power of management things that involve when I study within a group during my college time, this might be my power in the career with the problem solving.
Hence, in the future I hope to achieve a high level of degree at university, which will enable me to further my aspirations of becoming successful manager (HR/ Marketing manager) that control the organization to build social economic country. Furthermore, I been extremely interested in Human Resource Management that is the reason why I had pick Business with Internal Management for my degree.
In addition to this, I have gain the interest in the management course which involve in the culture and organization (HR) to develop skills and useful tips to control or work together with the company example taking culture that one of it is communication that involve in the organization if you have a high level of degree but without the knowledge of communication I might not last long in the organization or maybe keep on changing my jobs from one to another.
Once I have understands the needs for my career, I hope to have secured either a legal qualification or career in the management field. Moreover, I also hope to work in the SME organization or internal firm, which can provide me further career opportunities that would give me to develop my own skills and personal achievements.
What is culture? Culture is the movement of share perception, also can be diverse and varied. However, different characteristic of culture have been subject of extensive research that commonly held view the culture environment influences and the shape of value of society. Myers (2002) argues about the culture analysis requires to look for all three dimensions s behaviour, language and artefacts that affect the daily organizational.
Next, what is Organization as there are key ways in every organization share but at the same time all organization have differ features. From the 1800s there are many successful story have build up in the organization that involve in the culture as the founder in culture theory have Peter and Waterman, Ouchi, Schein Hofstede focus on the belief and value in the organization example seven 'S' , Theory Z, Corporate culture and others.
The textbook link variety of founder in culture and organization, show the important of culture changing in nowadays. Like the author use the culture web founded in corporate strategy to analysis these features that any significant difference in one of these areas will change the overall culture (Johnson & Scholes, 1999). Schein (1985) argued that in term of culture should be reserved by the member of an organization, that involve in operate unconsciously and define the organization view of itself in the environment. Culture that affect the organization not just by behaviour, language and artefacts in organization culture it also involve in the office layout mean the workplace design that affect in the employee daily working process.
Furthermore, defining culture "that complex whole includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, laws, customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society (Tyler 1871). There are many defining of culture that involve in many ways, culture some time can be use in the daily basic like religion or country culture for example in Malaysia we have differ culture in Chinese foods without beef or Muslim people that the culture anti pork. Furthermore, culture can be use in organisation and it is very important too organisation and also global national business that involve in such production line like coca-cola, McDonald, Levi's and retail such as shopping malls and Disney this are the imperialistic natural of American culture (Barber and Jihad, 1995).
Moreover, there are always have problem in organization as the company culture in other ways there must be involve in culture for the environmental changer. For example like McDonald show the differ ways of business culture of the staff in Malaysian, Malay (Muslim) staff have the benefit to pray during the work time as the culture in Malaysia and McDonald also give or build a room of the Muslim staff to pray. Hence, cultures have so many things to do with the social world whether how it works, still going to involve in organization somehow. Hence, in the business point of view 'culture' is one of the important roles for organisation by just having a simple communication also involve in culture.
International business endeavours require people to communicate across culture and national boundaries. Global businesses like strong branding have understand the culture very well to make sure they run over the business by time to time changer. Hence, organization cultures involve in few parts as looking into a big picture how these cultures affect the organization and the environmental education changing.
Moreover, the linked of culture and organization that involve the global organization; looking into the bigger picture of the culture in ethical business cultures with the characteristics with a similar link to the cross-cultural that assessment of the ethical of the various business behaviour; the culture dimension of international business and the culture that affect use of information.
Lastly , we knows the important of the environmental education changing that must be change with the future generations to understand the necessary tools to solve the environmental problem. Furthermore, for the business point of view especial involve in the global world business culture must be change time to time to produce or achieve to the new future generations.Â Â Â
2.1 Reason for the choice of topic
The reason I choose this topic "culture and organization" it because this topic involve in variety part of the industries as a student in Business with International Management at Northumbria University, UK. I research in all kind of ways and found out most of the organization involve in the culture problem. According to my study Human Resource Management and global marketing communication both of that study also point out the important of culture that involve in business. Furthermore, talking about business culture is one of the step that business student must involve an example using the case study and global brand include in my topic that can understand more clear of view that the important business culture have to do with organization. When come to my career in the management position as marketing manager or HR manager, whether I work in the local or global company it must also understand the behaviour of people involve in the culture especial due in different place and ways that people working in the organization. Â
2.2 Outline of section
The relationship between culture and organization has often been discussed in the news that organization facing problem with cultural. Taking example like BP case study (Baker, 2005) that involve 15 worker killed by huge explosion, one of this happen is the worker of BP have miscommunication with another by ending up with a huge accidents and (Frey. S, 2007) the author also agrees that cultural miscommunication is costly.
The chapter for journal review show the author using secondary data access information from different books, articles and internet in order to achieve the following objectives:
- Define the Culture and organization that the authors ( Winch.G, Millar.C and Clifton.N, 1997) implements a culture values taken from Hofstede together with a behavioural instrument from Van De Ven to matched with British and French managers project.
- Define the concept of cultural dimension in international business the author (Frey, 1997) focus on the cultural diversity and culture awareness; he explored the ways in the culture influence work habits and values communication styles and business practices.
- Define the concept of characteristics of ethical business cultures (A. Ardichvili, Mitchell.A and Jondle.D, 2008) used five methods that attributed to ethical business culture by executives from the industries. Another authors use cultural crossvergence and social desirability bias (Dunn and Shome, 2009) by using Chinese and Canadian business students to evaluate ethical.Â
- Define the concept how culture can affect the use of information technology. Sharon, Smith and Caralyn (2003) think that using the information technology that affected by various culture in MNEs (Multinational enterprises).
- The central issues that involve in the culture and organization, the impact of strategic change in the culture from this study that using the change kaleidoscope framework to analyse the context and appropriate contextualised implementation approach. This study will add in few case studies to make a clear picture that involve in the global organization.
The final chapter is to draws conclusions from the analysis; to compare the finding of the secondary research with the result, briefly put some example. The objective of this paper will be answering the problem statement.
Literature review means reviewing articles/paper or research, reviewing the skill that will be increasingly critical on the careers develop. Being a good reviewer can help in career that young psychologist become known as an excellent reviewer. (Henry L.Roediger, 2007) A review of the current literature surrounding he question or issue that should provide a clear understanding and also should be up-to-date and relevant the topic that we choose.
3.1 Culture and organization
In the cultural and organization review of the literature by Hofstede (1980) regarding the culture value instrument, the author focuses on the value that determinant of behaviour in the study of differences among national culture. Hofstede uses data from IBM. His study consisted of populations of employees in national in 66 countries. By using the one multinational firm, Hofstede uses the number of industry and company variables in the cultural differences. He discovered the difference in value across culture and all the IBM employees' agreed that they shared the same corporate value. In a later study, Hofstede and Bond (1988) found the fifth construct, which involves the long versus short-term orientation.
Another author like G. Winch, C. Millar and N. Clifton (1997) also agreed with Hofstede culture value, the author using the British and French organization have the some interest and the aim of in common for all those much-trumpeted culture and traditional differences. As the result for the attention European Union being paid the role of national culture in the business success and differences in the organizational behaviour between nations. When we look into the cultural dimension that the ways that France company have a high context (in the person) respect the people in the roles and look into the people who hold the roles. From Trompenaars view of French management are particulars on French people reefers on the rules but to the person in power. (Paul Hill, 2010)
Furthermore, British are based on low context just opposite with the high context which more on formal rules and more reciprocal, personal trusts (Hall.E). The authors TML (Transmanche-Link) and British construction corporations on building largest constructed facilities that cost of 4.8 billion on behalf of tunnel concessionaire, Euro-tunnel. (G. Winch, C. Millar and N. Clifton, 1997)
The result shows research by exploring both national business culture and the implications for the organization design and behaviour in the context of the both organization. The authors use the cross-national comparisons of culture value and organization reviewing the literature by Millar (1989), Smith (1992) and the work of Hofstede focus on the contribution to understand national business cultural. Hofstede have developed four indices in the business context as power distance (PDI), uncertainty avoidance (UAI), individualism (IDV) and masculinity (MAS).
Hofstde argues that matrix of power distance (PDI) against uncertainty avoidance (UAI) produces four type of organization the implicitly structured modelled as market (Dutch/Anglo); the workflow bureaucracy model as 'well-oiled machine' Germanic and the full bureaucracy model as 'pyramid'. The authors argue on the 'organic' and 'bureaucratic' models of the organization upon culture not taking the conventional terminology of the organization design.
Analysis the correlates aspects of national economic life which able to produce cluster of national business culture that show common features and Hofstede also relies on review of secondary literature for his exploration of behavioural aspects. He consider two formal hypotheses that were tested in the research, as the British respondents in low UAI and PDI which result more organic organization structure. For the French that display in high PDI and UAI will be more bureaucratic structure (Hofstede, 1980, p.319). Hence, the second hypotheses that British respondents in low UAI and high MAS the result where an organization been motivation by personal, individual success. French display on high UAI and low MAS result where organization motivation by the sense of security and belonging (Hofstede, 1980, p.376).Â
Taking Pixar (M. Haley and H. Sidky, 2009) for example a US organization that have a strong national culture in the low context which involve more on employee relationship as they work together as a team by having organization culture to share the identity, purpose and shares the vision among the organization member with flexibility and creativity in the organization goals and objects. Which similar to Hofstede test research in British in low UAI and high MAS the result an organization where motivation by personal, individual success.
The authors find the problem is the scores for the individual countries do not possess the frequency distributions, they (G. Winch, C. Millar and N. Clifton, 1997) think the uncertainty avoidance is problematic and the variable behavioural that concerning feeling at work, rather that value.
Organization assessment developed by Van de Ven (1998) measures of various aspects of organization and job design from individual motivation by working process to overall organization structure. The behaviour derived from Van de Ven analysis a set of data in three grouping as group behaviour at the unit level; work organization and individual feeling. This analyses run by age and sex in two group that result no significant difference in term of education accomplishment.
Conclusions testing the relationship between the culture values and organization for Hofstede works by effects behavioural were not found. The author's observations on this paper that Hofstede indices can be change over time and place between the different groups of people and validity of the behavioural patterns.
3.2 Cultural dimension of international business
The global economy recognition among the culture differences that affects on the internal business. Frey (1997) thinks that international businesses are making the business more productive in the culturally diverse environments. Hence, differences management style and organizational behaviour can be influences by culture. One of the point that the author points out is the culture miscommunication can be very costly. Such communication can be intimate between employees or might be place in public area. The author use cultural diversity aspects in the international business.
What is diversity, diversity refers to identities and experiences in the society life but in the business case diversity mean greater range in the individual strengths, experience and perspectives. From Anderson and Metcalf (2003) argue that better communication with diversity groups of potential and existing customer. Some even argue that it will create more harm than good with the communications and work can be lead to a higher staff turnover. (Meurling. E, 2004)
In the case taking about Pixar have not miscommunication problem involve as view that good ideas are rarer and more valuable than good people is rooted in the misconception of creativity.( Ed Catmull, 2008) Pixar work together as a team to produce new ideas of film that target not just kids but elder people too one for the successful film in Finding Nemo by getting to it Pixar must understand the ways of culture differs in the organization to create an international films that target the world. Furthermore, one of the textbooks that culture mistakes made in business example the Coca-cola that recognized as the global brand also make mistake in 1920 when the Chinese characters that translated as "bite the wax tadpole" (Terpstra,1991).
The author thinks the marketing and management concept of culture diversity in the work place can be traced to the globalization. She thinks that all researcher lead to Hofstede modal that involve in the culture difference between diverse groups. As the basic concept of managing diversity accepts the workforce consists of population of people but Kandola and Fullerton (1994) argues diverse backgrounds is from the systematic and planned commitment to recruit the employees.
There are two issues that involve in the stereotyping for business managers as gender roles. As the masculine role that show men are more important positions globally than women. (XiaoJian Wu, 2008)Â According to the report show the average male work in the full-time earned $54,803 per year, about 32 percent than average female counterpart in $37,123. (Encarta.msn.com, 2004) Another example that on Sweden they focus on integrate ethnic minorities in the workforce and why less women in the higher managerial positions (Johnsoon. A, 2002).
The second issues is the conflict resolution that lead to conflict the business world, conflict because different kind of roles example if put a groups with differs roles of people they will be conflict in the group that can't communicate with each other in the group. Lead to Trompenaars view of management to the Anglo-Saxon culture. He stresses on the teamwork focused collective culture with creativity based on the individualistic societies to skills of diverse workforce (Trompenaars, 1994).
Taking one of the case study company OTICON, their company culture is very useful by using the style design in the company to develop the creativity and employee commitment. Each of differ task they will put into different group by involve in different roles and duty of the employee to achieve the mission example that each department have different job to do like HR department and marketing department but from OTICON they look into differ view putting each department mix together became a group that come out new ideas after they achieve or finis the mission, they will place back in the roles. (Guy Brown, 2004)This ways is similar to Pixar that can avoid miscommunication with the group or team to achieve the mission of the goals.
Frey also talk about the literature of the Americans to be monolingual to conversant in two languages that perceives by non-English speaking people as an air of superiority. The author points out American doing business with the diversity culture have not motivated to learn a second language because English was been considers the language of business. Now this day global packaging also mainly used English to pack it, when come to the communication with the global business in India and British they both use English to speak.Â
The author also point out the important of cultural awareness, the diverse environments in the culture themes is business response to the demand for information that will conducting a business. A good example had been show as British organization Mark and Spencer know the important of the cultural awareness and keep on changing by year to year. From Jane Simms (2007) that M&S used to be strong by became fossilised preventing the adapting to the markets as "good culture are flexible" and she also compare with Google whether will be heading the similar pitfall.
3.3 Ethical business cultures
The authors (A. Ardichvili, Mitchell. A and Jondle.D, 2008) link Meyer (2004) on the business, organization culture and organizational ethical or unethical behaviour in the organizations function of the two contextual factor and individual characteristics. What is contextual factor, according to the authors (Cohen, 1993; Meyers, 2004; Trevino, 1986), It is one of the most important influence in the organization cultural. The authors link the attributes of organizational culture to ethical behaviour (Frederick, 1995; Trevino and Nelson, 2004).
For ethical business culture on the organization the comprised of the individual work with internal and external stakeholders. Trevino (1990) study identify components of ethical business from holistic perceptive, an organizational environment is fosters on ethical business culture by shared value and belief. Furthermore, in the individual organizational employees are not expected to right from wrong, but also more important is to go beyond the minimum explore and the implement ethical decision are right.
The authors argue about the Cohen (1993) organizational cultures are combinations of formal and informal system, processes and interactions. From all the authors (Cohen, 1993; Frederick, 1995; Schein, 2004; Trevino 1990; Trevino and Nelson, 2004) also agree with the formal organizational culture that comprised of leadership, structure, policies socialization mechanisms and decision processes among other thing. With the informal culture include implicit behaviour norms, role model, ritual, historical, anecdotes and language. Trevino study the leadership is the important elements of an organization ethical culture that Brown (2006) think leaders is able to create that support an ethical in the organization are those who represent, communicate and the roles high ethical standard.
The authors (A. Ardichvili, Mitchell. A and Jondle.D, 2008) research and study created the best characteristics of ethical organizational cultures by the five clusters of characteristic (please view at the appendices C in Figures3.3.1) that infer the comprehensive model to influence operational in the creating and sustaining an "organizational culture that ethical conduct and commitment to compliance with the law" (United States Sentencing Commission, 2004). The authors think that those characteristics will exceed in the minimal baseline those requirements of law in the business culture.
Based on the study results that the model of the characteristic Mission & Value Driven. The mission and value must be integral component of an organization strategic focus involve in the organization to survive and thrive. They must be high performance culture and flow freely and systemically to the organization to become operational norms that desired behaviour. The stakeholder balance and long term concerns were by the best interests of customer and taking the long view in the managing shareholder value. The linkage with the leadership effectiveness by the organization focused on the survivability and longevity.
Furthermore, Freeman (1994) theory, the business and business managers have fiduciary responsibility to stakeholders groups in those of vested interest in the success of the organization. But Milton Friedman (1970) is stockholder centric, where one and only one responsibility of business that can increase the profits.
The best example to use in the home deport as the mission & vision driven that Home Depot (Charan.R, 2006) trying to build the relationship of trust and respect to the worker and customers. From the stakeholder balance to products the good balance of customer value and profits, leadership effectiveness involve with Dennis Donovan that head of human resources in home deport by managing demand ethical conduct at every level of the company using the changing in culture to provide best result for the company.
Process integrity is which involve in the performance appraisals and promotions by understanding the mission of the company process and behaviour. Hence, for the long-term perspective is the place where mission above the profits with the long-term over the short-term. In this case, to create framework for new culture by focus on the process, hard data and accountability different from five year ago and customer will also be interests over long term relationship with home deport.
The authors provide recommendations for variety business that can develop an instrument used in large-scale quantitative study. To validate the characteristics of ethical business culture to confirm the validity of five identified clusters that involve the business executives and managers from a cross-section of industries. But from Paul Dunn and Anamitra Shome (2009) study in cross-cultural differences between Chinese and Canadian students with respect the ethically various of business behaviour. As the social desirability bias is also one of the found to become a cross-culture phenomenon with different culture.
The authors think the respondents to increase their assessment of the un-ethicality of business activities. Furthermore, the authors link on the convergence/divergence of managerial and organization value found in many study like Detert, 2000; Hofstede, 1980; and many more that significance in the wake market and the unprecedented advances in technology. For the organization point of view, value system must function seamlessly to diverse the economic and culture environment.Â
Moreover, the impact on the behaviour that involve in the culture might be antithetical as the business activity global to identify the principle and behaviour that acceptable on the culture. Hence, the divergence viewpoint that holds the universal principle in the culture differences. Form Hofstede (1980) show that the national culture affect the managerial behaviour by managers the organization value in the conformity with basic assumptions and belief to develop a particular cultural context. Furthermore, convergence theory Myloni (2004) study that the pressures of globalization managers the irrespective of the culture background, induced to adopt increasing the value system to meet the global business challenges.
The authors study two things that reference to business students who possess that relatively high level of maturity and training. Their survey shows the Chinese and Canadian on their attitudes and questionable business practices. The objective of study is to understand of debate on divergence vs. Convergence to know more about social desirability bias phenomenon.
3.4 The culture affects the use of information technology
John, Smith and Caralyn (2003), they think that culture bigger impact is the use of information technology. Taking example like the multinational enterprises (MNEs) must be involve in communicate and process data efficiently and effectively through the firm. Advances on the electronic financial reporting, e-business and information security most of them link to the accountants. Hence, accountant's point of view to confront and resolve these challenges, they must consider the effect of the culture on the use of the technology.
Furthermore, the authors realize the impact of the MNEs have the link to global world of communicate with the informational. There are much been write from the founders (Featherstone 1990; Maddox 1993; Breecher and Costello 1994; and many more) about the globalization of marketplace and the information technology in uniting the cultures of the world. The authors study several links in it, taking e-commerce for example that substantially in 1995 after the inception of World Wide Web internet as business firm must be able to compete on the web and the physical location with the international counterparts. Hence, some authors like Lainhart (2002); Tie (2000); Smith and Salter (1992); Smith and Smith (2002) study found that technology plays the pivotal roles in the competitive advantage. Nowadays technology can affect the environment, capital availability, industry and culture.
Harris and Moran (1991) think that computer, supersonic travel and electronic media are break into the traditional barriers of people to respective cultures and unique world of culture is emerging. However, the closer inspection reveals a different story, for example the authors Voich and Stepina (1994) study about the Eastern versus Western cultures to determine the behaviour to examine the diversity of many culture that shape the modern world and in the future.
Tie up with Hofstede (1990) study that the first demonstrate idea with global communication and increased interdependence of world market, distinctive culture between nations. Ferraro (1990) argue that any significant cultural homogenization of the world population. The issues of convergence versus divergence of cultural differences research on the organization. From Eining and Owen (1994) study that cultural and socio-economic difference in other country that can affect the ways of technologies accepted by people in a society.
Therefore, in the culture point of view in Schein (1985) argued that culture and belief that are shared by member of an organization that operate unconsciously. The authors also use Hofstede (1980) study on the value of behaviour in the extensive study of difference among the national culture.
The authors use a reach modelÂ that affect the environment of the society value, as the value are brought to organization thought the employees that shape the organizational environment. The patterns of utilization of information technology for the organization are influence by the organization environment. The authors link with Hofstede (1980) model and Gray (1988) study the culture affects the business enterprises and on the accounting respectively. The authors created the reach model that can influence the cultural environment on the utilization of information technology with an organization.
The Figures 3.4.2 diagram (please view at the appendices C) for to begin with the cultural environment that includes like culture history, geography and economy. This forms society's basic value as the value that can influence the organization within these cultures. Furthermore, on the organization environment determine the technology usage. Through this model, culture would be expected to an impact on use of technology.
Using the Home Deport case study to apply in the research model to make a clear picture of the figure 2,Â whether it is suitable to use in the business enterprises and also on the accountingÂ respectively. Home Deport involve in the culture change by taking one of the example that Home Deport facing as before Home Deport have no data templates.
Data templates mean form to organize performance data for quarterly business review meeting which encourage personal accountability that give the employee deeper understanding of business performance and foster collaboration by putting people on the same page when making decision this type data have not been use in the old culture. Furthermore, Home Deport today is focus on process, hard data and accountability.
The study indicate that despite the fact that people are moving to the global marketplace, whether it is internal or external cultural and technological difference between the countries as different countries to technology at different rates. This difference adoption in the information technology may affect that aspect of business including accounting. Nowadays, financial information allows the multinational enterprise to be more effective on the financial information. The authors explore the changes regarding impediments to the internal data flow. The new technology and technology skills that required for employment can be influence by the culture of design technology department.
3.5 The strategic change of culture that affect in the global organization
The central issues that affect the culture in the organization, one of the important points are strategic change (Balogun. J, Hailey.H.V, Johnson and Scholes.k, 2003) that managing changes the context-specific and the understanding of the organization context. This change context can allow change agents to make design choices on the basis of the best for the organization.
The authors create a framework (change kaleidoscope) to analyse the change context and the design appropriate contextualised implementation approaches. "change does not happened as a result of plan; it is more complex than that" as the authors found out that management change is not much about the formal planning but is more a the process that can influence both managerial and culture influences.
The authors also talk about "changing organization is about changing people and any implementation approach has to work with the cultural, political and social nature of organization". In effect talk about organization changing mean people must change but technology , product and physical assets can be change if organization change also the employee that need to change the ways behave.
Furthermore, this study is focus on the change kaleidoscope (please view in the appendices C Figures 3.5.3) that concerned with the organization strategic context. There are three part of layout in the ring in change kaleidoscope as the outer is refers to the fact on organization strategic context, middle ring is the features change context in the organization culture, inner ring is contains the menu of design open change agents.
Moreover, not all organizational features will be equal importance. This is why the framework called kaleidoscope as configuration of features will be shift according the organization being analysed. Furthermore, to make a clear view of the change kaleidoscope this study will be adding case study. One of the good examples is the change programmes at Mark and Spencer (Balogun, 2001) and the strategic change is reserved for such initiatives. These involve radical transition within the organisation that structure, systems, encompasses processes and culture.
In this paper there are many example of organization willing to make a culture change to improve their business. In this Case like Home Depot (Charan, 2006) that changes the company culture and hired the Dennis Donovan of the human resources head by plan the change of the company social architecture using the data templates, strategic operating and resource planning, Disciplined talent review, store manager learning forums, Monday morning conference calls, employee task forces, leadership development programs and mapping of the HR process. All this change tools is similar to the change kaleidoscope framework and the result of every change has persistent sceptics on the internal and external of the company.
In addition, look in Disneyland (Van Maanen, 1991) case study that Disneyland neatly complements the labour market on dimension as the employees with the most differentiated skills find themselves at the internal ladder, thus make the employee loyalties to organization more predictable. Furthermore, interview for a job at Disneyland are not specific as the personnel decides what the particular jobs they will eventually occupy and the uniforms are crucial for they communication about the social merits or demerits of the wearer within the litter world of Disneyland workers. In California, Disney land has been success iterates example of a strong culture and enculturation at Disneyland that major feat of social engineering.
But as this study on Van Maanen (1991) talk about the ways that Disneyland do things it have been a strong culture of it also have the disadvantage of the side using the change kaleidoscope framework that Disneyland have fill in part of change in the model. Disneyland has to change their culture basic on the environment than to target the generation young. This management intervention it is wise to establish some measures of success for the change process on the desired change outcome. The change outcome describes the behaviour required of people and types of outputs that are expected to produce in the future.
Lastly, there are no best ways to change as change is needed to be context-specific. The design and management of any change process should be force on the specific of each organization. Like the example on Home Depot and Disneyland that keep on change in the organization.Â Â Â Â
To analysis all the literature review as this study are focus on culture that affect the organization. There are many ways to create problem that involve culture at the organization. When talk about culture, it have a big picture that can affect the organization. Hence, it is something similar to Ethic behaviour in the subject there are not right or wrong answer just like culture that change time to time and it can involve in the behaviour, language and artefacts. Furthermore, there are many different definitions about culture that can affect the organization.
Today people are trying to follow up the footsteps of the environment change, the behaviour that must be improve, the worker communication style and many more. Big organization like GM (General Motor) that willing to change the business process engineering to target the market by keep on improve the business by change the culture of the company but changing a culture in the business in not an easy things, this is why this paper include the central issues in the strategic change.
Next, culture as the part of organization beside the manager lead to jobs and control the daily process. It also affects the worker and the consumer, culture organization not just for the internal of the company it is also can be the external part. Form the literature review culture can be involve in many ways like culture value of the high and low context witch compare with different the country context this style is use on the global business.
Cultural dimension is involved in two parts such as culture diversity and culture awareness. That organization some time reflectÂ the people who managing the organization example like manager that never hear the sound for the worker mean never communicate with boss as there problem been there but no one will sound out the problem. Lack of communication with the employee but all this must be found out by manager itself.
In addition, as culture not just can affect on people and environment it can also involve in the information technology and the ethical business culture. This paper as the method that analysis the journal as all organization is undergoing some type of change. This change program arises from management fads such as culture change, business process engineering and total quality. Many brander companies are willing to change the culture and target the generation young like Nissan (Ghosn, 2002) that how they involve in the change of it as they want younger person to jobs in Japan.Â Â
The culture of the organization can be solve by different ways as the study have few model that helps some organization but environment always change by itself also many authors or founder always come out with new method to improve this world. This is why there are no right method and wrong method. It is only having method to be improved in the further to target the consumer in the global business world.