With diversity becoming increasingly imperative in the coming decades, most people and organisations would feel the necessity to effectively communicate cross-culturally. "Cultures are like underground rivers that run through our lives and relationships, giving us messages that shape our perceptions, attributions, judgments, and ideas of self and other"(Lebaron, 2003). Though cultures are influential, they are often cataleptic, and manifest in manipulating conflict and attempts at resolving conflict, in indiscernible ways.
Conflict that occurs across cultural boundaries is also occurring across cognitive and perceptual boundaries, and is especially susceptible to problems of cultural miscommunication and misunderstanding. These problems exacerbate the conflict, no matter what the root cause of it. In that sense culture is an important factor in many of the conflicts that at first may appear to be materialistic or about tangible negotiable interests.
The relationship of culture and communication is interdependent with an eye on better functioning of a multicultural organization. Since culture affects many of the communicational or interlocutory processes that are in midst of most conflicts, understanding the impact of cultural difference is especially important for managers who work in intercultural contexts.
This paper aims to present how cultures work, its relationships and functions and how to effectively manage cross-cultural conflict in a multicultural organization, with specific reference to different management strategies
" Conflict is a crisis that forces us to recognize explicitly that we live with multiple realities and must negotiate a common reality; that we bring to each situation differing - frequently contrasting - stories and must create together a single shared story with a role for each and both" - Augsburger (1992, 11)
With changing demographics of the global society and increasing opportunities for inter-cultural contacts, effective cultural communication has become a prerequisite. Hiebert (1985, 166), a professor of anthropology, stated: "It is estimated that in normal communication within the same culture, people understand only about 70 percent of what is said. In cross-culture situations the level is probably not above 50 percent." With organizations becoming microcosm of the world the assembling of rainbow staff would only perpetuate misunderstandings as Waters (1992, 438) said, "It is axiomatic that a racially and culturally diverse work force will experience conflict, if for no other reason, simply as a function of diversity itself". In today's global society the management and employees come from a variety of national and cultural backgrounds, to complement this paradigm the organization must:
Enable this heterogeneous workforce to harmoniously work towards common goals.
Maximize contribution of each member in this largely diverse team.
Ensure fair treatment for all, irrespective of the cultural background.
Systematic efforts are required on part of these organizations to meet this challenge. Whether the multi-cultural character of the company arises from its international workforce or from the mixed backgrounds of the workforce in a single location, the organization must address this diversity if it wants to be successful.
Every organization has a choice in how it will face this complex issue, between a fundamentally defensive approach and a developmental one. Robert Day in his article about managing diversity says "An organization which adopts the defensive approach treats cultural differences as hazards - a series of weak links between people in which there is great potential for misunderstanding, conflict, mistrust and even resentment. It assumes at the start that certain people are inherently culturally insensitive to others. The developmental approach, on the other hand, first of all sees cultural differences for what they are - potentially different values, assumptions, expectations, and behavior which people bring to business as a result of their differing backgrounds". As expressed by Fons Trompenaars a prominent Dutch writer, cross-culture is "the way in which a group of people solves problems". Moreover, the developmental approach recognizes that these collective tendencies reveal themselves as individual differences. Members of a team are not there to represent a 'culture' or particular ethnic group - "they represent themselves".
The challenge for cross-cultural management is acknowledging that cultural differences are no longer hazards, but merely opportunities to strengthen the organization through shared learning and wider perspectives.
How Cultures Work
Two things are essential to remember about cultures: they are always changing, and they relate to the symbolic dimension of life. The symbolic dimension is the place where we are constantly making meaning and enacting our identities. "Cultural messages from the groups we belong to give us information about what is meaningful or important, and who we are in the world and in relation to others -- our identities. Cultural messages, simply, are what everyone in a group knows that outsiders do not know. They are the water fishes swim in, unaware of its effect on their vision. They are a series of lenses that shape what we see and don't see, how we perceive and interpret, and where we draw boundaries. In shaping our values, cultures contain starting points  and carriers  that influence and characterize our interactions with others" (Lebaron, 2003).
Thus three important points emerge from Michelle Lebaron's study:
Culture is multi-layered - what you see on the surface may mask differences below the surface.
Culture is constantly in flux - as conditions change, cultural groups adapt in dynamic and sometimes unpredictable ways.
Culture is elastic - knowing the cultural norm of a given group does not predict the behavior of a member of that group, who may not conform to norms for individual or contextual reasons.
Since culture is so closely related to our identities (who we think we are), and the ways by which we make meaning (what is important to us and how), it is always an under-running factor in our daily lives. Cultural awareness leads us to apply the Platinum Rule in place of the Golden Rule. Rather than the maxim "Do unto others as you would have them do unto you," the Platinum Rule advises: "Do unto others as they would have you do unto them."
Cultural influence and identities become vital depending on milieu. When an aspect of cultural identity is threatened or misunderstood, it may become single most important criteria in cross-cultural conflicts. Narrow identity may become the focus of stereotyping, negative projection, and conflict. We have to focus on this essence of working of culture as it becomes very significant in intractable or cross-cultural conflicts.
Before we start with trials and tribulations of cultural conflicts it is essential for us to assess what comprises of a culture. To make the sense of the connection between conflicts and cultures, we must take into account the composition of each of them. This must take into consideration qualitative (which are apparent) and quantitative (which are not apparent) aspects of it.
In some cultures it is offensive to make eye contact when talking while in others it may show lack of interest in communication. Touching each other while conversing might be poignant in some cultures, whilst it would be taken as displeasure by people belonging to some other culture. Understanding these fine lines that create diversity is of utmost importance.
H:\Semester 2\Conflict And Negotiation\seven_dimensions_of_culture.gif 
Trompenaars Model of Culture
Trompenaars tries to assess culture, not as defined by geographical and political boundaries but as individuals who are part of a particular culture and exposed to diversity. In true sense these individuals create a multicultural organization.
Assessing cultures and understanding different aspects of it would help managers or leaders of multicultural organization to evolve their skills in effective management of cross-culture conflicts. What should be length of pleasantries and greetings between parties of different culture before getting down to business discussion? What is the right etiquette and what is considered as polite behavior in multicultural social gatherings? What are the tolerance levels of different cultures? What is the expected dressing culture? These are some of the questions that give an insight to a cultural norm.
Based on study of various articles on culture, I would characterize these assessments into following points:
Social standing of the people involved
Affection at home and in society
Myriad of other regional factors
The managers in multicultural organization must see untarnished view of the cultures. They must disconnect the reflection of what is being portrayed and what an organization actually consists of. By soliciting responses from different visions of assessment, a true picture comparing that unblemished portrait can be visualized on a graph.Â From this data you can assess where the cultures are similar, where conflicts may emerge, and where the organization's strengths lie.
The following table and figure tries to classify four major cultures present in organization, their traits and conflict styles.
Major Cultural Classification and Their Traits
European / Anglo-Saxon
Oriental / Far East
1. Explicit communication with emphasis on content. 2. Eating as necessity most fast food 3. Focus on nuclear family with responsibility of self. 4. Individual orientation and independence. 5. Direct confrontation of Conflict 6. Preference of constant mobility in life
1. Explicit and implicit communication. 2. Dining as social experience. 3. Focus on nuclear family with responsibility of family. 4. Individual and group orientation and independence. 5. Direct confrontation of Conflict 6. Preference of constant mobility in life.
1. Explicit communication with emphasis on both content and context. 2. Eating as a family or social gathering with religious rules. 3. Focus on extended family with loyalty and responsibility of all. Age given status and respect. 4. Group orientation and conformity. 5. Preference for harmony 6. Preference of stability
1. Implicit communication with emphasis on context. 2. Dining as social gathering with strict norms. 3. Focus on nuclear family with responsibility of family. 4. Group orientation and conformity. 5. Preference for harmony. 6. Preference of stability
A Model of Intercultural Conflict Styles
European / Anglo-Saxon
Oriental / Far East
H:\Semester 2\Conflict And Negotiation\intercultural-conflict-model1.jpg
Culture and Conflict: Connections
Cultures are embedded in most conflict because such a condition arises from how we perceive situations, which are defined by cultures. Cultures affect the ways we name, frame and attempt to tame conflicts. Whether a conflict exists at all is a cultural question too. For example through eyes of an elderly Tibetan he has not experienced any conflict at all in the last 30 years. Among the possible reasons for his denial was a cultural preference to see the world through lenses of harmony rather than conflict, as encouraged by his Buddhist and Confucian upbringing. Labeling some of our interactions as conflicts and analyzing them into smaller component parts is a distinctly Western approach that may obscure other aspects of relationships.
Culture is always a factor in conflict, whether it plays a pivotal role or influences it subtly. For any conflict that threatens us where it matters and where we hold our identities, there is always a cultural component. Intractable conflicts like the Israeli-Palestinian conflict or the Indo-Pak conflict over Kashmir are not just about territorial, boundary, and sovereignty issues -- they are also about acknowledgement, representation, and legitimization of different identities and ways of living and making meaning.
In organizations, conflicts arising from different cultures escalate tensions between co-workers, creating strained or inaccurate communication and stressed relationships. When differences surface in organizations, culture is always present, shaping perceptions, attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes. Cultures shared by majority often seem to be "natural and normal", "the way things are done". We only notice the effect of cultures when they are different from our own, experiencing behaviors that we label exotic or strange.
Culture is intertwined with conflict, sometimes knowingly but mostly unknowingly. It acts as a reflective mirror of our identities and when transgression takes place across those boundaries it presses a fickle switch that lays down a cyclic process of future actions which inadvertently are controlled by cultures too.
Culture is inextricable from conflict, though it does not cause it. An important point of understanding here is that culture is not source of conflict it is just the medium of it. Culture permeates conflict, sometimes pushing forth with intensity, other times quietly crawling beneath, hardly announcing its presence until surprised people nearly stumble on it. Thus in multicultural organizations, rudimentarily culture and conflict are inseparable, always dictating the outcome arising out of differences.
Culture is not a Problem - Unless it's a Problem
Let us understand one thing that culture is not a problem - unless it is a problem!
Many international projects have been a triumph without anyone ever noticing that prevalent cultural differences may have caused unanticipated frustrations or hurdles. However, quite a number of projects never reach optimal levels of operation because of ubiquitous cultural asynchronizations have amplified the other difficulties that may have been encountered.
One company which presented a case story in one of the "Management of Multicultural Projects" programs described a project in North Africa which involved interested parties from 3 continents with representation from Korea, Libya, the UK and Denmark. For the experienced Danish company alone, the project was to be finished within 2 years with a profit of 2 million US dollars. After 6 years when the project was finally completed it was at a loss of 1 million US dollars. Even the start-up meeting, which required an energetic start, turned out to be a preview of the problems that were yet to come. The parties were never present that start-up week all at the same time. It was nearly impossible to draw up project plans and agreements to everyone's satisfaction. Organizational relationships were never quite clear. Language and cultural differences made communication difficult. These imposing factors were quite clearly the downfall of this multicultural project.
Most of us have heard of problems that have occurred when slogans for products were not effectively translated in international advertising promotions. On the website www.grammarlady.com, Mary N. Bruder mentions several translations gone bad. For example, when Chevrolet tried to sell the Nova to Spanish-speaking countries, it never sold well because in Spanish, "No va" translates into "It does not go." Also, when Pepsi started marketing products in China, the slogan, "Pepsi Brings You Back to Life" was translated pretty literally. The slogan in Chinese really meant, "Pepsi Brings Your Ancestors Back from the Grave".
With the wisdom of hindsight managers of multicultural projects understand that many of the problems through-out the project could always have been foreseen and at least partially resolved, if there had been a careful cultural analysis of the interested parties at the start. Thus by letting culture being a problem they made it a problem.
Cultural Conflicts: How to Manage
"Conflict management is purposeful intervention of managers to stimulate beneficial conflicts and suppress, resolve and prevent harmful conflicts" - Johnson (1994, 718)
Given culture's important role in conflicts, what should be done to keep it in mind and include it in response plans? Unless we develop a comfort with diverse cultural responses and shrug off our myopic nature, we may find ourselves tangled in its net of complexity, limited by our own cultural lenses. The change from homogenous to heterogeneous work force requires managers increase their focal length and be adaptive in cross-cultural skills.
The key tool for disentangling and managing multilayered cultural conflicts is Cultural fluency.
The following strategies are assimilated from various studies, in order to give an abridged insight of requirement of tomorrow's managers or leaders of multicultural organizations.
By Studying Different Cultures:
In observing other cultures, the differences are striking; the way business cards are exchanged, the way people greet each other, dress, negotiate and resolve conflict, and even the way visual information is seen and perceived. Other differences are topics of conversation and business customs that have been deemed appropriate. Also, nonverbal communication is different; the distance between us and another person when speaking, hand and facial gestures and how long eye contact is maintained with another person or if it is. In his article in Journal of Business and Technical Communication, Barry Thatcher claims "that while more empirical and ethnographic research must be done, we face the danger of oversimplifying people, organizations, and cultures". Most intercultural communication is based on limited assumptions of organizational relationships. Managers need to draw valid and ethical cross-cultural comparisons, the focus should first be on similarities between cultures, and then on the differences between those.
By Overcoming Ethnocentrism:
Ethnocentrism is inevitable since it is rooted in the impossibility of escaping from one's experience. Ethnocentrism leads to false sense of superiority. Managers must learn to combat this false belief and espouse the reality that, because people see things differently, does not imply that they are inferior. In his book Bridging Differences, William Gudykunst (1991) claims
"People must get away from the idea that we are right and they are wrong. This mindset exists when groups or individuals look out for their own interests and have little concern for others' interests. This lack of concern leads to moral exclusion, which occurs when individuals or groups are perceived as outside the boundary in which moral values, rules, and considerations of fairness apply. Those who are morally excluded are perceived as nonentities, expendable, or undeserving; consequently, harming them appears acceptable, appropriate or just".
There are two dimensions which assist a manager in overcoming this propensity toward ethnocentrism:
a. An increased awareness of one's own culture.
b. An awareness of the differences in work and cultural values of other cultures.
By Avoiding Stereotyping:
The identification of stereotypes is an important key to cross-cultural communication. "Stereotyping is oversimplification of preconceived notions". Although people of one culture share certain characteristics, stereotypes are likely to cause unrealistic expectations in interpersonal relationships. One of the best ways to avoid the problem of stereotyping is to make an effort at approaching all people as human beings. This mental choice helps to build a positive attitude toward people of other cultures.
By Developing Multiple Perspectives:
The leader needs to acquire the skill of approaching the world through multiple perspectives. Self-awareness is the first step in developing multiple perspectives. Being aware of personal cultural assumptions is a crucial aspect in developing competence in intercultural exchanges. A German head of department of a multicultural company in South Africa, who has lived there for more than ten years, states that his cross-cultural experience has assisted him in learning that there are multiple perspectives. Managers are used to see things and black and white but with heterogeneous work force they must now understand that it is important to place all issues in different hues of grey. An important responsibility of a leader is to recognize the range of forces that affect each of the employees, then to assist them understand how these forces influence individual perceptions. This process creates an atmosphere of co-operation in the work place.
By Multicultural Communication:
An old Roman saying goes "The crucial question is not whether your message is understood but whether it can be misunderstood". A manger must understand the influence of culture in communications. Communication refers to different starting points about how to relate to and with others.
A classification devised by Edward T. Hall differentiates communication as high and low context. Hall (1976) says,
"In high-context communication, most of a message is conveyed by the context surrounding it, rather than being named explicitly in words. The physical setting, the way things are said, and shared understandings are relied upon to give communication meaning. Interactions feature formalized and stylized rituals, telegraphing ideas without spelling them. Nonverbal cues and signals are essential to comprehension of the message. The context is trusted to communicate in the absence of verbal expressions, or sometimes in addition to them. Low-context communication emphasizes directness rather than relying on the context to communicate. From this starting point, verbal communication is specific and literal, and less is conveyed in implied, indirect signals. Low-context communicators tend to say what they mean and mean what they say".
High context communication being less direct than low-context communication may increase the possibilities of miscommunication because much of the intended message is unstated while low-context communication may escalate conflict because it is more confrontational than high-context communication.
Hall (1976) further states,
"As people communicate, they move along a continuum between high and low-context. Depending on the kind of relationship, the context, and the purpose of communication, they may be more or less explicit and direct. In close relationships, communication shorthand is often used, which makes communication opaque to outsiders but perfectly clear to the parties".
Within a multicultural organization the same choice is fallible and potential spark for conflict. Thus managers may choose low and high-context communication depending on understanding of cultural groups.
My experiences in multicultural organizations have helped me identify redundancy as key in multicultural communication, where constant clarification and feedback is important. Steyn set forth five principles of effective communication which can be transpired to cross-cultural communication with an addition of a sixth point.
Keep the message simple, using direct and simple language.
Keep the message clear and concise.
Deliver the message at a time when the receptor is most receptive.
Give the message at speed at which the receptor is able to understand.
Minimize the use of junk words that detract from the primary message.
Repeat the message untill receptor grasps the intended meaning
By Mentoring Employees and Team Building:
A leader of a multicultural organisation should emphasize similarities among employees rather than differences. He must help his employees understand and appreciate the value of individual differences, determining a sense of community. According to various researchers (Salend, 1999, 9; Garcia & Pugh, 1992, 217; Kirtman & Minoff, 1996, 16; Putzman & Johnson, 1997, 30) a manger should:
Create an environment open to sharing.
Help to understand how each member perceives motives, actions, and situations.
Help to understand that people have differences in needs, objectives, and values.
Provide opportunities for workers to experience the diversity of cultures.
Be creative in providing adequate recognition for each employee.
By Empathizing with Employees:
Empathy is ability to exchange places with another person in order to understand the thoughts, emotions and behavior in a given situation. Empathy is not automatic but a developed response. According to Malone and Tulbert (1996, 47), "a centered person needs the ability to shift paradigms and view the world through eyes of other people". A lack of empathy could be a problem, what may be minor for someone could be major for another. Also empathy helps in overcoming ethnocentrism.
By Approach to Meaning Making:
Approaches to meaning-making also vary across cultures. Hampden-Turner and Trompenaars suggest that people have a range of starting points for making sense of their lives, including:
a. Universalist (favoring rules, laws, and generalizations)
b. Particularistic (favoring exceptions, relations, and contextual evaluation)
c. Specificity (preferring explicit definitions, breaking down wholes into component parts, and measurable results)
d. Diffuseness (focusing on patterns, the big picture, and process over outcome)
When managers don't understand that others may have quite different starting points, conflict is more likely to occur and to escalate. Negative motives are easily attributed to someone who begins from a different end of the spectrum. These continua are not absolute, nor do they explain human relations broadly, they are just clues to what might be sub-terrain. Managers need to be meaning-making, telling stories and creating understandings that preserve sense of self and relate to purpose. This can be done by the creation of shared stories to make room for multiple points of view within them. Trompenaars adds "Narrative conflict-resolution approaches help them leave their concern with truth and being right on the sideline for a time, turning their attention instead to stories in which they can both see themselves. Another way to explore meaning making is through metaphors. Metaphors are compact, tightly packaged word pictures that convey a great deal of information in shorthand form. As the manager facilitates the two sides to talk about their metaphors, the more diffused starting point wrapped up in different cultural perspective meets the more specific one".
By Naming and framing a Conflict:
Ways of naming and framing a conflict varies across cultural boundaries. Not everyone agrees on what constitutes a conflict. For those accustomed to subdued, calm discussion, an emotional exchange may seem erratic and a threatening conflict. Intractable conflicts are also subject to different interpretations. Is an event a skirmish, a provocation, an escalation, or a mere trifle, hardly worth noticing? The answer depends on perspective, context, and how identity relates to the situation. Since there is no consensus across cultures or situations on what constitutes a conflict or how events in the interaction should be framed, so there are many different ways of thinking about how to properly frame a cross-cultural conflict. John Paul Lederach, in his book Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures, identifies the role of a modern manager in a range of cultural contexts when to prefer traditional, high-context settings, and when to act in a low-context settings. Mangers depending on their cultural sense of what is needed, how conflict should be addressed must be able to clearly define and frame a conflict least further escalating an existing one.
By Suspending Judgment:
It is a critical skill for a leader in a multicultural organisation. When a manager makes a decision about a conflict management strategy he must take into account not only the achievement of short-term goals but the long-term consequences to subordinates as well. Knowledge of personal cultural patterns could assist a leader in suspending judgement. This could help in face management which are prominent in some cultures.
Recommendations and Conclusion
"When I think of what has helped me bridge cultural gaps, it is more than just sensitivity; it is enjoyment of the difference, even when they arise in conflicts" - Mayer
Cross cultural conflicts could be function or dysfunctional depending upon how the conflict is managed. The cross culture phenomenon may cause confusion and affecting perceptions, thus it is imperative for managers and those in leadership roles to understand the skills involved in suppressing such situations and guiding the diverse workforce to path of organizational success.
A multicultural organization should follow a three step plan.
An induction program for new employees focusing on cultural specific training.
A diversity and conflict resolution training.
A long term objective of continuous up gradation of employees understanding of cultural issues and new strategies for conflict resolution.
In current scenario the key term to understand for managers is culture fluency. Being culturally fluent involves all aspects discussed in this paper. It strengthens a leader's skill in identifying the root cause, the nature of conflict and methods required to successfully resolve a potential escalating situation.
The multi-dimensional character of cross-cultural conflicts requires multiple perspective leadership. Adaptive and evolving managers in such organizations are key to success.
This paper only provides an insight into intra-organization cross culture conflicts. A further scope would add another dimension to already complex situation. How would we manage two or more multicultural organization conflicts? We also require more intensive research on cultural values from a global stand point to fully characterize needs of tomorrow's managers.
The following statement from Mayer succinctly concludes this paper: "The most serious conflicts in our world, with gravest consequences, involve cross-cultural issuesâ€¦Resolution must involve a new approach to interaction, in which the diversity of people becomes a source of strength and not a cause of tragedy."