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Mean when one talk about the types and styles of architecture in parts of the globe, comes His mind quickly many pictures of the masterpieces of Muslim architecture in Andalusia They stayed there about eight centuries praise the architectural monuments, which are still .One of the biggest evidence of the greatness of their civilization in the continent of Europe. When the Muslims arrived in the Iberian Peninsula, was full of many of the effects Architecture that belong to different civilizations Romanian, some of these effects .Related posts religious and some of the post of defensive castles and forts, including those with the civilian job, theaters, bridges and so on.
The dye Muslims open their cities distinctive Islamic character, and that the establishment of mosques, which are The core of the architecture of cities and expand, as the mosque becomes a center of cities over time and urban and heart beating SQ branch roads leading to the large doors City, and then branched out streets and alleys connecting the neighborhoods.
Architecture is a pot of civilization, which represents the cultural identity and synthesis, creative and aesthetic level of human beings.
Able to Islamic architecture to move from a speculator in the countryside into the huts in the villages, then to the buildings and wild in the cities, carrying the features of a genuine, consistent with the requirements of rights and with the traditions and environment, and is characterized by Islamic art that there is a common unit collects so that it can identify any piece produced in Under the Islamic civilization in any country of the Islamic world.
Islamic architecture are the characteristics of building used by Muslims to be the identity of them, Architecture arise because of Islam and in areas where it arrived as a Sham and the Maghreb, Turkey, Egypt, Iran, etc. In addition to the areas that had been ruled for long periods, such as al-Andalus (Spain now) and India. Affected by the properties of Islamic architecture and its characteristics significantly the Islamic religion and scientific renaissance that followed and differ from one region to another depending on the weather and the architectural and cultural legacy of the former in the region As well as see the evolution of form and function over time and changing political circumstances and living conditions and cultural rights of the population.
In this study we know how Islam has a great affect on architecture in many countries as Spain, and see some examples of buildings that have effected by Islam, so, we will know the answer of our question which is how Islam affect architecture in Spain did?
2. Review of literature:
Islamic architecture is a homogeneous architecture:
According to (Sani , Rafooneh ,2009) Islamic architecture is a homogeneous architecture. Architecture as a method and a school of thought preferred to be in harmony with nature and the environment without deduct any of it but on the contrary, with homogeneous components and complete harmony and balance.
The early architectural thinking in humans is limited in the tradition, especially from the connotations surrounding environment or environmental factors, especially organic ones, such as simulation of the structure of the structural skeleton, or even simulates the animals when they work their homes and nests. Aristotle is considered that the reason for the emergence of art due to the existence of instinct of the human simulation, which has a social function which serves the convenience and entertainment.
Andalusia impact of different scientific, architectural, artistic, durable radiation center of Islamic civilization since it strengthened the roots of Islamic rule, in particular, in the era of home by Prince Abd-Al- Rahman, who devoted his life to building an Islamic state in Andalusia. In his architecture began groping in religious buildings and civil rights. And is still in Spain to this day are vivid reminders of the sincerity of that movement's major building and construction. The architectural and decorative elements make up the first seeds of Andalusian art, so I took a shine decoration in the Levant and Morocco, but also influenced the decoration of the nearby Christian. There is no doubt that the era of this architectural breakthrough recovered from such of the finest examples of Islamic architecture in the world but the middle Ages.
Architecture is known to be a Great Spirit and represents the story of life.
Islamic architecture is a creative spirit that changed from generation to another during the time depending on the tradition of time that they live "So architecture I know to be a Great Spirit. Which from generation to generation, from age to age, proceeds, persists, creates, according to the nature of man, and his circumstances as they change. That is really architectureâ€¦" (Lloyd Wright, In Brooks Pfeiffer& Nordland 1988:7)
Islamic architecture can tell us a story about life, some of architects use in their design stories from life, some use stories of our messenger and how he suffered a lot to spread Islam.
We have developed the first architectural designs inspired by the designs that were prevalent in the land of Islam, which lasted an important landmark which inspired the artist in the Islamic era. This artist who became Muslim or stayed the religion, had been transferred traditions of architecture prevalent before Islam to Islamic architecture, and he himself had made before and after Islam, the role of architecture and the originator, or is the heir direct to the traditions of architecture, as Arabs were not Muslims conquistadores brought with them the foundations for Islamic architecture, it is of Islamic thought which grew and spread among the people after a century ago, was the basis for the concept of a new architectural, walked vigorously in the field of creativity and diversity, and has accompanied the evolution of Islamic thought, the emergence of thought beauty is in the studies of Brethren of Safa and al gahz and Twehedy and Ibn Khaldun and others. In the Orient, the Islamic Mongol Shah was the largest and its aftermath has been involved in supporting the development of thought, aesthetic, architectural creativity.
Islamic architecture depends on the visual language and knowing the creation.
According to (Gonzalez, Valérie, 2001) There was a tradition of architectural most important traditions of Romanian and Byzantine Empire, which imposed its identity at least through the reuse of architectural elements in the temples and facilities, from the columns and capitals in the building of mosques first, such as the Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Mosque of Damascus and the Mosque of Kairouan, Mosque of Cordoba and the Mosque of villagers in Fas.
But the conditions of the prayer in the mosques were the main reason to establish the concept of Islamic architecture; different from the previous architecture, the different functions, and different ideological affiliation. Thus, the minaret emerged to replace the tower bells, and the dome appeared to be crossing the architectural logo for the vault of heaven to the faithful, and has appeared niche habitat for decorations and creativity, and covered the walls of mosques and marble mosaics to cover the ancient stone recycled.
Architectural elements in the palaces and mosques are in brackets and lintels and decorations Moot, as in the palaces Heer Palace bomber and Amra, as in the Qasr al-in all stucco, which was distributed in the palaces and mosques.
Architecture is a machine and should be a thoughtful process.
According to (Rasdi, Mohamad,2008) The second fact of Islamic architecture is the human scale, the purpose the foundation of the architecture, is to achieve tranquility and confidence to those who hold this architecture, whether public or private. The basic principle is the rights, needs and aspirations, and from the concatenation stages without that leave him at any stage of the project, Man needs a place to achieve comfort, security and happiness within the limits of efficiency.
First, creates the same room requires windows enjoy it, superintending the scene of its own away from the curiosity of others , and noise pollution, and he had a inner courtyard surrounding the rooms again, and this became the yard its where trees and herbs and flowers, where pools of water, and had to be a corner shadowed meet the occupants home to enjoy the sight of this paradise wonderful founding hall, did not have to be decoration and ornament Notes brackets, doors, ceilings and walls to emphasize the meaning of architecture on the one hand, and in order to retain memories of the beautiful scenes and decorations that are known carved on the manuscripts and objects.
The nature of Islam and Islamic architecture.
According to to (Rasdi, Mohamad, 2008) , When the Muslims arrived in the Iberian Peninsula, was full of many of the effects
Architecture that belong to different civilizations Kaloiperep Romanian, some of these effects
ØŒ Related posts Kalmabid religious, and some of the post of defensive castles and forts.
Muslims open their towns distinctive Islamic character, and that the establishment of mosques, which are
The core of the architecture of cities and expand, as the mosque becomes a center of cities over time
And urban and heart beating SQ branch roads leading to the large doors
. City, and then branched out streets and alleys connecting the neighborhoods.
. And around the courtyard of the mosque built markets and bathrooms, hotels, Qayshrb. And inside
Mosque hold political meetings, and distributed army brigades, taught science
. Religious and general sciences. Thus we find that the mosque had a positive impact on the lives of
Community, political, economic and social development. The phenomenon was followed in the
ØŒ Many of the cities that would be opened or Echttha Muslims in various parts of the globe,
This is the case of Damascus, Alexandria, Cordoba, Seville, Toledo and others.
It was Andalusia Bmatherha various scientific and architectural, artistic,
Radiation center of Islamic civilization sustainable since strengthened the roots of Islamic rule
Where, particularly in the era of home by Prince Abdul Rahman, who devoted his life to building
. An Islamic state in Andalusia. Fbahdh architecture began groping in
Religious buildings and civil rights. And is still in Andalusia to this day are vivid reminders of
the sincerity of that movement's major building and construction.
The architectural and decorative elements make up the first seeds of Andalusian art, even
Took decoration radiate in the Levant and Morocco, but affected the decoration of Christianity
.Neighbors. There is no doubt that the era of this breakthrough architecture recovered from such of the finest
Examples of Islamic architecture, but the world in the middle Ages.
After that period any time the emirate, and its peak - an era of Prince inside - followed by a series
Covenants on Andalusia, and all were paying close attention to art and appearances
Architecture various civic, religious and defense. And still the list since those Ù‡ Covenants vivid evidence of architectural distinction between Prince and elsewhere, and despite the lack of this
Evidence known to the integrated construction in present-day Cordoba mosque, and red
ØŒ Granada, Seville, and the Lighthouse Tower and the gold, but there are a lot of effects
Andalusian scattered in cities and villages of Spain. But do not exaggerate if we say that
Spanish architecture in most countries of central, western and southern Iberian Peninsula is
Andalusian character readily recognizable through some of the architectural elements and decorative Related
Islamic origin who are destined to evolve in Spain.
The research approach adopted here is influenced by some examples for Islamic buildings that found in Spain that effected by old and modern Islamic architecture.
Tools of Data collection:
The main instruments of investigation in this study were by reading documents, academic journals and by taking some history lessons and we can use key informant collaboration.
Studying some examples of Islamic buildings in Spain such as:
The Grand Mosque in Cordoba, Spain
One of the most exciting established Muslims architectural works, and there are in Cordoba in Andalusia (Spain), This mosque is situated near the Guadalquivir River, and surrounded by, and all four sides of narrow alleyways, which is recognized by historians of European architecture summit peaks of architecture the world over the ages, The definitive guide to Alomwen skill in the art of engineering and architecture. Has now shifted to the church.
Shot of interior
The Rusafa palace in Cordoba, Spain
It is a park, beautiful successors Almarwanyen, Aptnah "Abd-AL-Rahman inside" at the foot of Mount Cordoba, to entertain himself, he termed the "Rusafa" after the analogy of "Rsafa" grandfather in Damascus was built to compete with its shortcomings Eastern Manifa. This was the palace forum writers and the Forum poets.
Rusafa palace in Cordoba
The data collected found that Islam has a great effect on buildings in Spain and many countries. Found that many architects use Islamic arts in their designing buildings.
In that research paper we have found that much of the literature on Islamic architecture in Spain and its relation to the results were found take high place, and that islam have many symbols and sign that found in buildings as Islamic architecture depend on visions
Some difficulties were faced in this paper such as lack of information about Islamic architecture in spain as building were decreased their , so, other researcher should found more examples and information in that field