Indonesian Interference In Learning English Cultural Studies Essay

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Background of the Study

Indonesian interference can be found in form of sentences in any aspects such as pronunciation, especially in grammar and vocabulary. Grammar and vocabulary cannot be separated because they are included as the important elements that depend on each other. Students who have the best concepts in grammar, it must be the students have also the knowledge of words. Interference is caused by humans' first language or mother tongue that influences a second language. So, interference refers to humans when they use or adapt from their first language to say a word in second or foreign language (www.britishcouncil.org).

In teaching and learning grammar and vocabulary, interference of Indonesian can be seen when students put inappropriate words in conscious or not in producing sentences of paragraphs in writing skills or when students do the exercises. This case can be seen in the process of teaching and learning grammar and vocabulary that teachers should remind students about the interference, examples and the characteristics. Therefore, teacher's role is needed in the process of teaching and learning Grammar and Vocabulary. Teacher should beware or alert these elements of the interference so that students avoid in doing the interference in the unconsciousness process. Teacher is expected to alert students in the way of telling them before or in the discussing exercises. So, students will know the interference itself especially in producing sentences and will not do the mistakes in lexicogrammar of the language.

Interference of Indonesian in the sentences, clauses, phrases were found in students' thesis. It has enough evidences that can be concluded as the misunderstanding or not knowing at all about the interference itself. If students did mistakes in usage of words appropriately, it means that students have not had the right or strong concepts in understanding structures of grammar and the usage of words, so it will affect in the writing of the thesis.

According to www.britishcouncil.org, lexicogrammatical meant the systematic and predictable manner by human beings when they use language to communicate with one another. It can be said that the sentences, clauses or phrases that are wrong in placing the words or even the usage called lexicogrammatical. It makes a person who read the sentences, clauses or phrases cannot be analyzed or know the meaning exactly because of the systematic itself. Here are the examples of lexicogrammatical that writer got from the websites: (http://images.google.co.id and http://img49.imageshack.us/i/32289191ut1.jpg/)

Therefore, the writer is motivated to conduct this research which is aimed to find out whether the process of teaching and learning of Grammar and Vocabulary in JBSI-UNJ include the possibility Indonesian interference. The writer also learns more about the interference of the lexicogrammar in English Grammar and Vocabulary subjects.

Research Question

"Do the process of teaching and learning of Grammar and Vocabulary in JBSI-UNJ include the possibility of Indonesian interference?

Purpose of study

The purpose of the study is to investigate whether the process of teaching and learning of Grammar and Vocabulary in JBSI-UNJ include the possibility Indonesian interference.

Significance of study

The objective in this research is to find out whether the process of teaching and learning of Grammar and Vocabulary in JBSI-UNJ include the possibility Indonesian interference. This research is expected to be a suggestion for improving the teaching and learning of English Grammar and Vocabulary at English Department and also for the writer in learning the interference of the lexicogrammar in English Grammar and Vocabulary subjects.

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

Lexicogrammatical Features of Language

According to www.britishcouncil.org, lexicogrammatical meant the systematic and predictable manner by human beings when they use language to communicate with one another. It is meant that in sentences, clauses or phrases must be systematic in writing so that the message will convey the meaning itself. When the sentences are systematically, it can be understood easily and the communication from the sentence or the message will be delivered well. Whereas,

when the systematic are broken in sentences, the message must be not delivered well. So, in producing the writing, someone has to avoid the usage the in appropriate words in sentences that people can understand the meaning is.

Hunt stated in http://www.ihes.com/bcn/tt/eltconf/lexico-grammar.pdf that lexicogrammar sees language as meaning conveyance of words working in grammatical parameters. It can be said that the parameters of the conveying of words is part of lexicogrammar. Parameters were used as the benchmarks in writing the sentences. If the sentence are not systematic, it does not convey the meaning of its. In applying or writing thesis, students have to write or use the appropriate words in conveying the message. Students have to use the parameters in producing writing skill.

As stated in www.englishforum.com, lexicogramamtical means a combination of vocabulary (lexus) and grammar. Wikipedia adds that lexicon of a language is its vocabulary, including its words and expressions. Usually a lexicon is a container for words belonging to the same language. While grammar is the set of logical and structural rules that govern the composition of sentences, phrases, and words in any given natural language. The term refers also to the study of rules. From the meaning of each part above, lexicogrammatical consists of vocabulary; how the vocabulary in a language is structured, how people use and store words, how they learn words, the history and evolution of words (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/lexicon), the usage of words and related to the meaning while grammar; the study of the rules of structural in sentences, clauses or phrases. Both of them cannot be separated because the bounded of the meaning and structural.

Influences of Mother Tongue in Learning Grammar and Vocabulary

Language interference (also known as L1 interference) is the effect of language learners' first language on their production of the language they are learning. The effect can be on any aspect of language: grammar, vocabulary, accent, spelling and so on (http://wiki.eflgeek.com/index.php/ESL-wiki/Language-Interference/). Interference happens when learners' first language cannot find words to say then they use or adapt from their mother tongue (www.macmillanenglish.com). It means that learners' first language can be interfered when they are not able to communicate the second language of conveying in the sentences, clauses and phrases.

In learning Grammar and Vocabulary, students maybe interfere in producing sentences, clauses and phrases. The interference can be happened if students are not able to communicate in second language, they still use their mother tongue in conveying the message of the communication itself. So, students have to know the concepts of structural rules of grammar and also the words are used and learned. If they do, they can be avoided from the Indonesian of interference especially in producing sentences.

When the relevant unit or structure of both languages is the same, linguistic interference can result in correct language production called positive transfer - "correct" meaning in line with most native speakers' notions of acceptability. However, that language interference is most often discussed as a source of errors known as negative transfer. Negative transfer occurs when speakers and writers transfer items and structures that are not the same in both languages (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_transfer). It can be said positive transfer is the transfer that is related to the languages and tend to mutualism aspect. While negative is the transfer which is not related in languages and cannot complete each other. So the function of the language will be error.

Teaching Grammar

Dixson (2004) explained clearly about the principles of the teaching of modern languages that was discussed at an international seminar organized by UNESCO. The principles are divided into five aspects;

Approach to the teaching of all foreign languages-should be primarily oral. In learning foreign language, Dixson emphasized that teacher should teach the language in oral practices. Dixson gave the situations that teachers disable to communicate English well in classroom. He stated that teachers do not have any fluency in English, not have teaching of methods that can be used in oral practice. Teachers in fact only do the translation as the major teaching technique and using the mother tongue as the one of major in communication. Dixson also stated that teachers who poorly paid are one of the reasons why teachers could not teach students to speak. Because this technique needs more energy and enthusiasm to make students are interested.

b) Active methods of teaching should be used as far as possible. In this principle, Dixson invited teachers start to teach the oral practice. He also gave the examples;

"the teacher must participate actively in almost every phase of the lesson. She must give oral drill on all aspects of the grammar. She must teach new vocabulary, not by the simple device of translation, but by the use of pictures, pointing at objects, or explanations in English. She must be careful to keep within the vocabulary range of her students. She uses reading not merely as a passive exercise in understanding but as a source of conversational material as well. She asks questions on the text. She leads the class into whatever conversational channels may present themselves. She continually corrects faulty pronunciation. She tries vigorously to inculcate in her students correct habits of grammar and speech"(p.8-9).

Teachers start to give the oral practice every part of the language. Teachers must give the exercises that continuously do by students. Therefore, teachers should have enough patience for those exercises in teaching the oral of techniques. Students also can practice their language as well as possible.

c) The greatest possible use of the foreign tongue should be made in the classroom. Dixson explained that when teachers use the oral approach and give students the practices in understanding and speaking the language, so that English will be the one of language that is used in our communication. Maybe, teachers face the difficulties in explaining the points of grammar or words in the language and then teachers may be choose to explain it with the native language. But, in other way, teachers must use English in her teaching. Teachers also should make students to speak in English in classroom and continuously pay attention to it. Teachers should keep and do this rule strongly. Dixson stated the reason in his explanation below.

"It is of great psychological advantage if students feel that they are in an English speaking environment where English is the sole means of communication. In this connection, the teacher should also use only English in such everyday classroom matters as calling the roll, calling upon students to recite, directing students in their various classroom activities etc".

Teachers have the important role in using English in classroom. Students can initiate in using English and then they are comfortable in communicating the language.

d) The difficulties of the foreign tongue in the matter of pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar should be carefully graded for presentation. Dixson gave some suggests for teacher to teach vocabulary for students in the simplest way of translation. Teachers also teach grammar in the simply way to make students can remember easily and make them also to pronounce. Teachers should monitor students continuously.

e) The teaching of a language should be considered more as the imparting of a skill than as the provision of information about the forms of the language. Dixson stated a skill is a capacity developed through prolonged practice and repetition (p.11). Teachers must emphasize the teaching of English in sharpening the skills. So that, teachers will teach the language be fairly free and easy as an acquired skill.

Dixson added in his books in teaching grammar, he explained the two main of methods in teaching grammar. They are inductive and deductive methods. He explained them below.

"Induction is meant a process of learning or teaching whereby numerous examples of a certain principle are presented and the rule is then inferred from these examples. Deduction means starting with the rule and then offering examples to show how the rule applies" (p.25).

In inductive method of teaching process, teachers give the material that contains the grammar that needs to be studied. After reading the material, teachers can give the statement of the rule that are going to discuss then followed by some exercises. While the deductive approach, teachers can start with giving the rule of the grammar then follow it with practice exercises then proceed to the reading material where the grammar rule is applied in practical form.

Dixson added that there are many students who choose the inductive method in learning English. Students meet new material in context first then learn it to understand after that, students proceed to a statement of the rule. Dixson also explained, it does not matter which the two methods that is going to choose to teach in classroom. The main important in teaching grammar is the rule itself. How teacher teach the rule for students and give them some practice so that students can understand and can speak English. Therefore, it is needed teachers' role in classroom that must provide the practice, control it continuously and guide it into the appropriate goals.

Dixson gave some suggestion for the teachers who are going to teach grammar (p.27-45). First is about English textbook. Dixson suggests teachers to choose the best books for students and analyze the exercises appropriately. For the best result, the exercises should be repeated for several times. Teachers can make the instruction of oral practice in giving the exercises for students and then students will follow it. Second is especially for teacher to provide special oral drills, supplementary to those in the text. In textbooks English, there are many exercises that are provided the grammar part to do. While in oral practice, it is provided rarely. Sometimes, students are able to do the exercises in grammar part, but do not know in using the language itself. Therefore, teachers have to provide students in oral practice. Third is about some methods in process of teaching e.g.

The question-answer. Teachers can use this technique through asking the questions that are involved in grammar part. Then students recite answer individually. Use the simple question and can also use the drill methods to make a simple discussion. Teachers can also ask a question then a student answer it. Teachers can make some group then ask them to spoke one minute about the material that day. After students are able to do the step, teachers can add in asking students to answer rapidly. Start with the simple question so that students can catch quickly to what they are supposed to do.

The Choral-Method: The Choral Method is another means of teaching language orally, but it is rather widely today. It is particularly good for teaching the aspects of grammar and related to pronunciation or intonation. The grammar forms such as contractions, verb tenses formed with auxiliary verbs, prepositional phrases, exclamatory' sentences can often be taught by this method. In using it, teachers can emphasize the rhythm pattern at the same time that teachers teach the grammar principle. For example in teaching contractions, teachers might say, "He'll be back at six o'clock". Teachers lay stress on the rhythm. The students can repeat the teachers' statement following the same rhythm. Teachers can do this step possibly two or three times.

Oral grammar: For example teacher is going to teach indirect speech form. Teacher will ask one student "Where did John go?" Student answers, "I don't know where John went". Teacher then asks the second student "Does Helen speak English well?" Students answer "I don't know whether Helen speaks English well". Teachers can use this method for several times until students can answer automatic and sharp. After students are able to do that method, teachers can add the exercises in making some group of them. Teachers give the same question which has just practiced orally. Then, the first group will be a teacher which read the questions and the second group will answer it. After it done, students reverse the role.

The teachers can choose the best methods in teaching grammar in classroom. Teachers can take the special techniques in encouraging students to learn the language. The methods are chosen to not make students bore in process of learning grammar. Teachers also should limit the time or period in using the method especially when students are encouraged in doing exercises and enjoying their parts.

Diane Larsen explained briefly how to teach grammar and emphasizes the "focus on form" theory. She said from the research that shown, teachers who focus students' attention on linguistic from during communicative interactions are more effective than those who never focus on form or who only do so in contextualized grammar lesson (Spada and Lightbown 1993: Lightbown 1998). It follows, then, that most educators concur with the need to teach grammatical form. However they advise doing so by "focusing on form" within a meaning-based or communicative approach in order to avoid a return to analytic approaches in which decontextualized language forms were the object of the study. Focusing on grammatical form during communicative interactions rather than forms in isolation (Long 1991) is one way to prevent the pendulum from swinging beyond its point of equilibrium.

Teachers are not interested in filling our students' head with grammatical paradigms and syntactic rules. If students know all the rules that had ever been written in English but are not able to apply them, teachers would not be doing their job as a teacher. Teaching grammar exactly means to make students be able to use grammatical structure accurately, meaningfully and appropriately. Teacher should think grammar is a skill to be mastered rather than as a rule to be memorized then teachers will teach students in the right way.

Harmer (1998) in How to teach English p 1-6 explained the criteria how to be a good teacher. He stated that teacher must be approachable that means students can share their problems to the teachers even tough students do not get along with the subject. Teachers also have an affinity that means she/he can identify with the hopes, aspirations and difficulties of the students while they are teaching.

In classroom, teachers not only give their attention to students who dominated by loud, extrovert, bright, teachers should takes efforts to students who dominated by quiet, shy, to get some chances. It means that a good teacher should try and draw out the quiet ones and control the more talkative ones. Teachers also have to learn how to manage students and how to control boisterous classes which is one of the fundamental skills of teaching. The way that teachers talk to students is also the main points to be a good teacher.

Harmer added that teachers have to use physical movement; gestures, expressions, mime. It can show happiness and sadness, movement and time sequences. In giving instructions, teachers must be kept as simple as possible and must be logical. It should be clear and well staged. Teachers can check students' understanding what they have learnt before giving the instructions. In teaching lesson, teacher should not make the students be bored. It means that teacher have to know the way she/he is wearing, the way they are explaining, the way they are arranging the activities in classroom. Good teachers find a balance between predictable safety and unexpected variety. In arranging plan, teachers have to concentrate on the teacher's ability to respond flexibly in classroom, flexible enough to cope the situation [unplanned event], recognize that their plans are only prototypes and they may have to abandon some or all of them if things are going too fast or too slow.

From all the explanation above, teachers are equipped in teaching grammar with the several of methods even the best of them that will be chosen. Teacher should give the appropriate and useful exercises for students in order to make students master the grammar and the component. So they have the right concepts in their mind and apply it successfully. Teachers also know how to behave as a teacher in class or outside. The best teacher is a teacher who cares about their students' learning than they do about their teaching.

Teaching Vocabulary

I.S.P Nation (2001) gives the explanation of method in teaching vocabulary. The "What is it?" technique is a useful way of learning new vocabulary. Teachers gradually communicate the meaning of a word by using it in context. When the learners know the word, they raise their hands and answer it. After that, teachers ask the explanation or translation of the word. When the technique is being used, the learners are interested and paying attention. They are trying to find an answer even though it is not quickly.

Still in this book, it explained the techniques of teaching vocabulary; a) Recycled words. Blake and Majors (1995) have described the five procedures; they are; 1.Preteaching of vocabulary, 2.Oral reading of a text containing the vocabulary with discussion of the meaning of the text, 3.Deliberate word study, 4. Vocabulary puzzles, quizzes, or tests, and finally 5.Writing making use of the vocabulary. This procedure moves from receptive use to productive use with a focus on deliberate learning the second-hand cloze. This activity involves three steps: 1; b) the learners read texts containing the target vocabulary, 2. They deliberately study the vocabulary, 3. Learners are then given cloze passages which are summaries of the ones they originally read. In this step the learners are helped to recall the target words by being given a list of L1 equivalents of the target words that they have to translate into L2, and then use to fill the gaps in the cloze text; b) the vocabulary interview. One of the goals of the interview procedure is to make learners aware of the aspects of knowing a word. Another goal is for them to learn new words.

This technique is better to used in the process of teaching and learning Vocabulary. This technique not only simple to use or practice but students will get more knowledge about it. It emphasizes the productive skills in learning Vocabulary such as writing, oral reading, quiz, puzzle and so on. It can encourage students because the variety of the steps in understanding the words and also in applying into the real context.

In journal of Modern English Teacher volume 10 number 2, Paul Docherty added his explanation and revealed the three ideas for teaching vocabulary. They are; a) Home-made cloze: The procedure is firstly, teachers prepare a list of words that are going to learn that day. Teachers take four or five words randomly then write them on cards and given to students that work in pairs or group. The students' task is to make a short paragraph using the words or their derivatives. Teachers should monitor group to group and giving them help when they needed. Students who has decided the paragraph, they re-write it and omit the words originally that given to them. The home-made cloze tests invented by each group that are exchanged and filled in. If there any problem, a student of the group has to explain the meaning of the difficult word and also provide the missing word. A final task is students in group have to make the spelling of the lexis used. So, if the vocabulary will appear on the test that students can do in written and oral tests.

b) Work with dictionaries; in teaching lexis in classroom, students can and should be encouraged to use dictionaries effectively and efficiently, especially in higher level that will possibly do their work inappropriate language. Paul gave the example in listening skill. In this example, Paul suggested teachers to use a song in improving students' vocabulary. According to Paul, this is a very useful skill. Students not only have to decide words appropriately but also the form of the word that they need, which students may increase their confidence in using a dictionary effectively and fixing the words in their memories.

Using pictures; Students may use pictures on magazines and pinned on the walls in classroom. Then, students are invited to write what they could see and described it. Teachers can easily check what students have written and make correction if they need. A final task is teachers can choose some pictures and show them at different times of the year.

In teaching vocabulary, teachers should also show the meaning of new words. Although many new English words are listed in each lesson or at the end of the text book, it is very important that teachers must give the words' meaning and provide definitions in English, use words which the class can understand. In dealing with individual words, the teacher has really a choice of four techniques: (a) to explain the meaning of the difficult words, either by translation, or by giving an explanation or "gloss" in simpler English; (b) to simply ignore the word, unless a question about it is raised by the students; (c) to get the students to check up the target words in their dictionaries; (d) to try to get the students to guess or infer the meaning through context, morphemes or word association (Retrieved from http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&q=cache:lmeSCg4k97kJ:www.linguist.org.cn/doc/uc200803/uc20080308.pdf+teaching+vocabulary+techniques+in+college&hl=en&gld)

In http://www.slideshare.net/irwyn12/basics-of-teaching-vocabulary-1556430 edition June 2009, it is stated the basic of teaching vocabulary is explained that teacher should teach clearly and not have complicated explanation. Teachers also must to relate the present teaching to the past by showing the pattern so that students will understand clearly. In explaining, teachers should use oral and written techniques. Teachers write on the whiteboard while explaining the material. Then, teachers should give the attention to students who already partly known.

Learning Grammar

Celce-Murcia and Larsen-Freeman (1999) explained the learners of grammar. They stated that learners should not learn only the structures and master it, but they should learn it consistently

"Learning is a gradual process involving the mapping of form, meaning and use; structures do not spring forth in learners' inter language fully developed and error-free"

Learners have to master the structures because sometimes students still use and apply in wrong way. In this condition, teacher should not despair for what students do.

The best way to learn English, one of the most useful tools that they use grammar exercises. Such a grammar exercise is a specialized tool to learn English, with the aim to challenge and expand a person's knowledge about grammar. While it is necessary to learn the rules of grammar, there is really no substitute for learning English through grammar exercises. Students have to exercise themselves in doing grammar exercises, memorize the pattern and apply the structure into the sentences.

Learning the grammar of a language will enable students understand how sentences are constructed and to construct your own sentences (http://www.alljapaneseallthetime.com/blog/). Learning to arrange the words in the correct order is probably one of the most important and useful things students will learn after pronunciation and vocabulary.

Harmer (1998) p.10 explained the characteristics of learners in classroom; Learners have a willingness to listen in the sense of paying attention, listen to the English that is being used and soak it up with eagerness and intelligence. A willingness to experiment: learners who extrovert or not must have same conceptions to be successful learners in taking risks, trying it out, and see how it works. A willingness to ask questions: asking/finding out something is part of a successful learner's equipment. Good teachers will respond the learners who try to ask something. Good learners also have to do it. A willingness to think about how to learn: good learners will bring their own study when they are studying. For examples learners have to read an article, translating every word, quickly, trying to get the message of the text. A willingness to accept correction: good learners are prepared to be corrected by their teachers. Teachers will give feedbacks for their responds. So, learners will do appropriately.

From the explanation above, learners who know well about grammar, must be learn it consistently and will apply the concept in the right way. Learners are expected to be active in classroom for the four skills and have to able to master all. Applying the rules of grammar in those skills will make learners be creative and have the strong components of the process in their thinking. It means that learners themselves to think about the concepts or knowledge appropriate of the process itself. So, if learners are success in the process of their thinking, learners will also successfully mastering grammar and enable to apply the concept of their knowledge in doing exercises.

Learning vocabulary

Learning vocabulary is a very important part of learning a language. The more words students know, the more they will be able to understand what they hear and read; and the better they will be able to say what they want to when speaking or writing.

Nunan (2003) explained that students are asked to learn from meaning-focused input. It means that the learning involves the listening and reading skills. The goal is students need to know 98 percent of the running words already. So, students will know exactly the usage of each word such in sentence, clauses or even phrases. Hu and Nation (2000) added that in learning vocabulary, students should be only one unknown words in every fifty running words. It concludes that students' memories are strong enough in the words that have ever been in their mind.

Secondly, deliberate meaning which is called form-focused instruction, language-focused learning or language study. Learners are asked to learn new vocabulary by memorizing their first language translations. Learners should give their attention to sounds, spelling, vocabulary, grammar etc. So that students always add the new words in their mind and do not meet the difficulties in comprehending text or in understanding the meaning of the text.

CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methodology applied in conducting the study that provides an explanation of how the study is planned and conducted in order to answer the research question that ask to what extent the tutor's questioning techniques effect the learners in language production.

3.1 Research Procedure

In conducting this study, first the researcher finds the background of the study. Based on the background of the study, the researcher identifies the problem identification and the purpose of the study. In order to collect the data in observing classes, the researcher attends the meeting of classes and records the process of teaching and learning in classrooms while making notes in the process are held. After making notes, the researcher makes data explanations and corrections the transcriptions. The last, the conclusion and recommendation were made based on the result of the study. Figure 3.1 is the design of the research procedure.

Figure 3.1Design of the research procedure

3.2 Design of the Study

In addressing to the research question, this study employs a descriptive analytical approach which involves the analysis of qualitative data.

3.3 Setting of the Study

3.3.1. Subjects

The subjects of this study are the lecturers in three of English Grammar 1 classes, three of English Grammar 3 classes and three of Vocabulary classes of English Department of State University of Jakarta.

3.3.2. Place and Setting

The study was conducted at English Department of State University of Jakarta, East Jakarta. This study was used six times recorded class meeting. But in several subjects were observed three to five meetings because due to some drawbacks, such as lack of time, overlapping schedule and distinct procedure. The class meeting of English Grammar has 150 minutes length per meeting per twice of week, the class meeting of Vocabulary has 100 minutes length per meeting per week, and the classes were at the three of English Grammar one classes, three of English Grammar three classes and three of Vocabulary classes. This study conducted from October to December 2009.

3.4 Data and Sources of Data

The data were gathered through observation. Observation was used to observe the teaching and learning process of the classes. The observations itself were held for six meeting and some other classes were only held three to five meeting, because of the limitation of time, distinct procedures, and so on. After the observation held, the transcription of the observation is made as the data that used to be analyzed.

3.5 Instruments

The instruments that involved in this study are:

Media-recorder

Media recorder that was used is record phone. It was used to record the learning teaching process so that there is authentic evident about the observation and to make the transcription process in order to data interpretation.

Field notes

The field notes were used for taking notes of what happening during the learning process. This field notes functions to cover up the data that have been missed by the recorder.

3.6 Data Collection Method

The method of data collection is divided into three steps. First is attending the meeting of the subjects that are chosen; English Grammar 1, English Grammar 3 and Vocabulary classes. Second is recording the process of teaching and learning in classroom. Third is making field notes when the teaching and learning process are held.

3.7 Data Analysis Technique

The recorded data were transcribed and analyzed to find out the anticipating of interference in teaching process that were done by teacher and the learning process that were done by students. In the process of analysis, firstly, the writer listened to the records then made the transcriptions of the meetings. Writer made some tables of teacher's and students' corrections based on the field notes in the process of discussing the practices in the classrooms.

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