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Since the early days people have lived in groups and survived through good and bad days. The communities form by humans has led to the development and enrichment of this world both technologically and habitually. It is the very human need the human interaction; this was the one most basic principal in development of architecture but the new age because of privacy needs and technology (internet) has grown people apart from each other rather than bring them together. The growing capitalist economy demands more of living space than of social space. This has led to poor quality of life standards and increase in crime and decrease in healthy life style. These days many professionals like architects, city planners and sociologist are researching how people live in more densely populated areas. How this has affected the social life of the residents and led the shrinking of social spaces. This paper will discuss the merits and demerits of the contemporary urban development, various effect of social space on communities. How this has led to increase in crime rates and decrease in productivity & health and how this situation can be resolved.
Key words :Social space , Public space, urban space, urban planning
Introduction: sociology of human communities and their habitat
Cause and effects of contemporary urban development
The possible solutions and hypothesis of solutionsâ€¦.
Growth is inevitable and desirable, but destruction of community character is not. The question is not whether your part of the world is going to change. The question is how. (Edward T. McMahon)
Change Life! Change Society! These precepts mean nothing without the production of an appropriate space (Henri Lefebvre)
By 2080 it is predicted that 80% of the human population will move to the cities and urban areas with highest concentrations in Asia and Africa. More people habitat now in urban spaces than in rural spaces ever before. This shows that the level of growth never has been this great and it is still growing. The comparative recent rise and progress of metropolises internationally has caused an increase of the significance of city planning. Urban developments are vibrant and diverse all over the globe. This necessitates an in-depth exploration and approaches to director expansions in the correct direction. New approaches and techniques to secure the extended sustainability of regions are being developed nowadays. Along with these swift expansions come numerous urban complications, like isolation, transportation congestion, contamination and deprivation of the atmosphere. In the international discussion about urban planning, approaches to develop metropolises in the future are expected to alterations. This is because a relatively new term has appeared among designers and planners: sustainable development. Various kinds of professions and practices go into generating public spaces that bring wellbeing and fortune to metropolises and societies.
The skill of planning and designing for eminence and vitality in communal places rests in the equilibrium of societies, residence, essence and tradition. Public spaces must be more than safe and manageable; moreover they need to have sense and importance for people, to be used more fully and with better gratitude. Space, however is limited in this metropolitan where the topographical landscape limit possibilities to a definite range. Nevertheless, urban planners and designers have to find the best setting and try to discover a sustainable and long term solutions or ways which is best for the town and its present and prospect inhabitants. In some circumstances they come up with astonishing results and in some not that great.
Urban renewal has been associated with urban expansion since the initial social settlement, and was given emphasis after the World War 2. Numerous periods' knowledge and billions of moneys forced the judgment givers to comprehend the significance of urban appearance, value of life, and urban setting, which were accepted as fundamentals and facilitators for the economic advancement of metropolises, urban revival projects are created as symbol of the metropolitan and to offer space for occupants, and have been shown to be operational for cities rejuvenation by many countries.
This paper examines this merits and demerits of urban development in general. With the growth and development of cities and metropolises around the world, urban planners and architects always keen on areas for impending advancements. Whether regeneration of old fragments of the city or emerging new areas out skirts of the current city limits, prospects are always open.. The study and material is largely based on literature.
This paper adopts an extensive understanding of urban planning as the development of making better spaces for societies than would otherwise be created. How can urban planning contribute to the formation of miscellaneous public spaces that increase or improve value and quality to urban socio- economic life?
- What does a definition of "diverse public spaces" include?
- In what ways can public spaces enhance value and quality in urban life?
- How can urban planning make a positive contribution to creating public spaces?
- Does urban planning have a negative effect in some cases?
Public /Social Spaces
The measure of any great civilization is its cities and a measure of a city's greatness is to be found in the quality of its public spaces, its parks and squares. (John Ruskin)
Public space is the juncture upon which the expression of public life develops. The paths, squares and gardens of a metropolitan give a form to the sanctuary and movement of social exchange. These vibrant spaces are a vital counterpart to the other established spaces and levies of work and family life, providing the networks for movement, nodes for communication and common grounds for play and relaxation (Carr, Francis, Rivlin, and Stone, 1992). There are number of definition on urban public place or space and its correlation (Wang, 2002). The description of public space and open space in the perspective of urban area provided by different institutes, is as 'the space which occurs among structures in urban space, which can be accessible freely by communal societies the space should be the room for urban inhabitants to meet and dialogue with other individuals, and for residence to stay in more natural atmosphere. It is also the representation of urban appearance the landscape, thus being called as the breathing room or as the open window of the city. It is multifunctional place in urban space, which could be middle of governmental, monetary, or traditional events. Communal urban space is lively and all full of energy, which is vital for the ecological expansion of the city'. Public spaces are shaped by at least two diverse processes; some have evolved naturally through assumption, by frequent use in a specific way, or by the concentration of societies because of an allure or an attraction say may be like a café or very old tree where people wish for something etc. Both of these results in a space that accommodates societies for explicit reasons and it becomes a location that people depend on on as a place to encounter other people. These events might happen on a street junction, on some stairs in front of a structure, or on an undeveloped proportion in a area (Carr et al., 1992). Great communal places are the living area of the metropolitan - the place where individuals come together to appreciate the urban area and other individuals. Public spaces add value and increase the quality of life. Public spaces vary from plazas to squares, to small and big, local neighborhood parks or pounds. The combination of exquisite architecture with unique public spaces creates the most gorgeous places to live in - places where one can express the joy and relish the nature and manmade structures
Another way that public space gets created is by planning, which have diverse roots, though the purpose they serve may be parallel to unplanned or developing spaces. Planned spaces commonly transpire from the offices of urban planners, designers and landscape architects, who may be appointed by community or by private clienteles. Such public or open spaces may be the outcome of the arranging of an urban space - the thoughtful or unplanned consequences of building accommodation, workplaces or communal structures. A district or neighborhood may be structured around a square, or the space around a monumental erection /structure may be intended as a public place with other edifices arranged around, or a space may be the surplus outcome of obstruction in a zoning regulation (Carr et al., 1993).
The significance of social space has been recognized worldwide, primarily from the perception in refining quality of life through contented atmosphere and plentiful public life; improving urban appearance through urban vagueness; and compelling commercial development through investment which is appealed by the good appearance. The prominence of public space in building a pleasant atmosphere for human beings for work, resides, and relaxes. According to the Athens Charter in 1943 city's most noticeable public spaces are often illustrative of the metropolitan itself and imitate how its inhabitants relate to the town and to each other. Darin-Drabkin (1977) claimed that a decent living setting needs public spaces. Prominent designers and city planners have often reasoned that the quality of a metropolis's social spaces has much to do with how a district /town/ city prospers or fails as a place to habitat or do trade (Bacon, 1976). A numerous researchers and urban planners indicate that public spaces can serve people to be content, to state and defend human rights and morals, and to express distinctive cultural values. Societies can learn new things and learn from others through public life (Carr and Lynch, 1968; Ward, 1978). No matter what technical innovations are taking place, human beings have not changed (Gehl 1980).They still need the casual contact with other human beings that used to be built into daily life. Public spaces can afford opportunities for such casual encounters in the course of daily life that can bind people together and give their lives meaning and power. Public spaces not only can serve daily needs but also can be places to gather for special occasions.
"Towns and cities are not God-given or â€žnaturalâ€Ÿ. They are the result of centuries of decision-making by individual owners and developers, and of government intervention. Whilst topography and geography do play a part, they do not absolutely determine development. The nature of towns and cities, to a considerable extent, is dependent on who shouts the loudest, and who has the greatest influence over policy." Clara Greed, 1996