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Vernacular architecture can only be described as architecture without architects. It is merely in response to a particular individual or community needs, in the sense that buildings designed and built by individuals who according to local climate and culture of a particular community. Study of vernacular architecture explores the characteristics of the local buildings in the district or area, and many factors are social and cultural development.
Can the concept of African vernacular style of architecture through both historical trends and perspectives of the environment. While the Yoruba in southwestern Nigeria live in corrugated zinc roof of a mud wall and the unit is surrounded by thick mud walls, and high for reasons of protection against invasion of foreign enemies, normad shepherd from northern Nigeria, Mali, living in temporary grass round the house time.
But in Nigeria, expressed in the form of vernacular architecture, cultural influences originating from Brazil and North Africa and Europe. This forms a basis for social organization and traditional culture in the Nigerian society and the interaction between him and other influences can crystallize in the local architecture Nigeria (Adeyemi 1975 to 1976).
2.0 Issue / problem statement:
Theft of modern technology in our society construction and design skills of environmentally sensitive homes. Modern architecture became more and more environmentally friendly not only to the people, but also the environment, including use of excessive energy in cooling. That is why we must return to the vernacular architecture to see how the principles can save and use the vernacular in the field of sustainable architecture. There are also around after years of materials that are environmentally friendly and in bad faith for building materials and sustainable construction methods.
Search Questions 3.0:
Here are some questions I would like to discuss and debate about this in the vernacular architecture in northern Nigeria.
"How and vernacular architecture to be in Nigeria?
"What is the vernacular architecture, sustainable architecture?
"How the vernacular architecture of interaction with the environment?
"How does the modern style of vernacular architecture?
"Does the vernacular architecture of energy efficiency?
4.0 Goals / Objectives:
The purpose of this study was to find out what determines the vernacular architecture and the study of how vernacular architecture has been developed over the years, and how modern architecture has adopted elements of vernacular architecture.
This study will also explore and evaluate the elements of architecture and design principles that can be applied from vernacular architecture to achieve a more affordable and better provide good sustainable buildings.
"To explore the architectural design elements of vernacular architecture.
"To study the relationship between culture and vernacular architecture.
"To see if the vernacular architecture sustainable.
Will be based on this study on vernacular architecture in northern Nigeria, this paper will discuss the existence of vernacular architecture in Nigeria and the advantages and disadvantages. This study also brings light on the sustainability of vernacular architecture, and types of materials used in vernacular architecture, and how they interact with the culture and environment for those northern Nigeria. It will also discuss research on how the vernacular architecture influenced modern architectural style, and if the two can be combined to provide sustainable buildings is cheaper and better.
It can describe the way in which research in terms of research philosophy that they take part, and the search strategy used and therefore the research tools used (and may be included) in order to achieve that goal - the goal search (s) - and trying to find a solution to this problem - the research questions. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the philosophy of research in relation to other philosophies, put the search strategy, including research methodology was adopted, and displays the search tool has been developed and used in order to achieve the goal.
Research will be conducted on the basis of qualitative research methods. Will combine the depth of vernacular architecture and the production of research-based information in certain cases. This approach is based on ethnographic data collection, which will work to find a particular culture environment, and how it reflects their culture in their buildings.
And methods of gathering information to become a reflective journal, the study of literature, articles and analysis of documents and materials.
8.0 Literature review
In practice, many scientists, when they talk about slang, meaning that age, in rural areas, and local levels. But this definition, when it set an important part of the world average, built, and also a lot of leaves outside. No vernacular architecture now? Are all the history? Are there any vernacular architecture in the city? What about the stores and warehouses, churches, warehouses, stables, workshops, and commercial areas and suburban areas, and other environments, a public place? Are not elements of natural language? - Dell Upton and John Michael Flash, Common Places: Read the result in American domestic architecture (1986)
Vernacular architecture is the most common term used to denote, and the tribes of farmers, indigenous, and traditional architecture. . . It can distinguish between the formal architecture, the design engineer, engineering, architectural vernacular, and between this and what can be called the People's Architecture. - Paul Oliver, Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture in the world (1997)
(1997), when we isolate from the world, many ignore the vernacular architecture and name it, we have prepared for analysis. In the long marks the transition from unknown to known. - Henry Glassie, Vernacular Architecture (2000)
From the Latin "vernaculus" means mother. Vernacular architecture is when all the exhibits the standards applicable to 'the original context, "meaning that it can be accepted and recognized in any given society through the application of some special techniques, materials, and methods and social systems.
"Slang" a term that referred to as a "way of expression group or category" (Dictionary, 2002). This is a group / class can be kind of like people, buildings and very different patterns of expression I mean, how it seems to us, and this expression pattern is different for each group or category.
The language used and the mode of expression a group of people and "slang" for the first time to define the language in England in 1839. Refers to the colloquial dialect of the region or country and not the intellectual language and literature, or foreign. He worked in the native language and then intermittently, and receive a wider application in the 1950s (Oliver, 1997). Then came the idea in the history of architecture and mode of expression for a particular class of architecture.
Architecture researchers are trying to crystallize the idea of ââ‚¬â€¹ââ‚¬â€¹vernacular slang in different ways. Some have tried to give a specific definition in order to distinguish between the vernacular architecture of other types of architecture. There are also some definitions, which primarily features the characteristics of vernacular architecture.
We can mention the most important is the definition and description of the basic characteristics or for the purpose of vernacular architecture. With the help of this information in a combination of the basic characteristics can be written in colloquial definition of architecture as "vernacular architecture refers to the built form has been built from local materials using the technology available in the technical and designed to meet the needs of ordinary people in their time and place "
Vernacular architecture concepts developed and used for centuries by various civilizations throughout the world through trial and error, and therefore the different architectural styles, and based on local conditions. Vernacular architecture in all parts of the world is rich with ancient techniques and indigenous peoples at the beginning used to protect themselves from different weather conditions. Population survived this early in themselves by sheltering in a traditional building that has been tried throughout the ages. In the vernacular architecture, the solution is not only the climate problem, but also considered aesthetics, and function of the physical and social housing which is why design is so different in all parts of Africa. Generation to generation, provided a comfortable life housing conditions as a result of the great architect. Examples can be drawn from Africa cross sections are very good that comes from the northern part of Africa, Libya to the southern part of Africa, and South Africa. Design has been selected or the housing structure at the beginning or settlements that things like the climate and the environment, culture, and materials. Their homes and seem to live in harmony with their environment, in other words they are sustainable.
Architect responsible for building modern, and can be regarded as the person responsible for the use of the construction industry of energy available is very rare. Architects more and more and be conscious of the problem, and make progress in the design concept "green" and sustainable. Which has a substantial interest in architecture and community development programs in areas of vernacular architecture. This has been reinstated as the need for architectural design that works well with the climate and environment, not against, and with it the need to create more sustainable buildings.
This awareness means that the new design and any renewal must be maintained. Vernacular architecture produced in the past built environment and the demands of those who responded to the destruction of the environment. This paper discusses the concept of how we can use the principles of vernacular architecture to create sustainability in building design vernacular search in Africa.
9.0 The presence of local architecture in northern Nigeria
Rooted in the vernacular architecture of the city in the United States since the century old city on 15. The most remarkable that the Hausa city company also organizes a row. Architecture, especially in the mud, and fortified with oil palm. Artisan system development structure using the structure of clay to the limit, also developed the practice of using abstract art decoration.
Various construction materials, which reflects the location and status, and all kinds of modern materials including concrete, stone, glass, marble, granite and other steel products are usually available. For people in traditional areas and rural areas, and the poor, the most common materials used in construction are of clay or mud.
And building construction in the form of mud dry mass of the sun, and wattle and daub, or using the building blocks are called private tubali armed with palm fronds.
9.1 Architecture and the local model
According to the harmony (2000) in various forms of architectural structure is a complex phenomenon and no explanation, it is not enough. All explanations are possible, however, the differences in people, a subject with a very different attitude, and ambition to respond to a variety of natural environments, as it deems appropriate.
In the context of vernacular architecture, this answer varies from one place to another due to changes and differences in the interaction between social factors and culture, ritual, and economic and physical. This may be the factors and responses to change, but gradually even in the same place over time, but the lack of rapid social and cultural change.
People who live in cold climate warming wood burning themselves or dispose of the membership. Can be used and those who live in hot climates, moist air currents and to minimize the effects of moisture. Children who live in areas with hot climate, dry house with a high thermal mass due to the large difference in temperature between day and night, and humidity is very low. What they have in common, and they all have chosen the correct form, using local building materials, and they are to overcome the negative effects of weather conditions. Buildings must be protected from bad weather, for example in areas with high precipitation, and brick clay, must restore almost every year with a few thin clay plaster, to protect and preserve the brick.
Culture also has a significant impact on the emergence of vernacular buildings. North often adorn the building, according to local customs and beliefs, as shown in Figure 2. With the way that the use of the sanctuary, is a substantial effect on the form of construction. Family size, which shared space, and how they provide food and nutrition, and how people interact and many other cultural considerations will affect the area and size of housing. Furnishings are in accordance with their customs and beliefs of others to express their faith by the decoration and others are not. North of the influence of Islamic architecture and Egypt.
10.0 of local architecture and environment
Slang is not sustainable, and will not reduce local resource if done correctly. If it is not sustainable, and they are not suitable for the local context, and can not be colloquial. Oliver, in housing (2003), and claims that "vernacular architecture affected by different aspects of human behavior and the environment, leading to different forms of construction of almost every different context; neighboring village even though it might have a different approach to build and use of their home, although they may initially appear the same. "Despite these differences, every building is subject to the same laws of physics, which shows that vernacular architecture is not lost, and Frank Lloyd Wright showed in the definition vernacular architecture, and with the great similarities in the structure. Vernacular can be seen everywhere in the world in different forms as affected by the people, culture, climate and materials.
Local environment and construction materials can be prepared, administered by a lot of vernacular architecture. Since northern Nigeria has two types of climate, the Mediterranean and desert climate, and architecture cost near-different from the rural areas. Architectural materials, for example, identifying and using mostly clay, wood, stone grass in parts of northern Nigeria in the mud while the interior. A mud brick wall of dried mud bricks and then plastered. Usually filled with mud roof reinforced with wood or palm and then plastered with clay because heat (p2101 Oliver 1997). In northern Nigeria because of the mud, and existing and local sources, this is because this is the same building materials.
Vernacular architecture reflects the use of local materials and get the tools and skills to make them. Whether nomadic or settled, such as residential or economic development will remain largely dependent on climate, soil, plants, seasons and other natural resources and phenomena. In areas rich in trees and wooden vernacular, while the area is not much wood could use mud or stone.
It is believed that traditional materials and techniques for a while, "substandard", or "second class", while modern materials and civilized, or a symbol of wealth. Paul Oliver in (built to meet the needs of) show that "vernacular architecture suffer from apathy and ignorance of history or social value, are assigned a low status housing", and so few people have seen their home natural low status.
Find show that people will build what they believe, and turn them back in the native language, and look more modern architecture and superior. Any change in perception has the potential to revive interest in vernacular architecture. This perception may be due to missionaries and colonial, built in a style that reflects the wealth and power. Local population and became convinced that the availability and cost of imported materials is a symbol of wealth, and that the vernacular style of the original materials are under the required level. So far, vernacular materials last longer if used properly. May be appropriate for the work of hay will last up to 25 years, and walls built of mud bricks can be up to 70 years or more.
Need to focus on Africa of the vernacular style, with modern materials used in the campaign when you need to get as much or more stable structure. There is a need to seek to understand the different soil conditions, and comes with pregnancy accounts for pole structures, mud bricks. Like many African countries struggling to solve housing problems, vernacular architecture can be an answer for building materials and proved to be expensive.
11.0 Sustainability and local architecture
According Mbina (2006), and development as a human activity is a deliberate attempt by man to improve his living conditions through the use of innovative resources and smart, either the transformation of human, material and financial backwardness of the society from the state a more prosperous good life. If this is true, and can be sustainable architecture Africa? The answer is positive, but it occurs, must be about four major issues are adequately addressed because they seem to create trouble for the development as follows:
11.1 Technology and Building Materials
African housing technologies and techniques are very low and so far back behind their foreign counterparts. This technology to be viable and acceptable, there must be improvement in the context of technological progress 21. History has shown the importance and effectiveness of local building materials such as stone and mud / earth, and organic products (Jolaoso 2006). This has been used in construction work in the early centuries in places like Egypt and South Africa. Have been served at a reasonable cost relative. Thus, this provides a convenient platform for further research that can be taken into account as they related to the form of vernacular architecture, shape, size, and style.
11.2 African attitudes towards the local architecture
There seems to be a relatively low position, much of Africa towards the acceptance of vernacular architecture. In fact, there is a screen "aesthetic" of African architecture and some African and foreign audiences. It is argued here that, whatever disadvantages may be felt in this context, can be turned to advantage if a complete perspective of the environment and to create a full intellectualisation not to be known only on the screen, but can be systematically ignored.
One reason that some African intellectuals is not like that vernacular architecture is the slang and not harmful to the Amour propre, but they have lost, in fact a culture of intimacy that allows them to see immediately the importance of many of the vernacular architecture, and to focus on the intellect, in the same time, for any reason, and not interested to develop the ability to "estimate" through intellectualisation (Bokannen 2000).
They are relatively cheap to develop sustainable vernacular architecture. Although the license, and developers need government assistance through long-term loans to support large utilities, and pay back over a long period of time (10-25 years), without any unnecessary trouble.
11.4 climatic conditions
Climatic conditions play an important role in influencing the shape and style and form in architecture. Some vernacular builders pay little attention when building a house because of the lack of government attention qualifying standards.
Vernacular architecture there for several centuries, has grown over the years through trial and error. Has been approved as this knowledge from generation to generation and has been tried and tested over the years. It has survived several vernacular structures of all types of extreme weather conditions. Can not be a common vernacular house built using clay has a life expectancy of more than 70 years. Now, with the use of current knowledge of the earth or mud as a building material, building age is far more than 70 years. Vernacular architecture once the pride and heritage to the races and different cultures in Africa, but as a result of imperialism be seen as lower status homes by those who are capable of modern building materials. This study shows how Africa has come in the architecture, and where he will.
Emerging challenges of sustainability requires a revolution in design philosophy, strategies, techniques and methods of building construction, and then look back on vernacular architecture, to see how we can build sustainable buildings