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Basically every human being has comes up with his own background, which is refereed as his “Cultural Background”, according to which he spends his whole. We are well cognizant with the fact that, every country has its own culture, in which many traditional cultures lives. Every person or community has it’s possess cultures. The system of an individual culture is significantly differs from the other cultures. A culture describes a thing as good for the people, but the other cultural attributes did not accept that thing as good enough. However there are some methods or techniques in a culture, that quantify with other culture as well, but that is also in two different senses, or have two different assumptions.
When a person from a different cultural background meets up, interacts, communicates or deals with the person of any other cultural background the scenario is under the regime of “Cross-Cultural Management”.
An Overview Of Dancom Company:
A well renowned Danish Company “DANCOM”, which leads in some area of its business world wide, covers significant cultural deviation in its daily interactions since it has subsidiaries having more than 20,000 employees in more than hundred countries world wide. In 1993 Dancom started its services as a sales office in Russia. Nowadays the company has being operating a production unit, a sales office and two branch offices in different cities of the Russia (Hoque, 1999). Employees from different cultural background (Danes and Russian), and different gender, age, and department affiliation were acquired.
Middle managers and specialist of the Dancom forms two major groups, which are called “insiders” and “outsiders”. Those who are members of the organization are called “insiders” and those who are not really being the part of the company are called “outsiders”.
Insider formed the atmosphere of the company friendly. They are very much fulfilled with and conceited of working for Dencom, closely suppose them as an asset of the company; they called it as “their company”. Most of them referred as the internal cultural representatives defining it peaceful, friendly and calm. They recognize the organizational achievements and collapse as their personal achievements and collapse, and some of them refer to Dancom as precious part of their life.
Insiders are disgruntled and even upset with the formalization of the communiqué flow and procedure upto in the company. They highly encouraging informal relations with their managers because they think that this action will increase the level of unity in the Dancom in general and their competence in particular. On of the Russian Sales Engineers depicts the early days in the company like this “There was a time at the very beginning when we worked in the apartment of my Danish boss, there was no office space yet. It was the best time; we were all so close to each other!”. This quotation verifies the previous environment which seems close relationships and friendship are very much appreciated in the Russian context (Hoque, 1999). As insiders also pointed out, that Russian does not encompass any respect for any other’s private space. Their propensity to be rather disturbing can be associated, among other factors, with the living standards in the mir (the communal village) and in the overcrowded communal apartments. The mentality developed in mir briefly describes the harmony and loyalty of the Russian’s employees among others employees. Russians does not have any individual curiosity and precedence for those groups. They always tried to associate and feel right in a group and the confrontations in between them seem to be an adversity. Oblonsky has elaborated on this matter in such an ultimate term by suggesting about the “antipersonnel attitude” at the price of group life. He précis its essence as ‘rejecting even a relative independence of a person’.
This destructive anti-individualism has two features in it: one is leveling psychology i.e. pseudo-egalitarianism and the other is a compulsive pseudo-collectivism. These are based on a ‘dramatically anti-personal stereotype of “all as one”, implying situations where, instead of the determination of the individual, he is get into a sectarian joint activity, where he has no personal opinion affects on the decisions. The individual is victimized, forfeited in an offensive idea of conformism and unity.
The expression of the insiders can also be interpreted in the luminosity of the fact the Russian working atmosphere in general words is relationship-oriented, and that this relationship orientation is key point for the Russians managers. A probable orientation for this finding could be ascribed to the fact that formulization is association with a huge number of rules, regulations and procedures and that Russian employees always known as the peoples who abhors the procedures.
Closer relations with the foreign colleagues results in the fact that insiders have less propensity to evaluate their colleagues than outsiders, and cultural values of their nationality. They assert that they do not differentiate between the Russians and Danes in the organization, but make a clear division between “Danes working in Russia” and “Danes in Headquarters”. “Local Danes” are perceived as element of the general “Dancom nation” in the Russian office, where in the headquarters Danes are perceived as foreigners. Insiders are self-motivated in their work and generally work for long hours at the organization. They have casual relationship with each other and also with the Danish supervisors outside work and aptly stay more together at the internal social event of the organization.
Outsiders, in comparison, interpret unity as a façade and phony fact and mention “conflicts, hidden streams and disagreements”. Some of the outsiders clearly relate the existing unity to the presence Danes in the organization. As recorded by an IT specialist of the organization “Who knows it would be if the Danes were not here…Maybe we would have many open conflicts. But it is not good to behave rudely in front of the foreigners”.
The newcomers who recently joined the organization belong to outsider group feels ‘mislaid and forlorn’ in spite of working around the office, ritual commenced by the administration and meant for facilitating the socialization procedure. They refer to the stance of the other employees as ‘indifferent and polite”, a specialist of Technical Support Department say: ‘if you need and ask for it, you will probably get it, but do not expect that somebody will come up to you and ask whether you need help”.
However outsiders perceive the working environment of the Dancom as nonviolent but unresponsive. Some of them really think that they working in the Dancom for money and do not really found themselves as a part of the organization (Englewood Cliffs). Outsiders are the employees whose preliminary anticipations are not congregate. They notified their experiencing annoyance, disappointment and aggravation, as founded underneath:
“The needs of goals of the company and my own goals are two different worlds”.
(Specialists in Marketing Department)
I feel disappointed from a professional point of view. Everyday routine does not leave enough time for self-education.
(Specialists in Production Department)
I was rather disappointed from a professional point of view when I started working for Dancom. Danes does not apply advanced IT technologies in Russia. In other social divisions and in the headquarters they use them, they pay attention to this, they also have resources. Here they don’t.
(Specialists in Information Technology Department)
An additional feature which differentiates the phenomena of inclusion/ exclusion or insiders/ outsiders is associated to the language dissimilarity. Russians, who are not capable in communicating in English language, majority of them correlates with the outsiders group. They often suffer exclusion from organization or limitation in their access to the information and interpretations of organizational occasions and from the unofficially verbal communication streams. Since part of the officially written announcements like letters, orders, memos, etc. is bilingual (Russian-English), those Russians who have not enough knowledge of English language face difficulties, mostly in oral communication with the Danish colleagues or supervisor but also with written information which is not accessible in Russia. Non-English-Knowledgeable Russian does not perceive them as part of the entire organization, as a member of a worldwide extended organization.
BENEFITS OF DIVERSIDIED CULTURAL AT WORKPLACE:
Let’s see the same fact from an organization’s perspective, so we can say that cross culturing is a good thing because when people are getting together in a congenial environment from a different culture and society then they must have different set of minds as well. As per a theory, the individuals from America are very good to capture the physiology of the person in an offense, adulation is there in their nature, while the individuals from Britain always talk to the point, they do not like to indulge in any kind of adulation before criticism like the Americans do.
There are a number of elements which can influence on the cross cultural at the workplace:
Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO), are the laws which guarantee all the people have the right to apply and be evaluated for employment, regardless of their race, color, sex, national origin, religion, age or disability. This means that the evaluation process in the organization will be transparent enough that it will evaluate the incumbents with respect to their qualification, skills and capacity of work rather than their race, color, sex and all the things mentioned earlier. Organizations should be concerned with the work rather the person who is doing the work; if organizations think in the same manner, it can be made sure that the conflict in workplace due to cross culturing will vanish from the society which is defiantly a positive sign (Balthazar, 1999).
An organization is more productive if it has people of different mind set, qualifications, and skills and from different cultures. Let’s say a person who belongs to Asia has exceptional writing skills and on the contrary a person who belongs to Britain has excellent communication skills, if they both work together then they can make a difference which is fruitful for them and equally beneficial for the organization. Apart from the above mentioned example there are a number of benefits in workplace diversity like:
Exchange of different ideas
Different skills works together
Accomplishment of goals will be tranquil.
Helps in Decision making.
Formation of a congenial and friendly environment.
After having a cursory glance over the above mentioned matter we can surely get an idea that cross culture in the workplace will leave a positive impact on the organization and will enhance the motivation and moral among the employees. It makes an unbreakable chain between the employees and the organization that the employees of the organization are willing to give their 100 percent and in the result of their efforts the organization will enrich them by rewarding them intrinsically and extrinsically.
SOME THREATS OF CROSS CULTURALIZATION AT WORKPLACE
As we are cognizant with the fact that every picture has two sides, if the same implies on workplace cross culturalization, then there are some disadvantages of the same as well. Many authors and writers have some point of view regarding the negative aspects of workplace cross culture. Let’s read them in an appropriate manner that how an element of cross culturlization creates conflict among the team.
Conflicts Due to Race & Ethnicity:
Racial diversity was associated with higher level of emotional conflict in teams; continuous harassment is also an emotional conflict. The United States suggested that increasing racial diversity in predominantly white communities led to increased levels of racial conflict.(Pelled, Eisenhardt, & Xin (1999) found that racial discrimination was associated with higher levels of emotional conflict in teams.
Educational and cultural Background:
Educational background is useful in one’s job and it will play a vital role to create conflict in the teams if the organization experiences greater diversity in it. Jehn, Chadwick, and Thatcher found that when team members are directed in teams with difference in educational background then they will perceive greater amount of conflict in the group. If the educational background conflict persist in the teams then to provide a meaningful decision is a bit difficult because there may be a lack of understanding and diversified level of thinking are not matched among team members. Definitely the communication skills, correspondence skills, interpersonal and problem solving skills of a qualified team member are much more as compared to a less qualified team member.
MANAGEMENT THEROY TO ELIMINATE THE CROSS CULTURAL CONFLICT:
There are a number of theories of management, which pertains with the cross cultural or diversity management, and it is assumed that, if the same taken into consideration than it will eradicate the adverse effects of the cross culturlization. Aught, the Equity theory of management is a best tool which can condense the threat of such act and definitely it also halts this recidivism.
According to the equity theory of management, there should no biasness in the hiring as well as in the promotion process. It has been observed that a number of hiring or promotions decision was totally illegal and against the litigation. We have seen that allegation is been apply on the human resources department (Balthazar, 1999).
Inequity at the workplace intervene between the employee and his performance, which eventually suppressed a person to not give his hundred percent to the organization. I think the threats of cross cultural management can be abate, if the same theory implies. The theory also divert our intentions towards some other policies to eliminate this trounce completely.
POLICIES TO ELIMINATE CROSS CULTURLIZATION’S THREATS.
The local education should be liberal and must include subjects like human rights and civil which leaves a positive impact on the children’s mind.
Law and order system needs a critical review to ensure quick justices.
Religious leaders must take a step to set the minds of the peoples to eliminate issue based on cast and racial discrimination prevailing in the society.
Critical review and verification must be there to ensure the merit base hiring and Government should take decisions to increase employment for the minorities and for other ignoring communities.
Local NGO’s and government institution must be encouraged to arrange training and educational program to eliminate racial discrimination.
Cross Cultural management is about full utilization of people with different backgrounds, skills, qualifications, cultures and experiences. Effective cross cultural management strategy has a positive effect on cost reduction, creativity, problem solving, and organizational flexibility and eliminate discrimination from the society and helps to motivate the employees with in the organization to excrete out the maximum from them.
Hoque, K & Noon, M (1999) Racial Discrimination in speculative applications: new optimism six years on? Human Resource Management Journal, Vol 9:3
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Organizational Behavior (pp. 190-222)...
Steven Kopin “Organization Behaviors” (Chapters Groups and Teams)
Balthazar, Carol. “Career Futures. Winter 1991. Disillusioned with the Decade of Diversity”.