Open public space is a free space, in most cases at least, and caters to all people of different background. The open public spaces in the city are a representation of the people's attitude, ideas and beliefs. They play a host to wide array of activities and act as platform where people perform their daily schedules.
"You are in the midst of a crowd of people meandering through lively streets, alleys and open piazzas. On all sides are stores, cinemas and cafes, in vivid buildings with dazzling signs,' around you are colourful stalls and push carts, fountain and trees. There is a cacophony of sound enchanting from all directions; there are mime artists and sired performers. It's chaotic, vibrant and loud. Where are vats," You are in public space."- JON JERDE (Shamkuwar, 2012)
Â People are the soul of the city and public spaces serve as nodes in the city, where people gather, and celebrate the goodness of life. Public places have always been a part of human civilization. It is a road joining two important destinations, a vibrant street developed along a linkage, a temple square or even a heritage site which aspire people. (Shamkuwar, 2012)Â
The Oxford dictionary defines the term 'public' as: of or concerning the people as a whole; representing, done by, or for the people; open to or shared by the people; open to general observation, done or existing in public.
The open public space should be a social space that accessible to all, regardless of gender, age or socio-economic level. Public places become important as they create a visual communication between several persons who visit it. Any public space has three characteristics: physical, social and cultural. To make a successful city, it should provide a sense of place that strengthens community identity and community pride. This improves community relation and reduces feeling of alienation while creating a place for all types of people to congregate. Open public are an improvement part of the city's urban fabric. These spaces are the breathing spaces in a city's urban fabric.
How do define the open public spaces in urban context and what are the different parameters to make public spaces successful for the city?
1.2 NEED IDENTIFICATION
Open public spaces not only form the image of city and the way it is perceived but also become places where people interact under a collective identity. With the emergence of constant degradation of the quality of open public spaces emerges the necessity to understand why open public spaces are not able to fulfil its role in our society. The open public spaces aid the betterment of human life in today's hectic life. Thus there is a requirement of studying this topic so as to realize the importance or the need of development of humanity.
1.3 SCOPE OF STUDY
This paper has tried to narrow its scope. The study will undertake a critical visual and physical survey of various open public spaces in Delhi to evaluate the various aspect governing their design, function and location.
Initial concern will be based on the studying the open public spaces around the world and compare and contrast it with the open public spaces in the New Delhi.
The understanding of urban open space will need to take in account its Physical, social and symbolic dimension simultaneously.
The study is not limited to one or two case studies, but a number of relevant examples are selected such as public spaces around cinema halls, community centres, landmarks, parks etc......
The study will also deal with the performance of various functions to be carried out by open public spaces in term of design and location.
The study will also deal with a number of issues related to open public spaces relevant in Indian context like:
This study of dissertation is focus on urban open public spaces in contemporary context only.
The term open public spaces have wide range. Hence it would be essential to narrow down the fields and deal with specific array of open spaces.
Due to complexity of the topic the study will be limited to specific delineation of the examples.
Due to the limitation of the time the case studies are done to extent to explain the related topic in the research.
Author has also depended on secondary and even tertiary sources of information, for research material.
This study based on the personal observations, photographs and literature review.
1.5 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:-
A sequence of steps has been taken up in order to achieve the objectives.
The first step was to analysis the topic and defines what direction this dissertation takes, and what the author wants to come up with at the end of it, the end result may be documentation, a detailed analysis, or a set of solution.
This involves data collection, reading and understanding literature to the nature of open spaces, the role of open spaces in the cities. Then put the collected data into systematic representation of data.
INFORMATION FROM SECONDARY SOURCES:
This involves the opinion of various architects, ideas about what is happening in the world and exposure to other related issues.
INTERACTION WITH EXPERTS (GUIDE, COORDINATORS):
Identifying issues to be discussed, discussion on various issues and analysing their opinion.
METHODOLOGY FOR CASE STUDIES:
Selection of case studies urban city between the buildings. Each case study will be conducted under following aspects-
Activities and users
Analysis and conclusion
Collection of information about case study, basic plan and maps, under following categories -
- Site surrounding areas
- Site boundaries
- Landmarks and contours
- Pedestrian and vehicular paths
1.6 SELECTION CRITERIA FOR CASE STUDY AND ANALYSIS:-
Places will be identified for case studies based on their support of activities as well as physical forms. They will be studied through personal observations, relevant literature and discussions. The author has researched material on the topic of urban open public spaces with a western context and Indian context. The author has used few case studies and few dissertation books as her primary sources of information.
Analysis of the collected data will result in the identification of architectural variable which define the usability of open spaces and thus will help in identifying means and measures which will help in integrating these open spaces. The case studies include studying maps of the area, surroundings, as well as preparing figure ground diagrams, as well as discussions and interviews with the inhabitants. A correlation has to be made between all this information.
Selection of the case study based on the people's activities. People gather in leisure. Places which are use for hangout normally.
Primary case study:
Trafalgar Square in London
Primary case study:
Lodi garden, New Delhi
Central park, Connaught place
Open space around PRIYA CINEMA , VASANT VIHAR
Community centre, NEW FRIENDS COLONY
2. CHAPTER TWO
PUBLIC SPACES IN HISTORY
Open urban public spaces have been host to many political, social and economic activities throughout history. From the early days of the agoraÂ in Greece where bustling trade occurred to theÂ Place Royale in ParisÂ where political revolution took place, public space has been at the core of many cities' most important happenings.Â The core functions of public space have the capacity to radically change with the passing of time. The squares and streets of cities have historically been closely tied to markets and commerce but worrying trends of serving business instead of community are emerging.Â Public space offers elements that embellish a city's character. (http://www.urbanspaceinitiative.com/historical-overview)
2.1 The story of public spaces historical context:-
Every community had a place of assembly where people gathered to discuss their common affairs, resolve disputes and celebrate festivals. TheÂ agoraeÂ were the first spaces that were of major importance as initial blueprints for public spaces within western cities. The Greek public and traders used them heavily. A symbiotic link existed between these spaces and the urban life of ancient Greece. Ancient Greece was the golden age of public participation, where the democratic processes allowed citizen to participate activity in politics and governance. The Agora was at once a market place and a ground for political and intellectual debate. The architecture of the city state then was an expression of community and self determination that centred on the agora. One major function of anÂ agoraÂ was as a marketplace where many varied items could have been purchased. Food, materials, flowers and technology were all for sale. It was also a space for political debate. The political and cultural dynamics that existed in Greece at this time were focused on democracy. This created a strong bond with theÂ agoraÂ as it was the open-air arena for debate and discussion. Political discussions took place through open-air meetings, while during leisure time the local people of a settlement would gather and use theÂ agoraÂ to socialise.
TheÂ forum was the centre of public life not merely for the city of Rome but for the entire Roman Empire. The forumÂ as a ''name given to an open square surrounded by open buildings, to market-places and to places where business of all sorts was carried on''. This illustrates similarity to the GreekÂ agorae. The buildings that surrounded the Roman forum included theÂ lacus curtiusÂ (law court), tabernae veteresÂ (old shops) and theÂ basilica semproniaÂ (one of the many temples). The space in the middle of the square was kept free from obstructions while a large number of monuments were placed at the plaza's edges. The empty central space allowed theatre and gladiator battles to take place. Political debates and the Roman senate were also features of the RomanÂ forum. There were raised walkways and the public could pay for positions to view such activities. The number of streets that entered the Roman forumÂ was limited to avoid detracting from the sense of enclosure.
Medieval Europe: town squares and plazas:
Life in early middle ages centred on the church. At a central position in the walled town was the cathedral square, large enough for the townspeople to gather on festival occasions. The square was a stage for religious ritual and drama, comedies and moral plays, public execution and daily markets. The 'squares' in these organic towns were anything but square. They usually occurred at the intersection of streets and were triangular or circular or many sided. Rob Krier in urban space classified them according to their shape and spatial character. The writings of Camillo Sitte, Rob Krier and others led to a revival of interest in the forms and character of medieval urban space. They were modest and human in scale, irregular in shape and enclosed by a continuous edge of built form accentuated by the rich textures of walls and floors cape. Experienced through the twists and turns of the streets that led to them, they provided a rich visual experience.(Krier, 1979) Designers like Gordon Cullen concentrated on the aesthetic character of these squares and their love for the traditional was often imperfectly understood, leading to the recreation of old fashioned town squares in new towns or quaint little piazzas within air conditioned malls that captured the appearance of the place but not its spirit.
Medieval cities grew and proposed due to trade and the town began to establish a sort of civic identity. The Town Square of northern Europe, with the town hall and other municipal buildings, the alms-house and hospital and sometimes the church as well, was the core of the city. The best examples of public place were the piazzas and campos of Italy. Piazzas were meeting places and markets, each the centre of community life for their districts, with schools, libraries, guildhalls, houses and a church. Since the provision of water was collective function of the town council, many of the public squares had fountains. The public fountains were a work of art that looked beautiful as well as quenched thirst. People drew together to collect water, gossip and exchange news.
Piazzas San Marco, an open space in front of the church of St. Marks formed the core of the city of Venice. The piazza took form in the 12th century as market stalls set up there. The buildings that enclose it - the Doge's place, pilgrim's hostelry, the procurator's hall, and the library were products of an urban growth that lasted over hundreds of years. Gradually the livestock and meat markets gave way to restaurants, cafes, shops and places. Trading cities like Genoa, dominated by powerful merchant clans had clan piazzas, where members of a family clustered around a family square that was the centre of their community life. Piazzas had clan- sponsored churches, the loggias where the men of the family met.
In old quarters of European cities today, the plazas and piazzas are still charmingly lively places, the scene of many meeting, conversation and filtration. Some cities have pedestrianized this district, in attempt to preserve both their forms and social character.
Medieval India : courtyard and chowks:
Like the church in medieval Europe temple and mosques formed the focus of communal life in Indian cities. The courtyard of main mosque was one of the largest open congregational spaces in the urban fabric. The men of the city would gather here for Friday prayer and wherever a large number of people gathered, daily and weekly markets thrived. The bazaar street formed the main commercial spine. It grew along major movement routes through the city. Many Islamic cities had ground or maidan that were originally at the edge of the town, or even outside the city walls. It served as parade ground and open air gathering space on feast days. Sometimes it was integrated into the main city and served as a forecourt to the palace and mosque.
While the mosque the maidan and the bazaars were the primary open public place of the city; they were not the sort of civic nucleus that characterised the cities of the west. Urban space was largely decentralized, there was no notion of a single 'core' or heart; instead there was a hierarchy of graded open spaces. The city of Lucknow had a distinct urban spaces structure punctuated by 'baghs' or gardens along major routes to the city and on the banks of the river Gomti; 'ganjs' which commercial spines were with houses on the upper level and imambara complexes. The imambara were theatres of mourning of the occasion of muharram in predominantly Shia Luckhnow and were the most significant open public spaces of the city.
People in India traditionally lived together based on their caste, religion and occupation. For example, the Brahmins or priest class would live nearest to the temple, with their houses along a particular street. The untouchable lived in an entirely different section of the town and their paths rarely crossed. Even when they went down to the rivers, different areas were the preserves of different castes. Moreover, there were so many sub castes!
In the wall city of Ahmedabad, the residential streets were called 'pols'(the pol was actually the gate that closed off the street) and often ended in enclosed chowks where children played. The houses lining the street had performs and steps facing the street called otlas where people sat and watched the street scene, so the street itself was a community space. Then there was the neighbourhood well or water tank, where the women could get together and exchange news and gossip. Chowks were formed at intersections of' 'pols' and they had 'chhabutras'or bird feeders to draw nature into the street, since the street itself was very narrow and the chowks too small to have trees. Larger chowks were formed where residential streets intersected with market streets. Shops were on the ground floor and houses on the first. Diversity of use meant chowks were used extensively both for community and commerce.
The largest and most important market squares occurred along the primary movement arteries; adjoining temples, forts and mosques, or at the entrance gates to cities, which were used by surrounding villages to sell livestock and grain and also as a parking place for animals. For cities on the river's edge like Banaras, the waterfront had a unique ritualistic and religious significance. The devout went down to the Ghats at dawn for their morning dip and prayers, so did the sellers of the paraphernalia required for the puja's, the priests, beggars, onlookers.
Open spaces in traditional cities have exuberances and vitality due to the variety of activates sights, sounds and smells that infuse them. At each level of their hierarchy, they responded in physical form and character to the culture and life of the people who used them.
Wide open spaces:
The baroque period was one of glorious urban visions. Baron Haussmann transformed the medieval Paris of narrow twisting streets and enclosed squares, to the Paris of tree lined avenues and boulevards we know today. His grand design of straight and diagonal roads, symmetrically laid out and geometrically shaped squares, vistas and monuments allowed for unimpeded traffic(at that time horses and carriages) and secured the city from civil rebellion- the width of the roads would prevent the formation of barricades.
Baroque and classical design principles inspired the design of L'Enfants' Washington and Lutyen's New Delhi. The designers of these elegant cities tended to subordinate urban functions to form, human interaction to traffic flow. Over time, many of these spaces in spite of their vastness of scale, their straightness and uncompromising geometry allowed a variety of activities to humanise them. On summer days you can see groups of people spend time, play in the India gate lawns and on pleasant evening the India gate lawns are full of ice-cream vendors, balloons, and picnickers.
In the first half of the 20TH century, extravagantly scaled for military display were designed for the fascist of Germany and Italy. In Rome, a huge open space was carved out from the piazza Venezia right down to the coliseum.
Communist countries too needed spaces for mass assembly, since ritual gatherings of the people in the centre of the city were thought to be essential to a 'peoples' government. Huge voids were carved out of the historic cores of cities like St. Petersburg and Berlin. Moscow's Red Square was the prime model of the socialist square, recreated in communist countries all over the world. Beijing's Tiananmen Square, for examples in front of the old Imperial City, was where Mao proclaimed to the people the establishment of the People's Republic.
(Revolution cannot really be called a function of open public arenas, but most popular revolts were sparked of in the open public spaces of the city. Public Demonstration consisted of bringing to the notice of people who passes through streets and public places the issues that they might otherwise be unaware of or avoid. Ideally, public place is a forum where anyone can speak and someone will listen.)
The British brought to India the idea of urban spaces as places for recreation and leisure. The towns they built in the cool and beautiful hills were modelled on the idyllic English town. The Shimla mall was a pedestrian street, which had the town hall, the church, the cinema theatre, hotels and restaurants. The mall and the ridge were very sociable places, for meeting, strolling and talking. There was even a interaction point where ladies exchanged gossip and interact after the church. (S., 1999)
There were provisions for social and recreational places in the bigger cities like Bombay and Kolkata. Both cities have a large central maidan, a green spaces for hangout, sports and recreation. Bombay has a wonderful network of public buildings and open public spaces. Even Delhi, a city designed as a statement of imperial power and grandeur, with more ceremonial spaces than public ones, had the central lawns of Connaught place where a band used to play and people could get together.
Modernism and the erosion of public spaces:
Most urban development in the 20th century was inspired by the tenest of modernism. Corbusier detested untidy, cluttered organic cities and his vision for the new city- the Radiant City did away with their streets and squares in favour of vehicular roads and tower block, with green strips for open spaces. He provided Chandigarh with a civic centre.
The advent of the automobile, symbol of the modern age, was the chief reason for the decline of the public realm. The parking lot was the new function of the open spaces, or it consisted of left over bits of land and unusable green patches. The absence of places for human activity, made the city sterile and lacking in character and vitality. Modern communication techniques meant that they lost many of their earlier functions. One no longer was required to go down to the neighbourhood market or square for news and options. In the 60's, writers like Jane Jacobs made a case for, the lively cultural and social life that streets and public places could offer. In the book death and life of great American places author described the "intricate ballet" that was created out of encounters and activities on city streets. William H. Whyte observed "the social life in small urban spaces" the corporate plazas that had become important public places in New York. A development in the 20th century American city the 'corporate plaza' was given public use by private corporations. The city of New York offers incentives to builders who provide plazas. While a few of them are good social places, used by office workers and pedestrians many are cold hard-edges spaces with no sitting space.
The writings of Jacob and Whyte focused attention on the pleasures of urban life, of sharing spaces with strangers, of chance encounter and meetings.
The significance of public spaces:
The brief outline of public spaces through history shows that not just piazzas but all public spaces are very good indicators of the social structure of the city. The fact that Agoras were closed to women was an indication of their status in Greek society. A public places is the best place to observe the relations between the different classes, races, religions and age groups that make up the present day urban community. Their architecture, function and most of all the activities varied with the culture, society and political situation of the period.
3. CHAPTER THREE
CITIES AND URBAN SPACES
Relation between open public spaces and cities
Looking at cities can give a special pleasure, however common place the sight may be. Like a piece of architecture, the city is a construction in space, but one of a vast scale, a thing perceived only in course of long spans of time. It is an amalgamation of different people with different aims, ideas, preferences, likes and dislikes. It is one of the most extremely flexible places, where anyone can do almost anything - an equalizer. (reshma, 2006)
Social life of open public spaces
The environment as communication
Activities and their effects on environment
Open - ended spaces
Open public spaces today
The parameters of successful public spaces
Important urban open public spaces were invariably either centrally located or along major movement and visual axis. Other were located at urban nodes or edges.
''The freedom with which a person can walk about and look around is a very useful guide to the civilized quality of an urban area.''
Sir Colin Buchanan. (Reshma, Study Of Major Urban Active Open Public Spaces, 2006)
It is important to ensure that we provide choice in access to different activities, resources, information and places for all sectors of community. By accessibility we mean that an open space should be physically and visually accessible to all, regardless of age, ability, background of income. A successful open space is easy to get to, and get through; it is visible both from a distance and up close.
A place should first and foremost be physically accessible. The success of a place depends on its location in the city and its connectivity to various transport systems. We observed that a good place can either be a destination or can lie in route to something or both. If the place is a destination, it is the important that the place be reached by wide variety of transport. If the place is in route then it should strengthen the continuity of movement from adjacent places. Sometimes a place is successful because it is both a destination and it lies in route to lot of places. An example of this is the India Gate. It is no doubt a destination place but lots of people simply visit it while going from one part of the city to another.
For a space to be used it should be visually accessible, that is the people need to see it. An open public space should be discernible from outside and each component should be visually linked to the other. It's because of this factor that most sunken courts in spite of good landscaping are hardly used. It is very important to keep people and activities at street level. An example where visibility of a place made a difference to the popularity of the place is Bryant Park in New York. Initially the entrance to the park was dark and narrow and kept people out. The same entrance when it was redesigned proved to be more inviting and open. The new entrance has kiosks that sell coffee and sandwiches, and the interior of the park is visible from the street. Accessibility does not only mean that the open public spaces should be reachable and visible, it also means that people have the freedom to use that space.
An open public space needs to be user friendly. It needs to provide comfort in terms of climate, physical activities and amenities. Any place must provide the opportunity to enjoy good weather and adequate protection from bad weather. Climate varies from place to place and so should open spaces in that climate.
A good example of this is Connaught Place. The covered corridor along the shops provides much needed shade during the summers. Planting trees is the simplest way of providing shade. The kind of trees to be planted is also very important. Placement of trees is also important because trees can cause visual barriers. Architectural features such as corridors, semi-covered spaces such as pergolas, etc. can also provide shade. Protection from sun can be provided by shadows of the surrounding structures. Ideally, sitting should be physically comfortable. It is more important, however that it be socially comfortable and also offer a wide range of choices. The sitting should also face an active area otherwise it will not be used. Other than benches and chairs, secondary seating in the form of steps, ledges should be provided. Steps in particular prove to be popular seating. It is imperative to make available, basic facilities like drinking water and toilets in any open public spaces.
Sociability is an important concern in the design of open public spaces. The degree and nature of social interaction depends on the scale of the place and the activities within it. Movement, group formation, density are closely related to the spatial organization of the space. The configurations of physical space can facilitate and encourage the possibility of meetings and encounters that enhance the vitality of public life. (Reshma, Dissertation, SPA library, New Delhi, 2006, p. 38)
Security is an important issue for the life of public places. People feel free to interact in an environment in which they feel safe. The number of women, children and elderly users is a good indication because they are the most vulnerable groups.
Perception of and behaviour in an open public space is intimately linked with its activities. Human activity brings about a noticeable difference to an environment. A place may be centrally located and prominent but it is not recognized as a public place without human activity to proclaim it. Even for adults, architectural features of a space, unless they are unique and obvious, are less memorable in themselves than vital activity that happens in it. People invariably collect where other people are; they sit in places where they can observe what is happening around them. Even when one comes to a park for solitary contemplation one prefers to sit, alone perhaps, but near to the scene of activity. Apart from making it more interesting, activity can also make place safer. Open public spaces host a wide range of things to do. Sitting, watching people walking, shopping, eating and drinking are common to most places. They may also have specialized activities such as games, sports, performances, concerts, festivals, public gatherings and demonstrations.
For activities to be pleasurable, they must happen in safe, clean and attractive environments that not only allow but also encourage them. Therefore we need an environment which is not simply well organized, but poetic and symbolic as well. It should speak of the individuals and their complex society, of their aspirations and their historical tradition, of the natural setting, and of complicated functions and movements of the city world. Such a sense of a place will in itself enhance very human activity that occurs there.
4. CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Types of open spaces
The term 'openÂ space' covers green space consisting of any vegetated land or structure, water, path or geological feature within and on the edges of settlements, and civic space consisting of squares, market places and other paved or hard landscaped areas with a civic function.
OpenÂ space may serve a range of functions and some areas, particularly informalÂ spaces, may not fit neatly into the typology. This should be tailored to fit local circumstances, and is usually most applicable to parks, green spacesÂ and woodland areas. Criteria linking population catchments to the size ofÂ differentÂ spacesÂ and sensible distance or time thresholds can be included, helping to ensure thatÂ spacesÂ of differentÂ types, functions and sizes are easily accessible to the communities they serve.
Public parks and gardens: Areas of land normally enclosed, designed, constructed, managed and maintained as a public park or garden. These may be owned or managed by community groups.
Private gardens or grounds: Areas of land normally enclosed and associated with a house or institution and reserved for private use.
Amenity green space: Landscaped areas providing visual amenity or separatingÂ differentÂ buildings or land uses for environmental, visual or safety reasons and used for a variety of informal or social activities such as sunbathing, picnics.
Play space for children and teenagers: Areas providing safe and accessible opportunities for children's play usually linked to housing areas.
Sports areas: Large and generally flat areas of grassland or specially designed surfaces, used primarily for designated sports (including playing fields, golf courses, tennis courts and bowling green's) and which are generally bookable.
Green corridors: Routes including canals, river corridors and old railway lines, linkingÂ differentÂ areas within a town or city as part of a designated and managed network and used for walking, cycling or horse riding, or linking towns and cities to their surrounding countryside or country parks. These may link greenÂ spacesÂ together.
Natural/semi-natural green spaces: Areas of undeveloped or previously developed land with residual natural habitats or which have been planted or colonised by vegetation and wildlife, including woodland and wetland areas.
Allotments and community growing spaces: Areas of land for growing fruit, vegetables and other plants, either in individual allotments or as a community activity.
Civic space: Squares, streets and waterfront promenades, predominantly of hard landscaping that provide a focus for pedestrian activity and can make connections for people and for wildlife.
Burial grounds: Includes churchyards and cemeteries.
4.2 Benefits or role of open public spaces in the urban cities:
Open spaces as the lung of the city: Vegetation traps the particulate matter airborne pollutants, leaves can effectively absorb ozone and carbon dioxide, and all plants consume carbon dioxide.
Reduction of Flood Risks: The open space will act to reduce the flood debit and increase the groundwater reservoir.
Climate Change: Several studies in big cities throughout the world have shown the importance of open spaces and vegetation areas in maintaining the climate stability. These open spaces are important for reducing glare, maintaining cooler air temperatures, and reducing heat load on buildings.
Noise Pollution: Trees, hedges, and greenbelts can reduce the total sound decibels if located in a position between the highway and the residential and/or commercial areas.
Wildlife Habitat: Green open space is home to various wildlife populations, birds and squirrels are commonly seen in the open spaces located near the city.
Recreation: Most of the city's inhabitant values the chance of recreation in the open spaces and woodlands and parks in the city. The chance of recreation is important to improve the people's quality of life and will give good benefit for someone's physical and mental condition.
Preserving open space is an integral aspect in sustainable urban development: Conservation of open spaces is important for sustainable development plan. The open space design is vital in ensuring long term life quality.
Social Benefits of Urban Parks: Well-managed parks can therefore create welcoming environments for vulnerable groups like children and wheelchair users, helping them to socialize and take part in community life. Parks help to build community cohesion by getting people to engage with each other in partnerships. In terms of equality for all sectors of society, free access to parks offer a uniquely affordable alternative to commercial leisure activities.
Parks also play the useful functions of providing a space for civic interaction. Political and social rallies are sometimes held in parks. Access to public parks
And recreational acilities has been strongly linked to reductions in crime and in particular to reduced juvenile delinquency.
(Rose Susan RABARE, 2009)
Environmental and Ecological Benefits of Urban Parks: Healthy environments lead to healthy economies and societies. Parks are pollution ameliorators and help counter the pollution, which can make cities unbearable and unsustainable. Urban parks with well maintained vegetation act as physical filters helping to reduce air pollutants such as sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide. They also help in reducing the rate of ozone production and in capturing dusts and volatile organic compounds.
Urban parks with tree vegetation are a major contributor to stabilizing the urban climate, they serve as lungs for towns and cities and counter pollution by removing particulates from the air, adding oxygen and removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. They promote the idea of ecologically sensitive towns and cities by providing wildlife corridors and are havens for many birds, animals and wildflowers. Parks contribute to land reclamation by establishing trees and woodlands on the many derelict and degraded lands in urban areas, it is an inexpensive option for improving the appearance, enhancing their ecological value and making them available for recreation. (Rose Susan RABARE, the role of urban parks and socio- economic development, 2009)
5. CHAPTER FIVE
This dissertation deals with the Open spaces in the urban city and open spaces the world. Selection of the case study based on the people's activities. People gather in leisure. Places which are use for hangout normally.
Trafalgar Square in London
Lodi garden, New Delhi
Central park, Connaught place
6. CHAPTER SIX
FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS
7. CHAPTER SEVEN