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The unique selling point for the National Aquatics Center is that it has a distinctive sustainable facade. The structure was based on a natural formation of soap bubbles and this gives the building a unique selling point. According to National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) overview [online] "Arup's designers and structural engineers realised that a structure based on this unique geometry would be highly repetitive and buildable, while appearing organic and random".
The material that was chosen for the façade was Ethyl tetrofluoroethylene also known as "ETFE". The weight of this material is 1% of the weight of glass however; ETFE is a better thermal insulator making the National Aquatics Center a well-insulated structure. The see through façade make best use of the natural light income. National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) overview [online] states "around 20% of solar energy is trapped and used for heating". National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) overview [online] states that "daylight allowed into the cube saves up to 55% on the lighting energy required for the leisure pool hall".
The reason why the ETFE façade was used on the National Aquatics Center, because it was successful on Munich's Allianz Arena showing the material is of a good standard and the air temperature and daylight hours are similar.
Name; National Aquatics Center (Water Cube)
Location; Beijing Olympic green, Beijing, People's Republic of China
Client; Beijing State-Owned Assets Management Co., Ltd
Main and Key stakeholder roles;
The primary stakeholders are,
ARUP is a key stakeholder in the National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) project. Arup had a combination project managers, specialist designers and structural engineers involved with experience in Olympic projects.
PTW are Australian Architects and they were the consultants of the National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) project.
China Construction Design Institute (CCDI) these were Arup's Chinese design partners based on Arup's scheme designs, or interfaces between civil engineering and architectural landscaping.
China State Construction Engineering Co (CSCEC) these were the builders of the National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) building.
Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games (BOCOG) this committee was formed after they won the right to host the Olympics. The committee consisted of 22 departments; this was to manage the whole project from the venue planning to the environmental management.
The secondary stakeholders are;
According to BeijingService.com (2008) "Architects, PTW and engineering group, Ove Arup, both based in Sydney, designed the new Chinese National Swimming Centre together with the China State Construction Engineering Corporation (CSCEC) and the CSCEC Shenzhen Design Institute (CSCEC+DESIGN). With the efforts of various participants, many scientific and technical difficulties were overcome".
Chinese-architecture.info (n.d) states that "The Water Cube was initially designed by PTW Architects , CSCEC International Design and Arup with structural Engineers Arup conceiving the structure. The structure was built by CSCEC (China State Construction Engineering Corporation)".
Understand the relationship
Matching the primary and secondary interests
Strengths and weaknesses
Soft and Hard Management Issues; number of employees, shift rotations, working day hours, performance bonus, holidays, -, capital, resource, organisational, performance.
Team issues; quality; planning, control, assured - and technology; material, software, applicable. Environment and design e.g. architect drawings.
Quality environment management issues; e.g. air quality, transport, energy, water, waste, climate.
Water was a quality environment management issue for the hosting of the Olympic and Paralympic games. This is due to the amount of water needed and will be used for the National Aquatics Center "Water Cube", as Beijing has a limited water supply. According to INDEPENDENT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT BEIJING 2008 OLYMPIC GAMES [online] "Beijing relies on surface water, groundwater and water from the South-North transfer project". The Beijing Organizing Committee for the Games wanted to integrate advanced technology in water saving features for the venue. INDEPENDENT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT BEIJING 2008 OLYMPIC GAMES [online] states that "the design strategy included minimizing water demand, efficiency using available water resources - including potable water and rainwater - and maximizing the water reclamation and reuse".
Energy was a quality environment management issue for the hosting of the Olympic and Paralympic games. When Beijing were the host for the games, they set out for a green Olympics to make it energy efficient. According to INDEPENDENT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT BEIJING 2008 OLYMPIC GAMES [online] by "Reducing Beijing's dependence on coal and improving energy eï¬ƒciency and air quality were a priority for the Games' organizers". For the National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) energy was a major factor
Recommendations, for the water usage issue in the National Aquatics Center "Water Cube". According to Water Cube - National Aquatics Centre, China [online] the "swimming pool systems usually pump water into the local wastewater networks as they backwash their filtration systems, the Beijing scheme runs the backwash water through a two-stage filtration system before returning it back to the swimming pools". This backwash system will prove beneficial for the economy in terms of Beijing limited water supply, as a result it having a high efficiency rating. According to Water Cube - National Aquatics Centre, China [online] "The design of the Water Cube allows 140,000t of recycled water to be saved a year".
For energy issue for National Aquatics Center they incorporated "ETFE" cladding, this lets in solar heat and by this it reduces energy costs by up to an estimated 30%. Water Cube - National Aquatics Centre, China [online] states that "The space between the air-pillow walls has been completely sealed off creating a layer of insulation". According to Water Cube - National Aquatics Centre, China [online] during the summer, a vent will regulate the indoor temperature of the building, via heat exchange by drawing out the internal warm air and letting in the external cool air. During the winter the vent is sealed off, this is to retain the internal warm air in the National Aquatics Center.
Project value and Commercial value of the project;
The National Aquatics Center was vital that it was the best Olympic swimming venue, during the Olympics as well as converting the National Aquatics Center in to a popular well used training and leisure facility after the Olympic games had finished. The project value of the National Aquatics Center, according to APM Project Management Awards Winners Case Study [online] "was to cost no more than US$100M before the Olympics and US$10M for its conversion to legacy mode".
Possible conflicts of interest, any social, and economic and technological interests;
China has an emerging economy
China population is growing; they improved the infrastructure with the Olympics being hosted there not just for the Olympics but for the country on a whole.
Government is injecting money in to the Chinese economy to allow it to grow and this allows firms to employ people.
The Chinese economy environmental policy is poor at the moment in terms of energy consumptions emitted to the world. But when they were about to host the Olympics they looked into making the Olympics green and looked in to cutting edge technology.
This is a fast track construction project as it was delivered in a short time scale.
This report provides an investigation into the National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) project, as a result providing an overview on the project. The following key issues shall be looked at while
List of contents
Conclusions and recommendations
Arup (n.d) National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) overview [online] Available at: http://www.arup.com/Home/Projects/Chinese_National_Aquatics_Center.aspx [Accessed date 15/11/2012]
Arup (n.d) National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) details [online] Available at: http://www.arup.com/Home/Projects/Chinese_National_Aquatics_Center/Details.aspx [Accessed date 15/11/2012]
Arup (n.d) National Aquatics Center (Water Cube) facts [online] Available at: http://www.arup.com/Home/Projects/Chinese_National_Aquatics_Center/Facts.aspx [Accessed date 15/11/2012]
apm (n.d) APM Project Management Awards Winners Case Study [online]Available at: http://www.apm.org.uk/sites/default/files/tmp/APM%20Awards%20Case%20Studies.pdf [Accessed date 15/11/2012]
UNEP (n.d) INDEPENDENT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT BEIJING 2008 OLYMPIC GAMES [online] Available at: http://www.unep.org/pdf/BEIJING_REPORT_COMPLETE.pdf [Accessed date 15/11/2012]
Designbuild-network.com (n.d) Water Cube - National Aquatics Centre, China [online] Available at: http://www.designbuild-network.com/projects/watercube/ [Accessed date 15/11/2012]
ARUP (n.d) Arup - About us [online] Available at: http://www.arup.com/Home/About_us.aspx [Accessed date 18/11/2012]
The official website of the BEIJING 2008 Olympic Games (n.d) BOCOG About Us [online] Available at: http://en.beijing2008.cn/47/66/column211716647.shtml [Accessed date 18/11/2012]
ARUP (2008) Water Cube scoops the pool at project management awards [online] Available at: http://www.arup.com/News/2008-09%20September/09-09-08-Water_Cube_scoops_the_pool_at_project_management_awards.aspx [Accessed date 18/11/2012]
PTW (n.d) Projects Water - National Swimming Center [online] Available at: http://www.ptw.com.au/ptw.php [Accessed date 18/11/2012]
CHINA STATE CONSTRUCTION (n.d) About Us - CSCEC [online] Available at: http://www.cscec.com/en/tabid/164/Default.aspx [Accessed date 18/11/2012]