In Malaysia Construction affects a lot of consequence such as noise pollution, dangerous and sometime there is unhygienic to the human being and the environment. From the statistic show, construction is a one of the five most dangerous of work in Malaysia. Construction workers are two to three times more likely to die on the job than workers in other industries while the risk of serious injury is almost three times higher. The industry has not been unresponsive to this state of affairs, recognizing that consistent excellence in worker safety requires a concerted effort on the part of everyone engaged in construction related activities. The facts show that construction is indeed a dangerous industry. The tragic incidents showed that the construction industry only paid lip service to safety.
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Department of Occupational Health and Safety (DOSH) director-general (Abu Bakar Che Man,2006 ) said that at least 30% of construction sites have safety ratings of unsatisfactory or lower. The number of fatality and permanent disablement cases due to accident at the Malaysia construction sites is one of the highest as compared to the other sector. Construction accident that hazardous worker life. The accidents happen may cause physical injuries or health illness in long term. The Social Security Organisation (SOCSO) paid out RM1.6bil in compensation to 52,639 workers who were involved in accidents at the workplace and while travelling to. If we still ignore this problem, what is the Consequence? For sure, the safety managing is necessary. In this dissertation, we will find out the government agencies such as Construction Industry Development Board Malaysia (CIDB), National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in enforcing on the construction safety and health.
1.2 Research Background
Unsatisfactory safety record of the construction industry has always been emphasize by all social circles because safety management always being ignore part and is not achieve a good implemented systematically in the construction industry in Malaysia. Safety at workplace is an issue affecting all businesses since most companies do not feel that it is vital to the success and are afraid of possibility of prosecution. Government safety and health agencies has imposed a lot of comprehensive safety regulations in the practice of the construction industry but from the level of awareness and practicability of it are generally lower than expected over the period from the announced the safety regulation. “According to Abdul Ghani Khalid “Construction Site Injuries: The case Of Malaysia”, good safety programs would certainly help in reducing injuries at the construction site. It will also minimise construction costs, increase productivity and profitability and more importantly it could save lives of workers” (khalid, 1996). Thus, these will consequently contribute positively to the construction industry and nation as a whole.
Government agencies such as DOSH, OSHA,NIOSH and CIDB has give their effort to enforcement safety and health in construction sites. However, the efficiency on enforcing is fail to achieve if without the cooperation of the construction site staff and worker. The cooperation by the site staff is important to reduce the accident at construction site and good management also provide a safer working site. The player of the construction should take the responsibilities to the construction safety and health toward from a construction industry that is more stable and sustainable in future.
1.3 Problem Statement
Construction is a one of five most dangerous of work in Malaysia. In 2011, the Social Security Organisation (SOCSO) paid out RM1.6bil in compensation to 52,639 workers who were involved in accidents at the workplace and while travelling to. It’s increase on 15.63 per cent more than the total amount of compensation to workers involved in accident as compared to 2010 when the amount paid RM1.35bil.
In this case, government lunched many program and prevention to minimize and reduce the safety problem in the construction industry. CIDB, NIOSH,DOSH and OSHA has play their role and enforced on the safety and health to prevent and decrease the accident happen in the construction site. However, the enforcement is not perfectly preventing of injuries and fatality in the construction site, by the way it’s fail to solve the problem because there is a lot barrier when enforcing the rule and regulation by those agencies at last can’t fully work by the enforcement.
This research is to identity the construction safety problem why many of enforcement or programmes are initiated by government agencies still could not reduce effectively the fatalities and injury rate in the construction industry.
1.4 Research Aims
The researcher’s aim for conducting this research is to analyse the government agencies on the improvement safety in the construction industry and to figure out the difficult and barrier to enforcing by government agencies in the Malaysia construction industry.
1.5 Research Objective
The objective of this dissertation is to :-
1.4.1 To identify the rules and regulation enforced by government agencies
1.4.2 To investigate The effectiveness of the implementation and the difficulties during the enforcement of construction safety.
1.4.3 Recommendation to improve the effectiveness of the implementation based on result by questionnaire and barrier of the enforcement of construction safety
1.6 Scope of Study
This study will identify the role of government safety and health agencies and also observation worker in the construction site to figure out any improvement can be achieve by the safety and health. Program enforcing by government safety and health agencies will be discussed and the data regarding the efficiency of safety and health will be attached such as accident rate and fatalities in construction. In order to achieve the research objective, questionnaire among construction site staff around peninsular Malaysia will be analyse to acquire the result for this research. The construction site worker such as Contactor, Site Manager, Site Supervisor, Site Engineer, Site QS, and site Worker.
1.7 Research Methodology
1.7.1 Stage 1: Literature review
Literature review is an integral part as the preliminary stage of information collection to obtain extra knowledge and understanding of the research. Information and data related collected according the objective of this dissertation normally from internet, book, journal, magazine and article which available in college library. Statistic regarding the construction accident and fatalities will be analysed to find out the barriers of the enforcement. This stage enable to identify the problem and to figure out the solution to solve it in a better way
1.7.2 Stage 2: Data Collection by Questionnaire
A set of questionnaire will be prepared to obtain the construction site staff opinion about the safety and health on construction site. Question around 40 to 50 will distribute to the construction site worker such as Contactor, Site Manager, Site Supervisor, Site Engineer , Site QS, and site Worker. The question will designed according to the research objective there is question about rule and regulation of government agencies on site staff opinion and the difficulties among construction site worker to comply with the rules and regulation enforced by government safety and health agencies
1.7.3 Stage 3: Data Analysis and Finding
This stage is analysis of the questionnaire to determine the level of responds to each question within the questionnaire by counting the number of respond who answer favourably or unfavourably. The respondent come form different aspect in the construction industry and result to determine the efficiency of the safety and health enforcing by government agencies. With the result get from the questionnaire, graphical format using by SPHH will produce to explain the result with easily.
1.7.4 Stage 4: Conclusion of Research
After the data analysis done, all the data will complied into the dissertation in order to amend mistake that contained in the dissertation. Conclusion and report will be carried out in this stage.
1.8 Summaries of Chapter
1.8.1 Chapter 1
Chapter 1 is to understand about the research proposal title and main focus on the sector by a short paragraph. In this stage, also stated the aim and objective of this research from the problem statement.
1.8.2 Chapter 2
This stage is to study the deeply background of the research. Literature review on textbook, journals, article, dissertation will be conduct to collect all secondary data by according to the research aim and objective.
1.8.3 Chapter 3
Chapter 3 Methodology is to study the method of data collection. How to design of the questionnaire, how to collect the data and where the data to be source will be conduct in this stage. The research methodology us important in guiding the researcher to achieve the aim and objective.
1.8.4 Chapter 4
The result get from research methodology will be analyse and discussed. Figure and table will be created to show the analysis of the result.
1.8.5 Chapter 5
This chapter presents finding for the study the will be carried out. A summary or conclusion about this research will be discussed.
In chapter 1, we have in introduction about Malaysia current Construction Safety situation. The unsatisfactory of accident rate bring a barrier toward from a construction industry that is more stable and sustainable in future. Accident cannot be fully avoided, but it can be minimise with some proper prevention. Although Government have many agencies to promote and enforcing occupational safety and health in construction industry, unfortunately the occupancies safety and health is still under a unsatisfied level. In this research, we able to know some of the rule and regulation or program that enforced by government agencies and also to figure out the barrier that threaten construction safety.
Chapter 2: Literature Review
Construction industry plays a significant role in the development process of Malaysia development contribute towards the economic growth generating additional demands for construction activities. “Undoubtedly construction is a industry which is very active and booming industry with contributing to the Malaysia economy. However, such achievements have also contributed much towards the safety issues where statistics showed that this industry has earned the reputation of being a highly hazardous industry due to its fatality rates.”( Dayang and Gloria Chai, 2011) ) Health and safety is a paramount consideration for all construction industry professionals. It impinges upon the work of the planning authorities, client, consultants, contractor- in fact anyone who works on or is in the vicinity of a construction project. Whereas in the past health and safety, management has traditionally been consider as a production site activity, it has now become a comprehensive consideration process. It has also become an integral part of the corporate organizational framework and structure as well as the operational management of many organizations who contribute to the construction process.
“Safety management is the key to ensuring that safety measures are implemented on construction site, thus Malaysia government has been announced many agencies to manage the safety and health and a lot of enforcement or program are launched on construction site.”(Steve Rowlinson, 2004) In this stage, the implementation of enforcement or program initiated by the government agencies are reviewed which including the history and function of the government enforcements. The accident rate or fatalities result that simultaneously the efficiency of construction safety enforcement in construction industry. The barrier and difficulties faced by government agencies in enforcement and program launched
2.2 Construction Safety
As we know, construction bring a huge contribution to country economic growth but it also bring a impact of construction safety problem threaten construction site worker such as injuries, illnesses even death. According to statistic the Social Security Organisation (Socso) paid out RM1.6bil in compensation to 52,639 workers who were involved in accidents at the workplace and while travelling to.(The Star, 2011) Variety of unexpected accidence occur, the light caused by the loss of equipment and working hours, minor injury, but severe case may ruin and death. The construction safety and health is the process of construction industrial development, which cannot be ignored. Workers are often because of lack of experience caused accidents, the proportion of the damages around 50%, it is very serious case to threated construction site safety.
Other reason cause accident on construction site such as high-altitude operation, cross-liquidity operation, long operating time, labor-intensive, monotonous duplication of work and so many, those are the reason an accident occur. For many years operating in this environment, people are likely produce a depressed, irritable mood. When the operating life of job stimulus, the visual and psychological again building site impetuous color and clutter environment, the more intensified the anxiety, depression and un rest will increasing the probability of occurrence of the accident. After a survey of different regions and cultural structures of different ages construction worker, more than 85% agree, long labor in a gray color, and illumination is not enough under the operating environment, it is easy to make people feel stress, resulting in depressed the sense of fear, ideological irritability visual fatigue, physical consumption object recognition energy increases, it tends to cause the deformation of the job action, affecting labor efficiency, while also increasing the likelihood of potential accidents.
The construction safety purpose first is to avoid or reduce causalities and occupational diseases; second is to ensure the equipment tools, and materials from damage and to protect and improve labor productivity, and maintaining social and economic development; the third is to eliminate or reduce the environmental hazards of industrial pollution and living conditions of the people from destruction, and promote the interests of humanity as a whole increases.
Safety of construction threaten the safety of construction site worker lives and property of the state, is no longer just the death or injury problem, but the change for real people- oriented and full attention to the construction safety and health of every worker. Worker are requires not only the protection of life, and also comfortable in the workplace and living environment, occupational diseases prevention and control of demand, which is more important part of sustainable human development.
A good construction safety will increase the performance of the construction work. It also reduced the probability of accident rate in construction site efficiently and minimize the loss and damage when fatalities occur.ã€€Thence, it’s important to have a good safety and health management at construction site and cooperates with government agencies on enforcement of it.
Figure 2.1 : Poster Safety first by CIDB
2.3 Government agencies in construction safety
There is no hundred percent that we can get free accident in construction, but we can minimize the accident rate happen. Safety problem is a serious problem that always concern by the government. Every year around 2 billion are paid for compensation to worker injured at construction site. According to the statistic of occupational accidents by Department of Occupational Safety and Health, 99 case of construction accident occur in 2011 and 50% of the accident involve death and permanently disable. Construction industry bring a big contribute towards the economic growth but stimulatory it’s also bring a problem to the construction site safety. In this case, Malaysia government has been announced a lot of program or enforcement to improve the safety of construction site through government agencies to manage the program or enforcement. Unfortunately, some of the program is have some improvement but some of them are not. That is wasting time and cost or resources to having such program or enforcement. There is necessary to find out the barrier of enforcing or program therefore enable to achieve a higher level of construction safety.
2.3.1 Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB)
Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) is strategically important as a regulator body under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Works Malaysia in Construction Industry. CIDB was officially launched in July 1994 by Act 520 of Lembaga Pembangunan Industri Pembinanaan Malaysia Act 1994. The mission of CIDB is ‘To develop the Malaysian construction industry’ and increase the competitiveness of the Malaysian construction industry. The vision is CIDB to be a distinguished organization in developing world class construction industry.(Wong Sing Ling, 2011)
Develop the capacity and capability of the construction industry through the enhancement of quality and productivity by placing great emphasis on professionalism, innovation and knowledge in the endeavor to improve the quality of life is the objective of the board and to achieve the objective, 11 function laid under of Law Of Malaysia Act 520 are follow:
To promote and stimulate the development, improvement and expansion of the construction industry;
To advise and make recommendations to the Federal Government and the State Governments on matters affecting or connected with the construction industry;
To promote, stimulate and undertake research into any matter related to the construction industry;
To promote, stimulate and assist in the export of service related to the construction industry;
To provide consultancy and advisory services with respect to the construction industry;
To promote quality assurance in the construction industry;
To initiate and maintain the construction industry information systems;
To encourage the standardisation and improvement of construction techniques and materials;
To provide, promote, review and coordinate training programmed organized by the public and private construction training centres for skilled construction workers and construction site supervisors;
To accredit and register contractors and to cancel, suspend or reinstate the registration of any registered contractor; and
To accredit and certify skilled construction workers and construction site supervisors.
Many program and rules and regulation that have been enforcing to safety and health to minimize the accident happen in construction site by the board. Those program are result in effectiveness to minimize the accident rate in construction site such as safety and health induction and green card program. CIDB also award those well performance construction site worker called ‘Malaysian Construction Industry Excellence Award’ (MCIEA) every year.
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2.3.2 National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health(NIOSH)
“National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health was established with an endowment fund from SOCSO and from the Government an as a company limited by guarantee under the company Act 1965to promote safety and health culture at the work place in Malaysia. NIOSH was launched in 1 December 1992 and the vision of NIOSH is ‘To be the Leading Centre of Excellence in Occupational Safety and health’ and the mission is ‘To be the preferred partner in enhancing Occupational Safety and Health.( Fadhil,2010) Objective of NIOSH is to ensure a healthy working environment for all employees, course participates, contractors and visitors.
A lot of contribute towards efforts in upgrading Occupational Safety and Health ( OSH) through developing curriculum and training programs for workers and employers to assist industry, commerce and other to solve problem relating to Occupational safety and Health (OSH). NIOSH also conduct primarily applied research and both short term and long term research on OSH and health issues relevant to the country and to disseminate information on research and findings on OSH and health issues in the main and other pertinent activities undertaken by or on behalf of the Institute and to be a centre of reference.” (source: All about Safety, 2001)
The program indicated by NIOSH such as Contractor Safety Passport to increase the knowledge and awareness about occupational safety and health in construction industry through training or short courses. Participant are receive a certificate by NIOSH after sit for an examination as certify participant is fully understand their responsibility to occupational safety and health in the industry.
2.3.3 Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH)
“The Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) is a department under the Ministry of Human Resources. This department is renamed from the Department of Factory and Machinery in April, 1994 and it is responsible for ensuring the safety, health and welfare of people at work as well as protecting other people from the safety and health hazards arising from the activities sectors which include: Manufacturing, Mining and Quarrying, Construction, Hotels and Restaurant, Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing, Transport, Storage and Communication, Public Services and Statutory Authorities, Utilities – Gas, Electricity, Water and Sanitary Services ,Finance, Insurance, Real Estate and Business Services and Wholesale and Retail Trades.
As a government agency, the department is responsible for the administration and enforcement of legislations related to occupational safety and health of the country, with a vision of becoming an organisation which leads the nation in creating a safe and healthy work culture that contributes towards enhancing the quality of working life.
With the corporate values ‘Firm, Fair and Friendly’ by DOSH, the objective of the Department is to prevent industrial accident and occupational diseases by achieving reducing the rates of fatalities and rate of reported accident up to 20% . Furthermore, increasing enforcement investigations, increasing promotional activities of safety and health and increasing the number of Occupational and health practitioners up to 10,000 people also is one of the objective by DOSH.
In order to achieve a higher level performance of safety and health DOSH study and review the policies and legislation of occupational safety and health with enforce legislations such as Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 and its regulations, Factories and Machinery Act 1967 and its regulations and Part of Petroleum Act 1984 (Safety Measures) and its regulations. DOSH also conduct research and technical analysis related to occupational safety and health at the workplace to carry out promotional and publicity program to employers, workers and the general public to foster and increase the awareness of occupational safety and health and become a secretariat for the National Council regarding occupational safety and health.” (Amat, 2008)
2.3.4 National Council for Occupational Safety and Health (NCOSH)
The National Council of Occupational Safety and Health (NCOSH) is the highest forum in the Ministry of Human Resources where tripartite discussions are held about issues related to the direction, national policy and the implementation of occupational safety and health in Malaysia. NCOSH was formed by the Ministry of Human Resources in 1995 under Section 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514), as a product of the Government continual efforts to make safe and healthy work practices as a part of Malaysian culture.
Furthermore, its purpose is to improve level of awareness of occupational safety and health and to ensure the safety of all workplaces in Malaysia. To become the prime mover in steering the nation through tripartism, forming a safe and healthy work culture as well as raising Malaysians’ quality of life.
NCOSH carries out its functions by conducting discussions, studies and investigations, and subsequently presenting suggestions to the Ministry of Human Resources on matters related to Act 514 in particular the following matters:-
Changes deemed appropriate for occupational safety and health legislation
Administration and enforcement of occupational safety and health legislation
Open communication between management and employees regarding workers safety, health and welfare
Adequate control methods for industrial chemicals in the workplace
Work-related death and accident statistic analysis
Issues dealing with the safety, health and welfare of woman the handicapped and other groups in the community
Encouraging the development and acceptance of an industrial codes of practice related to workers safety, health and welfare
Development rehabilitation plan and facilities to help those injured in the workplace.
2.4 Enforcement by Government Agencies in Construction Safety and Health
Many of Government Agencies put their biggest afford to enforce the safety and health with a lot of program or rules are initiated on construction site. Implementation of enforcement or program initiated by the government agencies is to increase construction worker knowledge and awareness about occupational safety and health and effectively reduce the fatality or injury rate on construction site.
2.4.1 Contractor Safety Passport (CSPS)
Contractor Safety Passport is initiated by NIOSH to provide some basic skill and induction about the knowledge of occupational safety and health. Participant are receive a certificate by NIOSH after sit for an examination as certify participant is fully understand their responsibility to occupational safety and health in the industry. In the past of responsible company may have its own system ascertaining which contractor should be awarded a contract of work based on a number of criteria. One such criterion is that the contractor has workers who are well-versed with the rudiments of occupational safety related to their trade. In this way, the company will be assured that the workers concerned are able to work with minimal supervision without fear of any untoward incidents occurring during the course of package to help contractors and their worker to attain minimum standard of safety. (source: NIOSH 2012)
2.4.2 CIDB Green Card
CIDB Green Card initiated by CIDB since August 1997. This is an integrated program that involve the registration and accreditation of Construction Personal to enhance safety level at Construction Sites and ensure that construction workers are aware of the importance a safe and healthy working place and provides a basic knowledge on safety and health at the construction work site. This Program entails a one day Safety and Health Induction Course for construction Workers and provision of personal protective equipment consisting of a safety booklet and helmet. Green Card will be issued to participants of the one day safety and health induction course which also services as proof of registration with CIDB under the category of construction personnel.. Those Construction Personnel who have been registered with CIDB and issued the Green Card are automatically covered by a special Insurance Scheme that insures the Construction Personnel against death and accidents. This insurance scheme is the result of CIDB continuous efforts towards improving construction workers welfare as well as providing security for them and their loved ones. Since August 1997, when this scheme was launched, construction personnel have enjoyed a 24-hr worldwide coverage which is not limited to accidents at work sites alone.
Objectives of the Green Card Program divided into 3-fold. First is to ensure that the construction worker is aware of the importance a safe and healthy working place. Second provide a basic knowledge on safety and health at the construction work site and third inform construction worker of the legal requirement is relation to safety and health. ( source: Green Card Program,1997)
Figure 2.2 CIDB Green Card
2.4.3 Occupational Health and Safety Committee
Functions of safety and health committee is keep under review the measures taken to ensure the safety and health of persons at the place of work. According to the Law Of Malaysia Act 514, every employer shall establish a safety and health committee at the place of work in accordance with this section if there are forty or more persons employed at the place of work; or the Director General directs the establishment of such a committee at the place of work. ) The composition of a safety and health committee established under subsection (1), the election or appointment of persons to the committee, the powers of the members of the committee and any other matter relating to the establishment or procedure of the committee shall be as prescribed. Every employer shall consult the safety and health committee with a view to the making and maintenance of arrangements which will enable him and his employees to co-operate effectively in promoting and developing measures to ensure the safety and health at the place of work of the employees, and in checking the effectiveness of such measures.
A person who contravenes the provisions of this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall, on conviction, be liable to a fine not exceeding five thousand ringgit or to imprisonment for a term not exceeding six months or to both.
(source: Act 514 OSHA 1994)
2.5 Occupational Accidents and Fatalities Rate
According to the statistic of occupational accidents by Department of Occupational Safety and Health, 99 case of construction accident occur in 2011 and 51 people are death and 5 person is permanently disable in the accident, it is over 50 percent out of total accident.
Figure 2.3 Data of Occupational Accident 2011 provided by DOSH
Compare to the result in 2010, it is slightly reduce of the amount of victim involve from 100 to 99 people. By the way it is still on a very unsatisfied level of construction occupational safety and health.
Figure 2.4 Data of Occupational Accident 2010 provided by DOSH
2.6 Barrier and Difficulties in Enforcing on Safety and Health by Government Agencies
Construction industry plays a significant role in the development process of Malaysia development contribute towards the economic growth generating additional demands for construction activities. “Undoubtedly construction is a industry which is very active and booming industry with contributing to the Malaysia economy. However, such achievements have also contributed much towards the safety issues where statistics showed that this industry has earned the reputation of being a highly hazardous industry due to its fatality rates.”( Dayang and Gloria Chai )
In order to form a construction industry that is more stable and susta
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