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A brief physical description of the building (including architectural style and the materials used), its history and why it has been granted a listed status.
Newhall Place is located at Newhall Hill Birmingham West Midlands B1 3JH. It was built about 1860 and designed by H.R. Yeoville Thomason, who was also responsible for many of Birmingham's finest buildings. He designed the Council House and much of Colmore Row. The building was first occupied by a firm of merchants, Shaw Hawkes & Co, but by 1871 No. 16 had become the premises of Phipps Pickering and Richard, Brewers. By the 1880s it had become part of the Newhall Wire Works in nearby George Street and is now a Grade II Listed building."
This imaginative courtyard development still retains much of this character from 19th Century with exposed beams, arched sash windows and an atrium style courtyard.
The durability of an arched window depends on the type of window used and the location, especially how much wear and tear it will receive in that area of the home. There is also the fact that arched windows require special skill in the installation. The contractor will need to frame-in the opening to accommodate the arched design, being sure to install the proper support. He/she should also carefully caulk and seal the arch to create a strong moisture and air barrier. Without a strong seal, your window will require costly repair down the road. (http://www.calfinder.com/library/window/types/Arches-Bring-Style-to-Your-Windows)
Every windows and doors have an arch or round on top of them, it seems like a gothic style as specially arranged with brickwork at the outer façade facing the street side. â€¦ â€¦ â€¦
Consideration of the impact of the fixed internal layout of the building on a conversion project, in comparison with modern construction techniques.
First of all, most of the historical building preserved has its own characteristics in both architectural or structurally design for purpose and its original use. Although most people may consider to demolish the entire building or alter part of it when come to a project involving change of use or other intend, the existing internal layout usually not capable to accommodate the new design from the architect in terms of modern construction method or techniques in related to the purpose of use. The fundamental problems encompassing the allocation of structure/partition wall, column, beam, staircase, basement, sky light, ceiling/false ceiling, drainage pipe and ducting.
In order to retain the front façade which is the major issue to maintain the outlook and architectural feature of historical building, most of the structural elements are not recommended to alter. It is not only not changing the appearance outside but the internal fixed elements would not be suggested to modify since in structural aspect the main structure especially when constructed in brickwork most of the wall, column and beam form the main structural framework. It is easy to notice that those elements are connected to each other in specific joints structure. In most case, it will be more wisely not to touch that part but considering how to reinforce and provide adequate lateral and vertical support to the façade and also the internal structure prior to and during the construction stage. Nowadays, most of the A&A works would employ a structural engineer to investigate the existing structure and provide adequate checking in order to determine whether the structures serviceability is strong enough to cater the loading during construction or for future use. One of the key factors of the modern construction in terms of structural stability is spreading the loads by transferring to reinforced concrete column and beam which the load path is much more simple and consistent. With less r.c. structure wall partitions, the space within the entire layout will be enhanced remarkably as well as the flexibility for architect design. Another modern method is to construct a high grade r.c. core wall in the middle of the building like IFC 2 in Hong Kong, the main structure can provide sufficient strength so allow the structural steel elements to attach to and thus the reduction of r.c. beam and column will release more space and headroom. Such structural design can give more flexibility in internal partitioning, where those partitions wouldn't form part of the structure hence future alternation and change of use can be facilitate. To conclude the above, there are much more limitations for old design building in compare with modern building in terms of fixed internal layout. Many examples in Hongkong such as "181" shopping mall (former police headquarter in TST) and "Murray House" in Stanley selected not to ruin the fixed layout but renovate in aesthetic without touching the main structure.
c) Consideration of underpinning; waterproofing of basements; upgrading and retrofitting of building services; remedying dampness; repair of masonry; treatment of timber defects.
First of all, it is recommended to employ a structural engineer to have an investigation over the existing foundations including the main structure, soil bearing capacity, water table etc. First of all, a thorough inspection over the existing superstructure and the basement to reveal if there is any major and apparent crack over the main structure where the temporary supporting system can be determined and also the subsequent main structure reinforcement scheme can be assessed.
Secondly, to check over the buried foundation under the basement, adopt trial hole excavation with adequate lateral support at the backyard will be suggested. The fact of the condition of soil and also the existing foundation and the water table could be revealed. Meanwhile the bearing capacity would be obtained by checking with the adoption of method of plate-load test or the like. In our experience, raft foundation should be the most possible existing structure constructed in brickwork for such old building over 150 years.
To avoid the disturbance of the existing foundation, it is recommended to have a partial excavation with relative small area in alternative pattern so not to remove too much support from the existing foundation subject to further analysis & structural calculation after obtaining relevant data from the inspections. Owing the building is only 2 stories high, thus mass concrete fill could be adopted since shadow & partial excavation can be achieved without too many lateral support over the limited space due to the allocation of the building with one side facing the street and two sides abutted to adjacent buildings.
Waterproofing of Basement
A black, liquid applied single-component moisture-cured bitumen modified polyurethane waterproofing system, which provides superior protection against the penetration of water. Bitumen modified polyurethane elastomer a two-component system is available, which does not depend on atmosphere moisture. Basic uses once cured, the liquid membrane allows expansion and contraction over a broad temperature range and maintains flexibility and waterproofing properties under continuous exposure to water above or below grade. It has a thixotorpic consistency and may be used on vertical as well as horizontal surfaces. The wide range of purposes including application over concrete, stone, brick, cement blocks, wood, metal, asbestos and most other surfaces.
After the preparation of the wall surfaces and application of waterproofing membrane, render the wall and screed the floor with one layer of cement sand protective layer. Sump pit system can be adopted in designated location to prevent the failure of the membrane ruin the entire waterproofing system when leakage happen in the future. One layer of extruded polystyrene foam board then be fixed on top of the screed/render to provide a media to reduce the risk of condensation and also enhance the insulation of the entire basement tackle the temperature change. Finally, cover up with a layer of brick (to wall) and the floor with another layer of screed equipped with steel mesh in 2 layers (both top & bottom) to form a rigid protective system against external damage to the insulation/waterproofing membrane. Although the space inside will be reduced, still this could be the best waterproofing system to deal with
upgrading and retrofitting of building services
Since the entire building used brickwork for construction and structure. To avoid damage or further deteriorate the brickwork, electrical conduit shall be fixed on the existing brickwall without forming a trench for conceal. It may be looking shinning of the GMS conduit finishes but paint should be considered to apply to match with the tone of the wall design.
It is recommended to provide suitable MVAC system to both the upper & lower basement due to the confined area below ground level. Installation of ducting within the premises would not be a problem by fixing expansion bolt to the soffit of ceiling. On the other hand, the EAD shall be designed to run along the exterior wall at the backyard to higher level. In order to ensure the architect design and the aim of aesthetic, simply install false ceiling system would make the interior more neat and unify where the exterior pipe/duct can be cladded with aluminum cladding or GRC panel to match with the existing finishes.
The Variable refrigerant volume (VRV) system will be selected for air conditioning system based on easy to install, small installation space and easy to repair, the installation methods like the Split-Type Air Conditioning. The Mechanical Ventilation system will install individual the intake and exhaust fan in class room and corridors
To comply with the latest government ordinance and statutory regulation, it is advised that to appoint several design in terms of the followings in FS aspect.
To improve the extinguishment and containment system, the ceiling will require install sprinkler system (Fig. xxxxx).
Fire rated doors will install between the escape route and corridor area in each floor for isolate the fire occurred.
Portable firefighting equipment, included fire extinguishers, fire blankets and sand buckets.
Fixed firefighting equipment, included Hose reels, Sprinkler system ,Fig. xxxx, and Firefighting lift
Fig: Sprinkler System
Plumbing & Drainage
The major problem will be related to the underground drainage system, what can be seen above ground level should be relatively easier either retain or divert subject to the new architect layout. The u/g drainage shall be redesign subject to the availability of existing sub-structure. It may not be difficult to relocate the existing manhole but it needs to be using the previous opening inside the u/g structure to avoid disturbance of the stability or otherwise too many alternation will affect the overall rigidity of entire structure, subsequently cost/time implication to the project may be enhanced.
Q1 - Your Client has retained your company as Project Managers (offering a full range of services ranging from Professional Design services together with Health and Safety).
As a Principal Contractor / CDM Coordinator prepare a detailed Health and Safety Risk Assessment to accompany the tender documentation for the demolition and / or refurbishment of the existing buildings
Noise may be defined as sound undesired by the recipient. Besides being a nuisance, noise may interfere with working efficiency, cause accident and most important for resulting in hearing loss to employee.
In deciding what the noise control measures to provide, the essential thing is to make a noise assessment to determine what exactly the ideal figure of sound reduction. The sequence will be as below:-
Assessing neighborhood noise.
Assessing noise (Including noisy plants & equipment) generated on site.
Deciding the most affected noise sensitive receiver.
Comparing the quantitative data calculated from 3 steps before.
Making reference to the current statutory regulations.
Setting the specific limit.
Deciding the noise source.
Setting the individual control measure by the means of the following:
Substitution (replace equipment with silenced type).
Enclosure (enclose equipment by outer wall with inner lining of an acoustically absorbent).
Screens (provide with acoustic screens).
Assessing noise level generated on site.
Reviewing & monitoring the status.
Action level can be determined for actions. A report in the prescribed form shall be submitted to the relevant department as soon as possible.
For exceeding First Action Level, a warning notice shall be displayed for specification of distance for noisy machines or tools.
Between First and Second Action Levels - a daily personal noise exposure between 85 and 89.9 dB(A), when employees are exposed, the site are required to provide suitable approved ear protectors to employees who request for them.
Between Second and Peak Action Levels - a daily personal noise exposure of 90 dB(A); a peak sound pressure level of 140 dB or 200 Pa, the site are required to provide suitable approved ear protectors to employees and enforce them to use properly.
Having finished each assessment, a list will be generated to inform all subcontractors how far are the hearing protection zone are. The General Foreman / Foreman should post noise labels and follow the rules in the different action levels.
Dusts usually fall into three groups when considered as hazards. They are toxic, nuisance and fibrosis producing. Adequate ventilation, efficient dust suppression, good housekeeping and proper personal protection are required to control dust explosions.
Basically, substituting a less dangerous material for those from which dust arises is a method to control.
To arrest the dust and collect it as near as possible to the point of origin, local exhaust ventilation is needed to install.
To be effective, a mask must be fitted carefully and must be kept clean and the filter must be replaced when necessary.
To enclose a work process that produces dust is also a method we can take.
In spite of all precautions, some dust will always escape from the plant. It must be prevented from accumulating in workrooms by the regular and frequent cleaning of all parts of rooms and plant.
Adequate number of first-aider and facilities in accordance with the law should be provided on site. It may have saved the casualty's life through the application of appropriate first aid measures. However, his life can be lost through rough handling or careless transportation procedures. Before you attempt to move the casualty.
The laws including F & IU Ordinance & Regulations, Air Pollution Control Ordinance (Cap. 311), Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance, Construction Sites (Safety) Regulations, Air Pollution Control (Open Burning) Regulations and Air Pollution (Construction Dust) Regulations demand us to have a good housekeeping.
The common hazards on site are openings, projecting nails or metal fragments at dumping area etc. Removing debris frequently is better than dealing with them after being stacked to a large amount and has advantages both in save time and money.
Rag, oil, grease should be regarded as chemical waste.
Waste paper or cans should be kept in rubbish bin, which is removed immediately if full. Waste reinforcement or other valuable materials should be saved in a particular place.
All tools or equipment should be kept in storeroom after used. A safe means of access shall be maintained up to the required standards.
Removing projecting nails as quickly as possible.
Effective planning and monitoring are required to ensure that the demolition process or the partially demolished elements left at the end of each day of work does not pose any danger to the works, the general public and the adjacent properties.
The General Foreman / Foreman shall provide all necessary precautionary measures to protect the works, the building, the occupants, the public and other prior to commencement of the demolition works.
The General Foreman / Foreman shall ensure the means of escape provisions as well as fire compartment of the premises are maintained throughout the Contract period both for the renovation area and the adjacent tenancies..
Stability Report Including Calculations
A report on the stability of the building to be demolished is required during all stages of demolition if necessary.
When temporary supports to structure is required, check the entire scaffolding assembly and utilities before demolition.
Material shall be properly stored.
Access ways and work areas shall be free of obstructions.
Waste shall be properly disposed of at least daily.
Do not overload any members.
Cordon off any identified dangerous zones.
The site shall be locked up all the time. In order to avoid trespasser, the General Foreman / Foreman shall inspect the premise each shift prior to work.
Permit-to-work system is activating.
All electrically powered equipment or hand tools, except double insulated hand tools, shall be grounded.
Portable hand tools and electrically powered equipment shall be used with a circuit breaker.
Electrical equipment shall be disconnected or the current otherwise interrupted while it is being adjusted or repaired.
Outlets, switching, junction boxes, etc. shall be covered.
Exposed noncurrent-carry metal parts of fixed equipment that may become energized under abnormal conditions shall be grounded when in wet or damp locations.
Clear away all debris.
Secure boundary unless reinstatement has been made.
Provide a Method Statement for the key stages of the entire project and a Construction Program identifying the key stages (i.e. this is not a definitive list) demolition, façade retention, temporary works, high water table etc.
Foundation - Underpinning
1) Excavation shall be proceeded with respected to the structural engineer for adequate depth and the sequence prescribed.
2) Lateral support shall be followed according the same manner to the desire depth.
3) Concreting to the module of foundation as designed in alternative.
4) Backfilling at not more than the specified depth of each layer, shoring shall be dismantled successively.
Ground water control
In some cases, the ground water conditions found during site investigation may change before or during site investigation. Such changes may be due to the construction of basements nearby, natural flooding or artificial causes, such as a burst water main.
The methods of ground water control may be divided into three broad groups:
cut-off walling, and
The choice of method depends mainly on site conditions and on the soil characteristics. These include:-
size and location;
thickness and type of soil strata;
magnitude of water pressures in various strata;
proposed permanent structure relative to soil strata;
length of time for which the excavation must be open;
prevention of damage to adjacent structures;
relationship between the proposed dewatering method and the construction sequence.
Pumping from sumps
Widely used in deep excavations for trench or basement. There are several major problems:-
Soil movement due to settlement
Ground affected by water flow towards sump
Instability at formation level in timbered excavations owing to upward movement of water
The general solution is to dig sump at corner of excavation below formation level.
The sump is usually formed away from the construction area in a corner of the excavation. The water is led into the sump, either by sloping the ground towards it or by using shallow garland drains which feed into the sump. Pumping from open sumps is limited to a maximum depth of about 8m.
In this method, a hole is formed in the ground by jetting metal tube. A disposable intake strainer connected to a disposable flexible suction pipe is then lowered into the hole, and the void filled with sand filter media. This suction pipe is connected to a pump which pumps out the ground water.
1) Temporary support such as racking shore shall be installed at each floor prior to any demolition work commence.
1) Statutory and contractual Requirements shall be followed and implement on site at all time.
2) All demolition works shall be carried out in accordance with the Building (Demolition Works) Regulations, the Draft Code of Practice for Demolition of Buildings as well as Building Department Practice Notes.
3) Before any demolition work is commenced, a sufficient survey for proper identified of any structural problems and risk associated with flammable and hazardous substance, utilities etc.
4) Location of Utilities
4.1) The whole area, which is affected by any possible demolition works, shall be identified.
4. 2) Plans or other suitable information about all utilities especially concealed pipes in the vicinity of the proposed works before any demolition work starts shall be obtained.
4.3 ) Shut off, cap, or otherwise control all electric, gas, water, sewer and other service lines before demolition work is started. Permit-to-work system shall be activated.
4.4) If it is necessary to maintain any power, water, or other utilities during demolition, such lines should be temporarily relocated as necessary and/ or protected.
4.5) plan on the proposed methods for handling and disposal of debris including the permissible temporary accumulation of building debris and the transportation route shall then be evolved.
4.6) Stability Report with supporting calculations shall be generated.
1) To design by the structural engineer with the project manager to investigate the most economical and efficient method prior to determine the sequence of work.
2) Provide suitable foundation at ground level and erect the steel prop above the temporary footing.
3) Continued with the diagonal bracing and transom to form a stable framework floor by floor from bottom and up sequence, make sure the bolting is securely fixed.
4) Floor slab shall be hacked off to let the framework going up and through the slab.
5) The configuration of framework will be similar to fly racking shore.
Your Client is also concerned that they discharge their statutory obligations under the CDM Regulations, in addition to the Health and Safety Risk Assessment. Explain the workings of the CDM regulations and how these affect them as developers throughout the entire contract (i.e. demolition, new build and refurbishment).
The client's duty in relation to the health and safety file
(1) The client shall ensure that the CDM co-ordinator is provided with all the health and safety information in the client's possession (or which is reasonably obtainable) relating to the project which is likely to be needed for inclusion in the health and safety file, including information specified in regulation 4(9)(c) of the Control of Asbestos Regulations 2006(a).
(2) Where a single health and safety file relates to more than one project, site or structure, or where it includes other related information, the client shall ensure that the information relating to each site or structure can be easily identified.
(3) The client shall take reasonable steps to ensure that after the construction phase the information in the health and safety file
(a) is kept available for inspection by any person who may need it to comply with the
relevant statutory provisions; and
(b) is revised as often as may be appropriate to incorporate any relevant new information.
(4) It shall be sufficient compliance with paragraph (3)(a) by a client who disposes of his entire interest in the structure if he delivers the health and safety file to the person who acquires his interest in it and ensures that he is aware of the nature and purpose of the file.
In anticipation that a project comprising of demolition, alteration and refurbishment, will proceed - based on your recommendation, advise on the scope and nature of the project team. This should include the timing and sequence of appointments.
To provide design of the architectural layout, featuring, what to be retained or demolished
To provide detail information about the aesthetical features, design of lighting, furring and finishing to internal/external area.
Professional Structural Engineer
To provide structural calculation and analysis for the followings:
Soil bearing capacity and foundation upgrading design
Inspection to the substructure elements with remedial proposal
Inspection to the superstructure elements with remedial proposal
Temporary lateral support for foundation work
Vertical/lateral support for the retention of façade unit and/or structural elements
4. The Building Team
Building is a group activity and its success depends on a good understanding and operation between a large number of people.
The participants involved can be conveniently arranged into groups or teams according to their particular interest and /or involvement as follows:-
4.1 Client Team
The client or the building owner has the responsibility for defining the building to suit needs, establishing and providing the necessary finances, agreeing design and construction phases, timetabling, and, of course, fulfilling the management and running of the completed project.
A potential client must establish whether to build or not to build. Having decided that a new building is necessary to provide additional or alternative space, it is important that consideration is then given to when the space will be needed. Various problems are needed to be solved, such as: land acquisition, establishment of rights, development permits, planning permission, building approval, contractor selection and subsequent erection.
Most building is undertaken from money made available in the form of a loan - therefore, interest rates are important. In this respect, the government has direct influence and can use the building industry as a regulator for the economy of the country.
Once the money becomes available for a building, the client will require speedy action for its design, construction and subsequent use so that the lost interest, which would have been gained through alternative financial investments, may be speedily recouped. The total cost of a building must include the professional fees of the Design Team which the client appoints.
4.2 User Team
User Team forms a vital link between design concepts and built reality. An example of User Team is the advisory organization formed by the tenants of public housing.
4.3 Design Team
There are a great many people in a Design Team who concerned with supplying the design expertise which will make a building possible.
Principal Designers generally include architects, interior designers, and building surveyors. They are responsible for the overall design of the project.
Architects design and prepare the production information for most building projects. They will also inspect the construction work on site.
Interior Designers can also prepare design and production information for a building, and provide supervision of work, but, they may be specifically concerned with the interior of a building and need additional advisers in order to deal with all the design and construction processes involved in total building.
Building Surveyors are sometimes responsible for the design and supervision of certain building work although they are more usually carry out surveys of structural soundness, condition of dilapidation or repair, alterations/extensions to existing buildings and market value of existing buildings.
Specialist Designers include civil and structural engineers, services engineers, and those concerned with specific aspects of architecture, including landscape, interiors, office planning, etc. They provide expertise concerning certain aspects of a building and whose requirements are often coordinated by the Principal Designer. For example:
Drainage and plumbing
Civil and Structural Engineers are employed to assist Principal Designers on building projects which contain appreciable quantities of structural work, such as reinforced concrete, complex steel or timber work, or foundations which are either complex or abnormal.
Services Engineers work with other designers and are concerned with environmental control - lighting, heating, air conditioning, and sound modulation; electrical installations, plumbing and waste-disposal systems; and mechanical services, such as lift installations and electrical conductors.
Quantity Surveyors provide the cost control and financial advice to client, principal designers and specialist designers. They are responsible for preparing Bills of Quantities. Also, during the actual construction period for a project, he must measure and value the work carried out at regular (monthly) intervals and submit details to the overall financial administrator (usually the principal designer) for payments from client to contractor. They also advises on the use of sums of money listed in the Bill of Quantities for contingency or provisional items, the cost of making variations in areas originally described in the Bills or indicated on the drawings, and settlement of the final account for the finished project.
Depending on the precise nature of a project, the combined cost of these professional fees will vary from between 12% and 20% of the final construction costs.
4.3 Research Team
Researchers are those making understanding and development of current construction methods (materials and technical ability). The aim of the research is to discover facts by means of scientific study and, in matters concerning building, covers a very wide area of knowledge requiring controlled programming of critical investigation of chosen subjects.
4.4 Legislative Team
They negotiate with the relevant authorities to clarify certain legal requirements. Building Ordinance Office, Planning Department, Fire Services Department, Highways Department, Urban Council, etc.
On site management level, a builder has to ensure that the building site maintains safe and healthy conditions for employees, and that the general public should be adequately protected from dangers resulting from site operations.
In UK, a new regulation, the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations was implemented in 1995 which share the health and safety liabilities among all parties concerned.
4.5 Manufacturing Team
This team supplies the materials, components and equipment which are used during the construction processes of a building, and, therefore, incorporate many organizations and interests. With the need to economize in labour and reduce costs, building procedures became more rationalized and mechanized.
However, the continual advancement of technology, and increases in complexity and size of buildings today results in even more complex construction processes. Manufacturers must extend their services from the supply of single components, to the supply of much larger parts of a building (elements) and indeed whole buildings. Site operations are reduced to a minimum using mechanical plant, and methods of building become largely concerned with the organization of the systematic supply and assembly of pre-fabricated items, i.e. System Building.
Closed System Building: some produced items which will not normally fit with the components of other manufacturers.
Open System Building: when component design is coordinated between the manufacturers of different products so that they can be used together without alterations or become interchangeable.
4.6 Construction Team
The erection of a building depends on an industry where total reliance is placed on the diverse attitudes, abilities, and adaptability of its workers.
Today, most specialist trades are employed as nominated sub-contractors by the client or principal designer on behalf of the client; a relatively few day tradesmen being employed directly by the main contractor as domestic sub-contractors.
The main contractor is responsible for managing and directing al works on a site, and coordinating the work of each trade. The nominated and domestic sub-contractors are responsible for managing and coordinating their individual works. They are required to design and provide specialist elements within a building from a statement of performance requirements, but the main contractor is still entirely responsible for the satisfactory completion of the work involved.
The client or the principal designer would employ nominated suppliers for certain specialist materials, components or equipment which are to be used or fixed into position by the main contractor.
Basic list of trades which would be employed for erection of a simple building
Types of Building Organizations
Main contractors can be divided into three basic groups:
Design and Construction Companies
Package Deal Contractors
4.7 Maintenance Team
The chosen design and construction method of a building must take into account the effects which time will have on their performance. The precise methods adopted for subsequent maintenance and cleaning will also be influenced by the attitude of the Client Team towards the running costs of a building.
On completion of a project, the Client Team must be presented with a Maintenance Manual complied by the Design Team which incorporates the advice of the consultative Maintenance Team.
Maintenance Manual describes how a building can be expected to perform, what measures have been taken to ensure it does, and what action must be taken in the future.
Q2 - As part of the sustainable community agenda the Planning Authority has insisted your client provides a detailed Long Term (10 year) maintenance strategy and a five year operational maintenance plan.
Your plan should demonstrate all potential types of maintenance, which part of the Vaults will fall under the relevant maintenance type, and justification to support your thoughts to the client.
Detailed Long Term Maintenance Plan
It is important to provide some basic principles in planning for long term maintenance works. It could give the participant some logic of planning ahead and carrying out preventive measures to minimize any possible danger. With some background knowledge in this field, client may find it easier to communicate with the professionals to derive action plans for long term effective maintenance.
Maintenance in General
There are several aspects that the long term maintenance plan shall be involved as follows:
It includes periodic inspection, cleansing, oiling (mechanical parts) and
adjustments. The objective is to minimize wear and tear, and to prevent
A good design with suitable material, workmanship in terms of proper us with regular maintenance can give advantage on deferring some major repairs. Besides, regular inspection or repair would also eliminate the same as above. In another word, the maintenance work shall be carried proactively from time to time but not a need basis.
It will be more economical and cost effective for a replacement take place while an element or a portion of a system lifespan reaches the end.
It is usually encompassing decoration, improvement and refurbishment in order to upgrade certain area or part of the building or facilities to a desire standard or specification to suit the needs.
Sometimes passive repairs upon breakdown usually cause inconvenience to users. They
will also cost more as the extent of the worn out parts could usually be
confined by regular inspections and minor repair. Planned Maintenance
is therefore more cost effective and enhance a higher standard and level
of performance of the facilities. Planned Maintenance can be divided into:
(a) Planned Preventive Maintenance
In order to ensure its continuous operation, maintenance work is carried
out within the anticipated life cycle of a facility before symptoms of failure
or breakdown are detected. This serves to prevent failure of a facility or a
(b) Planned Corrective Maintenance
Spare parts or components of installations are kept in stock. Sources of
labour are also identified, secured or engaged. But maintenance work is
not carried out until the service breaks down or the problem surfaces.
Occupiers would have to tolerate temporary shutting down of services if
this approach is adopted. As the required works may not be effectively
scheduled, the labour cost of this approach might be higher than that of
the preventive approach.
4.4.3 Survey of Existing Conditions
Before any maintenance works are carried out, a condition survey of the
building is usually conducted. The purposes of a condition survey are to:
â€¢ understand current conditions and degree of deterioration of the building;
â€¢ identify the causes of deterioration so that appropriate repair methods can
â€¢ assess the extent of works, prepare for budget, plan the implementation
priorities and program; and
â€¢ estimate the quantities of repair and maintenance works for the preparation
Readers may refer to Section 4.3.4(b)(i) of this Chapter
Maintenance Strategy and Standard
Inadequate or inappropriate maintenance will result in frequent breakdowns
or failures, causing inconvenience and hazards to the users and public.
It would also expedite the depreciation of assets. The property manager
has the responsibility to set policy and program to meet the owners'
Different usages and grades of buildings will have different demands in
maintenance. The maintenance policy of a building must include two
fundamental indicators, namely, are the quality of service and the response
time to a complaint.
Maintenance Budget and Replacement Reserve
(a) Approach to Derive the Maintenance Budget
(i) The Conventional Approach
In this approach, the building maintenance budget is a percentage of the
annual budget. It is very often based on the previous year's expenditure
with minor adjustments. Its most serious drawback is that the budget
available has no direct relation with the prevailing conditions of the building
and therefore may not be sufficient to carry out the required works.
The Formula Approach
The annual maintenance budget is derived from some agreed formula
which quantifies needs in terms of cost per unit area, a percentage of
current replacement cost, or some other factors, to project future needs.
Like the conventional approach above, this technique does not match
budget with identified needs. The method also assumes a generic renewal
pattern and does not allow for the varying life cycles of different building
However, when used in conjunction with a condition survey, this approach
will enable the maintenance property manager to arrive at a more realistic
assessment of maintenance and renewal needs.
(iii) The Condition-based Approach
This approach incorporates a thorough survey of conditions of the building
to identify needs of maintenance works. Though accurate, it is a timeconsuming
and costly exercise that is difficult to be adopted on an annual
The following maintenance cycles are suggested for reference. They are
dependent on the particular circumstances of the building, and the cycles
can be adjusted to suit a circumstances and level of maintenance expected.
However, for essential items which affects safety of the occupiers and the
public such as external wall finishes, fire services and lift installations, the
following suggestions should be regarded as the reasonable cycle and
should not be lengthened.
External Walls Painting
External Walls Finishes
Detail inspection and check up
as and when necessary
Fresh Water Supply
Inspect grease, switches pumps &check valves
Cleanse water tanks &check valves
Flushing Water Supply
Inspect, grease, switch pumps &check valves
Cleanse water tanks &check valves
Windows, External Railings &Metalwork
Inspect condition &refix
Repainting (steel and iron)
Check and cleanse drains and surface channels
Bi-weekly and before and after typhoon/heavy rainfall
Drainage above ground
Check externally for defects or vegetation growth
Check and cleanse manhole
C.C.T.V. survey for underground drains (if frequent subsoil movements are expected)
Inspect &refix by management staff
Overhaul &report to Fire Services Department