1. A new trainee Quantity Surveyor has been provided for you by your Senior Quantity Surveyor and asks you to train him and get his assistant for your work. Now you are planning to give him measurement take off works. Before giving, instruct him by demonstrating the different ways of using measurement in your day to day work and explain how the technique differs according to situations on a construction project. (P1.1)
If we are going to start our work, first we need to know about the client’s budget. So the first step of a construction is client went to an architect and he/ she gives hoe much of land the client have and what type of building the client need and what are the functional going to happen in that building in future.
So the architect will gathered the client’s information’s and the architect will produce some of the design in his mind. So this time is the budget will become a valuable thing. The architect needs to know about the client’s budget. So this times the client and architect coming to the QUANTITY SURVEYOR. This time the QS get the designs and he will calculate the estimated budget or cost to that designs. Than the client can check these designs and the costs of the project and he/she can decide which design will suitable for his/her budget.
Like these situations we need to ask the client’s budget and we need to consider about the cost making process.
- COST CHECKING
The next step is cost checking. Sometimes the budget of the client will higher than our estimated cost and sometimes lowers than our cost. So the cost checking will very useful in this situation.
In this case if the budget of the project is higher than clients budget we can give some ideas to the client. For an example we can deduct one room or the size of the room. So the cost can change.
Sometimes the budget of the client will higher than our cost. In these cases we can give some ideas about the additional works like we can put a roof top garden or add a bathroom for the visitors separately.
- BOQ (Bill of Quantity)
Starting of an extend, foreman’s QS will need to plan BOQ with faultless estimation and assessing and afterward embed costs into the delicate archive which is given by private or open QS.
There are two sorts of agreement record which are bump entirety contract and BOQ contract. Knot entirety contract is the agreement record involves a BOQ without amounts. Thus, the QS will need to do his own particular estimation focused around the drawings and afterward turn out with faultless amounts. BOQ contract implies the agreement archive involve BOQ with amounts. Along these lines, the QS simply need to do estimating for those archives.
- INTERIM VALUATION
Interim valuation method is the like a installment system. We can give some installment paying methods to the client. For example we can ask little much of amount before the site clearance and after finishes of the we ask little much of amount for the foundation process.
QS Will plan between time costing to customer’s QS so that the builder can learn of his money related position and make fitting move made when vital.
Builder’s QS is in charge of caring for the money related enthusiasm of the foreman and work in conjunction with private practice on the planning of between time installments.
- FINAL ACCOUNT
QS Will collecting information for the last record from the begin of the agreement to guarantee that it will be finished in all its perspectives and to give the foreman his legitimate qualification under the agreement.
3. Since one of your colleagues is going on a sudden leave, you have to take over one of his urgent work. He has been preparing a Bill of Quantities (BOQ) for a hotel project and now it is half way done. Now, you are requested to go through the BOQ, proof read it, make necessary modification & make it ready to issue for the tender invitation on day after tomorrow.
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Even though BOQ is prepared and priced by the Quantity Surveying professionals, it is referred in different stages of the project by several parties such as, design (Consultant), production (Contractor) & Maintenance (Facilities Management). Therefore, you have to modify the final BOQ in a way of understandable by all the parties involved. Assess the relationship between measurement & such parties. (P1.2)
THE DESIGN TEAM
At its easiest level, configuration is “a situated of arrangements and the procedure by which those arrangements are accomplished”. Mechanical configuration is a fundamental piece of the more extensive thought of designing that brings a set of aptitudes, information and understanding to the creation and generation of valuable workmanship effects. Designing configuration learning is regularly implanted in people and hierarchical forms. That outline might be ordered into two sorts: radical and incremental. Radical outline may be considered a completely new idea, outlined sans preparation, starting from the earliest stage . By differentiation, incremental, or ordinary configuration, which is much more regular, takes up a large portion of the configuration time of architects and designing divisions. Typical outline includes delivering new or adjusted relics through the synthesis of ‘off-the-rack’ innovations, and also minor progressions to existing advances.
Outline is a multi-level and various leveled movement. While a few components of the outline process may be performed simultaneously, in different cases specialized demands imply that one thing isn’t possible before an alternate. In the outline of complex items, for example, real designing builds, there have a tendency to be expansive quantities of moderate designing configuration assignments. One of the inquiries creators always face is whether measured, discrete segments might be planned autonomously of one another or whether interface instability and unpredictability mean that sub-frameworks need to be planned simultaneously and in connection to one another.
Seclusion infers that suppliers will have the capacity to impart normal data and concentrate on their specific regions, as in the machine business where framework integrators, for example, Dell Machines, require not plan or make any of the part parts.
For this situation, item architectures are partitioned into semi-autonomous modules which can later be ‘connected to’ to make the machine framework.
In different cases the degree for seclusion is more obliged due to the many-sided quality and iterative nature of the interfaces between segments. At the point when compelling, configuration can achieve a coupling between specialized conceivable outcomes and business sector requests and opportunities. For sure, different advancement studies have demonstrated that outline is regularly a key segment in deciding intensity. In assembling, a significant part of the quality included is presently spotted in outline rather than on the manufacturing plant floor. Configuration is accordingly critical, yet there are few investigations of execution estimation in building situations, and configuration exercises are seldom and inadequately measured. The point of execution estimation is to evaluate the adequacy of designing configuration practices and outline administration inside firms, or systems of firms (counting suppliers and clients) with a perspective to change. Execution estimation is the “methodology of evaluating the proficiency and adequacy of activity” . It typically includes the gathering of individual measures of execution and their mix into an execution estimation framework.
A late overview of execution estimation among UK firms demonstrated that few firms have deliberate methodologies to execution estimation, however that formal frameworks were more significant than the typical casual routines ordinarily depended upon. Execution appraisal in assembling has generally centered on account, assembling, and 7 hierarchical estimations. Generally few measures really include outline and planners
A planner, structural and mechanical architects, a development foreman and many subcontractors, they all look the development process from their own particular perspective. As opposed to transitory nature of task groups, the business has some long and settled in customs. While each one venture is diverse, each undertaking is approached conservatively in methodology terms. Actually, there is no procedure see in average development task, while the undertaking is seen at the same time as autonomous venture stages and diverse performing artists with no regular objective. Focused offering is additionally profoundly established in development custom. The most minimal bidder gets the contract. The builder creates the item which is then reviewed. The task is incrementally acknowledged or rejected focused around conformance to specialized speculation. Different measures of execution which identify with the methodology itself are disregarded or in any event doled out to a removed optional position of significance. In this circumstance the industry cannot keep doing what they have continuously improved and expect results. It need to also new process arranged methodologies to progress their operations.
The procedure administration ideal model, concurring to which organizations ought to concentrate on and be sorted out around various center business forms, has been perceive to give critical focal points as far as enhanced hierarchical execution .
4. since there are not enough drawing details on Services, your Senior Quantity Surveyor directs you to allow a provisional sum of Rs. 4,500,000.00 for the installment of Services. Explain the terms Prime Cost (PC) and Provisional Sums (PS) and elaborate on their usage. (P3.4)
Add a provisional sum for the services bill as mentioned above in the BOQ you have prepared.
Produced similarly as New Class items above but are for work which cannot be accurately measured at the time of preparing the BOQ.This situation can happen due to incomplete information about the proposed work or in case whereby the extent of work cannot be fully determined until the work is completed. Such work will be subjected to re measurement after the work has been carried out.
A temporary entirety is a remittance, generally evaluated by the expense specialist that is embedded into delicate archives for a particular component of the works that is not yet characterized in enough detail at tenderness to cost. This, together with a short depiction, permits tenderness to apply stamp up and participation costs inside their general delicate value and make remittance for the work in the agreement program.
An illustration of a circumstance where a temporary aggregate may be suitable is when work is needed underneath a current structure, where the ground conditions can’t be dead set until the current structure is obliterated and the ground opened up.
Temporary totals could be “characterized” or ‘unclear’: Characterized temporary totals are considered to have been represented inside the builder’s value and system. In actuality the builder is taking the hazard that their evaluation will be sufficient. Vague temporary totals are not represented in the foreman’s value and system. This implies that the customer is taking the danger for the works and the builder may be qualified for an expansion of time and extra installments.
Temporary totals are accommodated in diverse routes in distinctive manifestations of agreement, and a few types of agreement might be a bit unclear about how temporary entireties ought to be taken care of, specifically in regards to conformity to the system.
Temporary totals put either the foreman or the customer at danger of startling expenses or deferrals. Concurring the expense of such work or expansions of time that may be guaranteed can bring about pressure between the builder and customer. Hence, they ought to just be utilized if all else fails, they ought not be a simple fall-back position for experts (who are not bearing any of the danger) when outlines are inadequate or data is hard to get.
Weaknesses might be a typical temporary thing. In the event that the builder experiences weaknesses at the structuring level in the framing tray which need to be uncovered out and refilled with granular sub base material before the way is constructed, they can summon the temporary things without expecting to arrange an agreement variety. In the event that no weaknesses are experienced then you get charged nothing whatsoever.
In the construction process of a project the contractor is the main responsible person in the site. Sometimes the contactor will fix some SUB-CONTRACTORS to do some kind of works. But the sub contractor also works under the contractor in the selected site.
Sometimes the client will recommend some parties to do some works. Some times that person is well known person for the client. This type of the person called nominated contractor.
THE CLIENT WILL APPOINT A SUB CONTRACTOR FOR DOING THE DOOR AND WIDOWS. BECAUSE THE CLIENT KNOW THE SUB CONTRACTORS. BECAUSE THE SUB CONTRACTOR WORKED BEFORE THE CLIENT’S BROTHERS HOUSE FOR FIXXING THE DOORS AND WINDOWS. THEY ARE VERY GOOD WORKERS TOO. SO THE CLIENT WILL RECOMMEND THIS PERSON TO DO THE DOOR WORK IN HIS HOUSE ALSO…
THE MAIN CONTRACTOR ALSO AGREED WITH THAT.BUT THE SALLARY FOR THE SUB-CONTRACTOR WILL CONTROL BY THE MAIN CONTRACTOR. THAT MEANS THE SUB CONTRACTOR ALSO CONTROLLED BY THE MAIN CONTRACTOR IN THE SELECTED SITE.
So the sub contractor nominated by the client. But the sub contractors need to work under the main contractor for this project.
5. Several forms of Bills of Quantities & Contract Documents are used in Construction Industry.
a. Analyze the different forms of BOQ and Contract Documents (P4.1)
b. Determine the correct form of contract documentation for this project (P4.2)
There are different styles of bills of quantities as follows:
- Trade Bill of Quantities
- Elemental Bill of Quantities
- Provisional Bill of Quantities
- Non-Specified Bill of Quantities
- Specified Bill of Quantities
- Builder’s Bill
- Operational Bill of Quantities
The most widely recognized organization for a BOQ is an essential bill. Components of measured works are organized into arrangement that is clear and straightforward and cost at a settled cost contract (protuberance whole). The BQ might be disconnected effortlessly and rapidly with estimation and descriptions effectively assembled in the natural configuration. Under every component, the request of works for the most part takes after development succession e.g. site readiness lives up to expectations, waste works, earthworks, arrangement layer works, base layer works, surface layer works, and arranging works.
The customary bill of amounts is orchestrated in exchange request. The request of exchange is regularly in the same request as the detail.
Separated from being masterminded in exchange request, each one exchange has the office for every portrayal to be evaluated and totaled to give the aggregate expense of each one exchange. The aggregate exchange expense is then exchanged to a general synopsis to get the aggregate task cost.
To have the capacity to allude to any segment in the bill of amounts, every depiction is given a different and unique reference. It is additionally typical practice for each one page to be numbered and named with the venture name and exchange.
Provisional Bill of Quantities
A bill of amounts containing temporary amounts and issued to tenders on the premise that the charged amounts will be balanced amid development where they vary from the genuine amounts, it is regularly utilized where the drawings and determination can’t be settled before calling tenders
Non-Specified Bill of Quantities
As the name intimates, this archive contains just the things of work and their amounts as a standalone report differentiated from the particulars reports of these works.
Specified Bill of Quantities
The details are consolidated with the bill of amounts as preface notes and the bill of amounts portrayal. The amounts don’t ordinarily structure piece of the agreement yet introductions and depictions are a piece of the agreement.
It is Similar to the customary BOQ yet has the expansion of a short kind of particular included with each of the separated materials and work for every particular exchange. Additionally at the start of the Specification Bill are statements blanketing such things as:
- Notice to tenders
- General states of agreement
This technique is utilized by manufacturers to get a fast guide or plan cost. It is focused around the value for every square meter (m2) of comparable sorts of work finished by the developer and is utilized primarily as a part of the Domestic Housing field.
A comparative system utilizing the solid shape premise that is the cubic meter (m3) substance of the building is utilized for the Commercial and Industrial field.
It must be accentuated that this system for computing is utilized absolutely as an aide or plan cost by the manufacturer.
Operational Bill of Quantities
Are a tendering archive for evaluating expenses arranged by engineers that depicts a development extend as far as the operations (which incorporate work and plant) required fabricating it.
- Differentiates the expenses of work, materials and plant along these lines empowering expense control Builds the exactness of assessing.
- Expenses could be identified with elements that specifically focus them, for example, general plant use. Permits the reuse of data made in assessing for venture administration.
- Empowers better estimation of variety in works.
- Cumbersome and immoderate to create so expanding the work of the builder’s estimators.
- Profoundly changes the assessing methodology.
- Does not fit in with current contracts as to work variety.
- It needs machines to permit quick control of the information: this did not exist when it was initially proposed.
- The configuration group in charge of making the operational bill requires not be “extremely acquainted with the construct capability issues as they influence the development process”.
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