Table of Contents
Software Engineering & Software Process Models
The significant part involved in software engineering and its development process is the software development models. The software development process is nothing but a software development life cycle which describes the development process of the software models. The quantifiable approach of the project models is known to be a software engineering application. On other hands which integrates the two or any application and its methodologies process into the single approach to improvising the system quality. One of the structure manners of SE, which imposes the project model in a well-versed manner thereby the task and the activities of the project model are evaluated in a clear way. By defining the project model over the software engineering process, various processes can be analyzed over project models such as specification, test and implementation process and maintenance. The critical evaluation of the software development models in the SE (software engineering) is discussed in the following section (Jaccheri, 2017).
Process models of Software development
Normally, the activities of the project models are evaluated by means of the several software development models and methodologies. Among all methodologies of the software models, three models are chosen for the critical evaluation of the software development model. The three different models are the waterfall model, spring and RAD (rapid application development) model. Generally, the software development lifecycle process should undergo the following activities in the project development model. Such as analysis the problem statement of the model, defining the plan to lessen the issues and finally testing and execution process is carried out in a well-versed manner (maheshwari, 2012).
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In the waterfall model approach, the reverse process and system analysis process cannot be reviewed over the project model. Thereby the requirement changes and software system analysis should be defined before the process execution. In other words, the requirement cannot be while executing the process or project model. Meanwhile, if any small changes involved in the system development life cycle, the changes cannot be rectified effectively over the waterfall model; thereby the entire system will get affected. By the waterfall approach, the business case and the project outcome model will get affected to large extent. The final stages of the model will be review by the developer and the client whereas the in-between stages and process of the project development model cannot be viewed by the developer. The small requirement issues of the project model will cause or affect the technical process of the project model. The software integration and system testing process are very difficult over the waterfall model thereby the outcome of the system or project model are highly affected (Rodríguez, 2014).
Figure 1: Process models of traditional waterfall model
Another critical factor over the spiral model of the software development life cycle is the estimating the time and cost for the project model. The model is not fit for the larger product risk evaluation because the risk factors involved in the project model is larger than the cost of the entire project model. Although, the spiral model is the combined method of the design and prototype model which helps to break the smaller element thereby the risk and the issues involved in the development process can be known very well. The model or the methodologies are focus only on the improvement process of the project development life cycle. The four basic steps are involved in the spiral development process such as determining the objectives of the project model; evaluate the alternative idea, resolving the issues by offering the implication ideas. As the final stages of the design and development lifecycle, deliverables and the next iteration of the project are made over the spiral model (Sengupta, 2011).
Figure 2: Spiral Process model
In the process, each stage begins with the requirements made by the stakeholders. In order to minimize the risk factors of the project model, the risk identification, risk assessment, and management should be defined while beginning new project stages. But the process of defining the risk assessment is not easy in order to maintain and monitor the risk model. The model is a very high-cost estimation when compared with another model where the time estimation cannot be predicted in a well-versed manner. The system is too complex to define the project model over the design and development phase of the spiral model (Rahman, 2015).
In the RAD model, as the RAD model works with the parallel manner the various issues and risk factors occur. In this rapid application development model, the working models of the project are made by gathering the requirements for the project model. The model builds the prototype effectively thereby the design and development phase of the RAD model is quite easier. The critical factors involved in the RAD process model are difficult to analyze the individual performances of the stages. The system works effectively to analyze the risk issues, which are works only for the modularized data. The models are works with a complex integration process thereby the highly skilled or trained design developers are required. The automatic codes are generated which are depends on the cost estimation and the modulated skills. As the project modeling cost and the efficiency of the project is high thereby the project is inapplicable for the cheaper rates. Therefore, these critical factors issues and risks affect the business deal and that leads to the big loss in the development lifecycle. Normally the RAD model will take a minimum of 3 months duration to finish off the model, whereas the model is considered to be a slow process for developing the mobile process. Thus, the software development lifecycle process takes a long process to complete the project model. In simple words, the rapid application development model is not suitable or fit for the mobile system development (Jaccheri, 2017).
Figure 3: RAD process model
The risk involved in the product development life cycle is the catastrophic events which normally affect the efficiency of the system. In order to develop a mobile-based software model, critical applications are discussed in the following discussion of the software development life cycle models. The critical factors are,
- Fails to reach the outcome of the market
- Innovation and improvement of the process models get affected
- Fail to analysis the risk factors
- Fail to support multiple platforms
- Fails to define the programming paradigms
The comparative analysis of the various different project models is discussed in the following section. The requirement specification for the development process or the design process should be defined at the beginning of the model of both the waterfall model and the spiral model. The waterfall model works with the step by step process whereby the requirements phase of the project is highly defined. Likewise, in the spiral model, the need and requirements are highly defined and understand by the process. When compared with the other two model of the RAD and the spiral model, the waterfall model is the less expensive to define the project model. Once the process of the waterfall model begins, thereby the availability and reusability of the products are not defined for further use over the traditional model. Unlike the waterfall model, the spiral model will help for the reusability and availability of the resource for further work. Although the spiral model may help for further resource availability and reusability the system is too complex to design and develop the project model. The risk analysis processes are carried out at the beginning of the model only whereas in-between the project model, the risk factors cannot be evaluated. But, in the RAD model and spiral model, the risk factors can be analyzed in any of the stages of the project model (Admodisastro, 2012).
Figure 4: Waterfall vs. Spiral model
In the traditional waterfall model, the user involvement for the development lifecycle will be over the beginning of the project model; whereas, in RAD and spiral model, the user can interact with the development model at any time of the execution. Over the traditional model, the success of the model cannot be predicted in a well-versed manner; as the system works with step by step manner, therefore, the overlapping concepts are highly lessened. In the contrasting manner of the spiral model, the overlapping concepts are made over the development model. By analyzing the implementation time, traditional methodologies takes the too long process to finish the project model whereas the spiral and RAD model takes less time. Specifically, the spiral model takes the implementation time as per the project (Sengupta, 2011).
Figure 5: Waterfall vs. RAD
Comparison of the models
In the spiral model, the requirement planning processes are carried out in the early stages whereas, in the RAD model, the planning is not necessary to initialize at the beginning of the model. If any of the stages gets failed or interrupted in between the stages thereby the process is returned to the beginning of the model which is the common process carried out in both model. The large project is very difficult to handle when compared with the spiral model, meanwhile, the spiral model is too expensive to use when compared with the RAD model. But, by analyzing the user involvement to process the data or project, the spiral model is highly efficient because the model requires user involvement at the beginning of the process only. In the spiral model, requirements specifications are needed to specify at the beginning of the project model whereas the RAD model works with a time-boxed release manner.
Advantages for the processing of models
- The water falls models have the usage of the simple and can be understood easily.
- It provides the structure with the well defined
- It has the clear explanation for the objective and the requirements.
- The water falls model provides the rigidity to enhance or manage the models
- Every phase of the model consists of deliverables and provides the processing of the reviews
- Each phase does not overlap each other till the process is completed or gets processed at the similar time
- The model of the water fall mostly used in the smaller based upon the requirements have been understand
- The components of the RDA have the reusability with the increasing number
- The issues of the integration have the lot for the very beginning to solve from the integration
- From the feed backs of the consumers it gets encouraged
- The model of the spring provides the productivity increment in the processing and reduces the probability of time taken for the project
- It protects from the writing lot of configuration of the XML and the other annotations. These spring models reduces the efforts of the developer to the default opinion of the configuration
- The spring of these models provides the plugging for the embedded and the data base of the other for the purpose of the processing or the execution.
Disadvantages for the processing of models
- The model of the water fall has the cons as the difficult to change for the backup.
- In this model of the water fall have the risk of high and the uncertainty of high.
- Projects involved in object-oriented programs are not suitable through the model of the water fall because the projects are complex and not suitable for this model.
- The term of the long projects or the projects are ongoing for the process of the development
- It have been created the outcomes for the phase of each and every are been considered as the fixed.
- During the process of the development it have the difficult that to be incorporated
- For the consumers of the preview it has the opportunity of the little for the system when it has been in the process of the development.
- The rapid application development model has the team of strong which depends on the performance of the individual for the requirements of identifying the business.
- The projects have become cheaper for the inapplicable as the modeling of the cost and the code of the automated that need to be generated on the very high
- It has only the system which could be modularized and that can have the rapid application development mode to build the process.
- The skills of the modeling have the dependency high on the model of the rapid application
- The model of the spiral has no proper cost and the estimation of the time during the process of the design (Dhami, 2016).
In the development of the software the models of the process are been implemented to the process of the various to manage it from the associated of the concerns with the requirements of changing like the time, quality and the cost. The model of their life cycle from the specified which can affect the significantly from the concerns of the different associated with a product of the software. If it gets weak in the process it has certainly in the product of the entire would get suffer. The effort has been enough in the field to be done and it have the requirements to be change still during the process of the development for the software in the development of large has not been managed still by the models of the process in the software that have results in the project of the software and their expectation are not meet in their terms of the cost, schedule in the delivery and the functionality. It has the reason for the project of the failure which could be occur by the team of the project, suppliers stake holders of the others and the consumers. But it has the reason for the failure of the project by the most of common are in the management of the project are rooted in the process of the agreement itself and the IT of the aligning with the cultures of the organization. It has the mistakes which are estimated and identified with the goals of the project with the unclear and the requirement of the project during the changes in the project and it involved with the factors of the key in the failure of the project (Rupinder Kaur, 2011).
The system of the software for the developing and maintaining includes the irrelated highly in the variety of the activities. The set of the structured are managed in order to the activities of the different models which have been developed with the degree of the various in over the years to reach the success. Here it can include the model of the water fall, RAD and the model of the spiral. The product of the each and every software could pass by the states of the various and the circumstances of the specific are dependent of each project and they are been developed in the model of the different with the aspects of the various. The model of the water fall is used widely due to the process of the elementary in the certain of the formalized by the requirements to control. And it defines poorly against and the problem have been understood with a user needs of the volatile high and it have the results to expect with the hardly involving the requirements of the full at the start of the specification. In this case it has the longer to opt and the complex of more for the life cycles like the model of the spiral. For example, it needs the user with the well defined in the variable of the practical (Kang, 2009).
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In each of the model of life cycle in the spiral it has the development to addresses the product for the software at the further level in the brief. The approach of the stake holders win-win has been used due to determine the project of critical which anchors together for the development of the project like the objective of the life cycle and the capability of the operations at the initial. The model of the prototyping helps the requirements in the uncertain to be understood but their expectation leads to false and the design of the poor for the system. For the model of the prototyping it has the variation of the popular is known as the development of the rapid application. It introduces the model in the firm which have the limits of time on the development of the each at the phase and heavily relies on the application of the rapid for the tools that allows the development of the quick. The model of the process for the agile gives the stress of the less on the analysis and the design. It begins early for the implementation in the development of the software for the life cycle. The model for this process demands the time in the type of the fixed. The programming of the extreme which has been created during the development of the software and it has been based on the enhancement of the model for the iterative.
The projects for the software fail which they do not meet the success for the criteria. The IT projects of most of them can be run the budget over the premature and terminate those completion to reach often for the meeting of the fall short far user for the expectation of the meeting and the goals of the performance for the business. The kay of the major three factors for the success of the project which have the time to be delivered on or by the budget under it needs the works for the system. It achieves the projects of few like the delivery of the project fails on the criteria of one or more and it cancelled the criteria in the substantial which has been failed badly. The projects of the software are been succeeded in their number so the factors of the key for the project of the success is based on their criteria. So, it has the projects for the success is based on the criteria of only three. Which cause the project of the failure and they have only one of the factors in the number that have been included. It has the reason of the vital for the project of some failures are been categorized. It can be involved as the requirements of the extracting, involvement of the user for the lack, size of the team, dimension of the time, fixed controller, process of the testing and the final process is the management for the quality of poor (Mujumdar, 2012).
Thus the resource paper covers the detailed study of the critical review of the software engineering process and the software models. By analyzing the various issues involved in the software project model quality of the project management and the failure aspects of the software models process are evaluated in a well-versed manner. Generally, most of the project models are depends on the software development process by gathering the requirements for the design and development phases. Thus the paper explicates the three different models of the project such as waterfall, spiral model and the rapid application development models. The critical views of the software engineering and the advantage and disadvantages actions are discussed in a well-versed manner.
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