Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.
Abstract -The purpose of this research is to describe what mobile ad-hoc networks do and when did they showed up, its effectiveness in technology, types of mobile ad-hoc network protocols with their advantages and disadvantages and the security of this types of networks
Keywords—routingt; ad-hoc; MANET; Nnetworks; security; protocol.
Ad-hoc networks are a rather new and very powerful communication technology. The defining aspect of this type of network is the specific routing protocols.
The functions of the ad hoc routing protocols correspond to both the functions the infrastructure in a classic network (ad hoc routing itself) and the function of the communication equipment (initiating transmission and receiving packets). The benefits of using these networks is particularly evident in situations where a network is needed but there is no prior infrastructure for a wired or wireless network classic wireless. Such situations are especially urgent, created by events that could not be anticipated and / or appearing in locations with special accessibility features. Ad hoc networks can provide practical immediately the necessary connections between all the entities that are already on the spot, as well as the subsequent entry and exit of their network.
An ad-hoc mobile network (MANET) is an autonomous collection of mobile communication devices via wireless connections with bandwidth constraints.  Because the nodes are mobile, the network topology can be changed quickly and unpredictably. 
The first generation appeared in 1972 and at that time was called PRNET (Packet Radio Networks).
With ALOHA (Areal Locations of Hazardous Atmospheres) and CSMA (Carrier Sense Medium Access) approaches for MAC and some kind of distance vector routing, PRNET have been used as an attempt to provide capabilities to create a network in the environment.
The second generation of ad-hoc networks emerged in the 1980s, when ad-hoc network systems were upgraded and implemented as part of the Survivable Adaptive Radio Networks (SURAN) program.
It provided a packet switching network for the battlefield in an infrastructure-free environment. 
In the 1990s, the concept of ad-hoc commercial networks emerged with the launch of notebooks and other devices with wireless communications capabilities. At the same time, the idea of a collection of mobile nodes was proposed at several researchers’ conferences. 
In 2009, IEEE is reacting to the move on the wireless
communications market, and launches in March, after two failed attempts, the 802.11s standard that defines how mobile devices with wireless networking capabilities can interconnect without the use of a central access- point. 
II. MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS
In the last years there has been an abundance of devices with wireless capabilities such as laptops, netbooks, PDAs,
mobile phones, and graphics tablets. This has also increased the need for interconnectivity of these devices to improve data sharing capabilities between users. 
The mobile phones and even PDAs have been created as the main network communication mode to be the GSM.  How to transmit fast data without using expensive GSM network?
Many will say that this may take a long time since the phones have been implanted with point-to-point communication capabilities like infrared or Bluetooth. 
Indeed, Bluetooth communication is a good solution, but what is there must be sent more data at a time to more people? What needs to be done? More transmissions? Would not be better to have a network where a share folder can be created and there can be added as many data as needed, then those who wants and with whom the ad-hoc network was created to have access to data. The first large-scale use of the ad-hoc model is OLPC (one laptop per child), a project of endowing children in “third world” countries with educational and playful tools. 
A MANET can be applied to a wide range of applications, but is still very vulnerable due to its features:
– free environment (the waves propagate through the environment)
- Dynamic topology
– Distributed cooperation
– limited capacity 
There are 2 wireless network models:
– with a set of fixed but powerful nodes that transmit the information further. These nodes are interconnected by wire, and the communication between a fixed node and a mobile node is made wirelessly.  This network model requires a permanently fixed infrastructure.
– another model is the Ad Hoc Network (MANET) that suggests establishing a connection only when needed. The transmission radius for each node is limited as long as it reaches the first node, and data is passed through intermediate nodes to reach more distant nodes. 
III. MANET SECURITY
Recent research has revealed that a MANET network has many security issues:
– first, all signals share the same bandwidth when they want to get to another node (a node can route a certain amount of information at some point) which makes it vulnerable to interference
– secondly, the mobile nodes move independently of each other, so a static securing protocol cannot be used due to the ever-changing topology.
In most routing protocols in a MANET network node constantly exchange information about network topology. All these messages are transmitted through the air, so an intruder can provide erroneous network update information and claim to be a legitimate routing device in the network.
For example, DoS (Denial of Service) can easily be launched if a node floods the network with erroneous routing messages. Network nodes start transmitting random messages. 
– the fact that it does not have a central decision-making device, a MANET network depends entirely on the participation of the nodes in the network activity. An intruder node can block traffic through it, which would overwhelm network co-algorithms. This event is undetectable by most intrusion detection programs.
– Fourthly, any node depends mostly on battery or other limited power sources. An attacker can create a new type of DoS attack by forcing a node to retrieve the last packet saying it was not well received, which can lead to the depletion of the power supply. Forced disconnections are common in the MANET network, making it almost impossible to realize such anomalies in the network.
- Routing protocols in a MANET network
Routing protocols in a MANET network can be categorized into two categories: proactive and reactive.
- proactive routing protocols – with table-driven. This protocol proposes maintaining up-to-date routing information from one node to all other nodes. This protocol requires each node to maintain one or more tables in which to store routing information. Any change in the network topology will propagate through the network to maintain a network schema. The most important proactive protocols are OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing protocol) and DSDV (Destination
Sequenced Distance Vector. 
- reactive routing protocols or dynamic (on demand): This type of routing creates routes only at the request of the source node. When a node has information to send it initializes a process of discovery of the nodes inside the network first. This process ends once all the possibilities have been discovered to reach the destination. 
Two of the most important protocols of this type are: Dynamic Source Routing Protocol (DSR) and Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector protocol (AODV)
- DSDV is a protocol based on routing tables. All mobile nodes maintain a routing table that contains different data needed for the routing process: all available destinations, some nodes must be overtaken to reach the destination, and the number sequence assigned to the transmitter.
- AODV uses the algorithm from DSDV, but it does improve by minimizing the number of broadcasts needed by creating routes after a certain time.
- DSR is different in the sense that each node keeps track of the neighboring nodes. 
Therefore, this project has been aimed at addressing a research area that has attracted attention both in academic and industry: ad-hoc mobile networks (MANET) in recent years. MANET Network Research remains active, despite years of research.  This is primarily due to the fact that there are still no mature and widely accepted security solutions, and secondly due to the significant increase in P2P (peer-to-peer) mobile devices over the past years through wireless channels. 
 T. Watteyne, A. Molinaro, M. Richichi and M. Dohler, “From MANET To IETF ROLL Standardization: A Paradigm Shift in WSN Routing Protocols”, IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 688-707, 2011. Available: 10.1109/surv.2011.082710.00092.
 Arxiv.org, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1212/1212.2567.pdf. [Accessed: 20- Mar- 2019].
 G. Thandavarayan, K. Sangeetha and S. Seerangan, “ORZEF: An optimized routing using zone to establish security in MANET using multipath and friend-based ad hoc routing,” International Conference on Pattern Recognition, Informatics and Medical Engineering (PRIME-2012), Salem, Tamilnadu, 2012, pp. 221-224.
 V. Lalitha and R. S. Rajesh, “Power aware and topology aware ad-hoc on-demand multipath distance vector routing for MANET,” 2014 IEEE 8th International Conference on Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO), Coimbatore, 2014, pp. 115-119.
 R. de Oliveira Schmidt and M. A. Sandini Trentin, “MANETs routing protocols evaluation in a scenario with high mobility MANET routing protocols performance and behavior,” NOMS 2012 – 2012 IEEE Network Operations and Management Symposium, Salvador, Bahia, 2012, pp. 883-886.
 R. Mule and B. Patil, “Proactive source routing protocol for opportunistic data forwarding in MANETs,” 2016 International Conference on Automatic Control and Dynamic Optimization Techniques (ICACDOT), Pune, 2016, pp. 227-232.
 S. Ashoka, M. Manjunath and M. Hanumanthappa, “Performance Analysis of Petal Ant Routing (PAR) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) in MANET Using Network Simulator (NS2),” 2018 Second World Conference on Smart Trends in Systems, Security and Sustainability (WorldS4), London, 2018, pp. 127-132.doi: 10.1109/WorldS4.2018.8611474
 T. P. Venkatesan, P. Rajakumar and A. Pitchaikkannu, “Overview of Proactive Routing Protocols in MANET,” 2014 Fourth International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, Bhopal, 2014, pp. 173-177.
 P. Lavanya, V. S. K. Reddy and A. M. Prasad, “Research and survey on multicast routing protocols for MANETs,” 2017 Second International Conference on Electrical, Computer and Communication Technologies (ICECCT), Coimbatore, 2017, pp. 1-4.
 L. Prashar and R. K. Kapur, “Performance analysis of routing protocols under different types of attacks in MANETs,” 2016 5th International Conference on Reliability, Infocom Technologies and Optimization (Trends and Future Directions) (ICRITO), Noida, 2016, pp. 405-408.
 S. S. Naik and A. U. Bapat, “Message priority based routing protocol in MANETs,” 2015 International Conference on Pervasive Computing (ICPC), Pune, 2015, pp. 1-5.
 H. Zhang and J. Guo, “Application of manet routing protocol in vehicular ad hoc network based on NS3,” 2017 7th IEEE International Conference on Electronics Information and Emergency Communication (ICEIEC), Macau, 2017, pp. 391-394.
 K. Chawda and D. Gorana, “A survey of energy efficient routing protocol in MANET,” 2015 2nd International Conference on Electronics and Communication Systems (ICECS), Coimbatore, 2015, pp. 953-957.
 V. V. Paranthaman, Y. Kirsal, G. Mapp, P. Shah and H. X. Nguyen, “Exploiting Resource Contention in Highly Mobile Environments and its Application to Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks,” in IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology.
 A. Daas, K. Mofleh, E. Jabr and S. Hamad, “Comparison between AODV and DSDV routing protocols in mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET),” 2015 5th National Symposium on Information Technology: Towards New Smart World (NSITNSW), Riyadh, 2015, pp. 1-5.
 K. P. Mhatre and U. P. Khot, “Efficient routing protocol for MANET,” 2016 3rd International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom), New Delhi, 2016, pp. 1439-1442.
 S. Shruthi, “Proactive routing protocols for a MANET — A review,” 2017 International Conference on I-SMAC (IoT in Social, Mobile, Analytics and Cloud) (I-SMAC), Palladam, 2017, pp. 821-827.
 “Wireless adhoc networks – Docsity”, Docsity.com, 2019. [Online]. Available: https://www.docsity.com/en/wireless-adhoc-networks/2167420/.
 “The history of mobile ad-hoc networks :: Computing Unplugged”, Computingunplugged.com, 2019. [Online]. Available: http://www.computingunplugged.com/article/the-history-of-mobile-ad-hoc-networks/.
 P. Jacquet, P. Muhlethaler, T. Clausen, A. Laouiti, A. Qayyum and L. Viennot, “Optimized link state routing protocol for ad hoc networks,” Proceedings. IEEE International Multi Topic Conference, 2001. IEEE INMIC 2001. Technology for the 21st Century., Lahore, Pakistan, 2001, pp. 62-68. doi: 10.1109/INMIC.2001.995315
If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!Find out more
Cite This Work
To export a reference to this article please select a referencing style below:
Related ServicesView all
DMCA / Removal Request
If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please: