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EVOLUTION OF SUBSTRATE INTEGRATED WAVEGUIDE STRUCTURES: AN OVERVIEW
Abstract — Substrate integrated waveguide(SIW) is the most captivating technology for easy integration onto planar substrates for millimeter wave components and systems for the next decade. This guide is synthesized on the substrate with arrays of metallic posts retaining the low loss advantage of conventional rectangular waveguides. In this paper, various evolving structures of SIW which had been implemented for various practical applications like filters, couplers, antennas etc are reviewed and some ongoing projects based on this technology are also presented.
Index Terms — Filters, couplers, substrate integrated waveguide (SIW)
Metallic waveguides are preferred over traditional transmission lines like coaxial cables wherein high losses are accounted, namely, copper losses and dielectric losses . Metallic waveguides inherit the advantage of high power handling capability and high Q-factor . In spite of its aforementioned advantages, it is not yet a very promising technology because of its bulky and non planar nature . Slot like planar printed transmission lines are next to metallic waveguides used in microwave integrated circuits (MICs). These were planar in nature but not suitable at smaller frequencies due to its transmission losses .
To bridge the gap, SIW is introduced, a very promising waveguide structure which maintains the advantages of a rectangular waveguide, such as high Q-factor and high power handling capability in planar form [5-7]. Basically in SIW, two parallel metallic layers of substrate are connected via metallic posts introducing structure similar to common metallic waveguides. Generically, the substrate integrated waveguides (SIW) are known as substrate integrated circuits (SICs) . SIW is the most popular topology among others family members of SICs because the design techniques of rectangular waveguide can be applied directly to this topology. The SIW technology has been implemented with millimeter and microwave components as it is suitable for high frequency range because of its accounted leakage losses at low frequency. They can be directly connected to planar circuits, namely, micro strip line and coplanar waveguides (CPW), allowing for easy integration of active circuits thus making it suitable for mass production .
In this paper, evolutions of SIW structures are studied and different application of SIW technology are presented, and some ongoing projects are discussed later.
EVOLUTION OF SIW STRUCTURE
At millimeter wave frequency, electromagnetic coupling between building blocks of antenna makes designing a very critical issue. To provide great deal of flexibility for designing of components, concept of SICs is introduced. SIW, which are synthesized on planar substrate in which metallic posts are perforated in the embedded substrate using printed circuit board technology shown in fig.1. 
Fig.1. Substrate Integrated Waveguide
The steady and constant rise of wireless user has fuelled an increase in wireless applications. For the fulfillment of increasing day to day needs of communication, various evolving structures of SIW are proposed. Substrate integrated slab waveguide (SISW), a new variant in the SIW toolkit is hereby introduced . The structure offers an increase in bandwidth by adding air holes into an SIW mainly for wideband microwave applications. Compared to rectangular waveguides, a size reduction of is achieved with SIW. Unfortunately, SIW are still large (compared to their micro strip counterparts) for various practical applications and hence substrate integrated folded waveguide (SIFW) is proposed . In SIFW size reduction of (9) is achieved by using dual layer substrate but its losses are increased. Also there are half mode substrate integrated waveguides (HMSIW)  which increases the bandwidth and can also have a reduced size while maintaining the advantages of SIW. Recently after HMSIW, folded half wave substrate integrated waveguide (FHMSIW) is proposed but there are complexity issues which needs to be solved .For effective utilization of waveguide channel, hybrid SIW is proposed in which waveguide channel usage is maximized by routing a strip line inside the substrate . Novel class of bandwidth enhancing structures are proposed, namely ridged substrate integrated waveguide (RSIW)  shown in Fig.3 and ridged substrate integrated slab waveguide (RSISW) .In former structure, side walls of top and bottom metal layers are connected by full height metallic posts and central row of partial heighted metallic posts are connected at their bottom by a metal strip. The latter structure is having the similar geometry of RSIW but additional air holes are included to further increase the bandwidth. Also there are unpopular structures like honeycomb substrate integrated waveguide (HCSIW) and folded corrugated substrate integrated waveguide (FCSIW). HCSIW creates partially low dielectric region by drilling air filled posts vertically  and FCSIW is used for back lobe suppression . For two different modes of propagation, switchable substrate integrated waveguide (SSIW) (via the biasing of pin diode switch) is introduced . Another variant of HMSIW is rotated HMSIW, to improve the manufacturing tolerances by enabling direct interaction with wave energy at central point which is not feasible for the structures discussed earlier. Recently, Butterfly substrate integrated waveguide; another variant has been added to the SIW toolkit for better gain and low side lobe levels. . Latest variant added to the SIW toolkit is empty SIW (ESIW). This structure eliminates the disadvantages of dielectric substrate by replacing it by novel empty substrate (air filled) while maintaining the advantage of complete integration in planar substrate . Outlines of important configurations of SIW are shown in fig.2. , fig.3. and fig.4.
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Fig.2. SIW Main Variants
Fig.4.Butterfly substrate integrated waveguide
FUTURE TRENDS IN SIW
SIW, a very promising technology has been implemented for many practical applications like SIW based shifters, oscillators, resonators, filters, power dividers, diplexers, mixer, antennas and many more [23-30]. Currently there were many ongoing projects in progress based on SIW technology. A very few have been mentioned here in this paper. Efficient synthesis and design of reconfigurable micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) based band pass filter (BPF) in SIW technology  is one of the ongoing projects. This project is focused on the development of novel microwave and millimeter wave fully reconfigurable BPF on SIW so that advantages of miniaturization, easy integration onto planar substrates, low losses, high power handling can be achieved. This project tries to combine the advantages of novel comb line SIW resonators with the enhanced characteristics of MEMS varactors to tune the response of coupled resonator filters. These filters are key components of emerging RF front ends for future telecommunication systems. SOSRAD-77GHz SIW system on substrates (SOS) radar front end is the other ongoing project based on SIW . The aim of the project is to establish SIW technology as the leading high performance platform to encompass all available technologies within a common substrate at mm-wave frequencies. Some of the completed projects on SIW technology are stated; integrated focusing systems in SIW technology: full wave modeling and optimization  and Design and development of SIW based RF circuits and components using metamaterials in ku-band application .
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