Disclaimer: This is an example of a student written essay.
Click here for sample essays written by our professional writers.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UKEssays.com.

Enhanced Frame-based Video Coding

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Computer Science
Wordcount: 3384 words Published: 18th Apr 2018

Reference this


This paper displays the improved edge based feature coding plan. The info source feature to the improved edge based feature encoder comprises of a rectangular-size feature and states of subjectively molded questions on feature outlines. The rectangular edge composition is encoded by the ordinary casing based coding method and the feature object’s shape is encoded utilizing the form based vertex coding. It is conceivable to accomplish a few valuable substance based functionalities by using the shape data in the bit stream at the expense of a little overhead to the bitrate. Magic words Video coding, substance based, hyper feature, intuitiveness, shape coding, polygon.


Through the years, the advanced feature engineering has been developing rapidly regarding the ways feature substance is delivered, conveyed, and devoured. Accordingly, clients are not content with just the pressure efficiency in a feature coding engineering; they are currently requesting more peculiarities. To meet the client requests, the new feature coding plans are obliged help substance based intuitiveness, permit content- based feature indexing and recovery, adapt up to data transfer capacity and bit slip rates of transmission systems, and

accomplish retrogressive similarity with existing feature coding plans notwithstanding giving a decent squeezing efficiency. For this reason, the new feature encoders oblige the source info feature to be in such a structure, to the point that the feature substance can be effectively identified and described.

The info feature source to the article based feature coding approach in MPEG-4 standard [1] is as discretionarily formed feature items and their shapes as demonstrated in Fig. 1(a). The MPEG-4 item based feature encourages client intuitiveness with individual items. Notwithstanding, the decoders focused around prior MPEG models are not equipped for interpreting the MPEG- 4 item based feature bit streams. Besides, the exact division of semantically compelling items from a rectangular feature still remains a testing issue. Then again, erroneous division of feature items might antagonistically influence the pressure efficiency [2].

Get Help With Your Essay

If you need assistance with writing your essay, our professional essay writing service is here to help!

Essay Writing Service

In the sub-picture coding [3], a feature casing is apportioned into one or more client defined non-covering rectangular sub-pictures and a remaining foundation picture (see Fig. 1(b)). It is conceivable to appoint distinctive mistake insurance and quality levels to diverse sub-pictures focused around their imperativeness by utilizing sub-picture coding. In any case, the rectangular sub-pictures don’t by and large speak to the genuine feature objects with which a client might want to cooperate.

Some feature transmission plans propose typifying the MPEG-2 and the MPEG-4 feature streams inside the MPEG-2 vehicle stream to give the worth included administrations, for example, substance based intelligence [4]. Despite the fact that these plans furnish the retrograde similarity with the current (a) (b) Fig. 1. Cases of info source feature designs for (a) the MPEG-4 item based coding, and (b) the sub-picture coding. traditional MPEG-2 decoders, they have the disservice of considerably expanding the expense of the decoders so as to backing more than one MPEG standard.

The goals of the proposed upgraded casing based feature encoder (EFBE) are the accompanying: 1) to serve as a basic augmentation of the customary edge based feature encoder architectures and to give retrogressive similarity, 2) to accomplish about the same execution as far as feature quality and packing proportion as contrasted with the ordinary edge based feature coding execution, and 3) to address the client requests for substance based functionalities. The construction modeling, the peculiarities and the execution of the upgraded edge based coding plan are portrayed in the accompanying.


In the proposed improved casing based coding, the data source feature comprises of a rectangular-size feature and states of subjectively molded protests on feature outlines. We define the object of investment (OOI) in a rectangular edge feature as the subjectively formed semantically significant feature object which is of enthusiasm to a client. There are three steps included at the present time getting the coded representation of feature utilizing the improved edge based feature coding scheme:1) preprocessing, 2) encoding shape and composition, and 3) post- preparing. In the first step, an OOI is identified and its shape data is gotten as either a layout form representation or a division veil. The diagram shape representation of an OOI can be acquired by denoting the framework of OOI on the screen physically; along these lines the shape data can be effectively produced by a client. Programmed division [6] and self-loader division procedures [7]. For the proposed EFBE, the limits of portioned feature articles require just speak to a rough blueprint of the range having a place with a feature object and there is no necessity for division to be exact. In the second step, the rectangular casing surface and the feature object’s shape are encoded. The square graph of the EFBE is indicated in Fig. 2. The post-preparing step includes partner the shape data with

Fig.2 The enhanced frame-based video encoder.

he composition of the item it speaks to. The state of an OOI identifies the range fitting in with the OOI on the rectangular casing feature so that the region carries on as a hotspot on the feature outline. This hotspot is connected with a connection to an alternate terminus like a hyperlink in the World Wide Web. This connection can be to either an alternate feature (which might possibly contain joins) or a HTTP protest, for example, a page, file, or CGI script. The following and in addition the connection data is multiplexed into the bit stream alongside surface and shape data.

In this paper, we concentrate chiefly on the second venture to propose another feature encoding plan, Whatever the strategies utilized for preprocessing and post-transforming.

  1. Encoding shape and surface.

As indicated in Fig. 2, the significant segments of the proposed EFBE are edge based composition coding and shape coding. The shape coding is performed in two steps: 1) polygonal rough guess of shape limit, and 2) vertex coding. The composition and shape bits are multiplexed into a solitary bit stream. The EFBE has two modes of operation: autonomous shape- surface (IST) mode and ward shape-composition (DST) mode. The IST/DST switch permits the exchanging between the two modes. In the IST mode, the rectangular edge surface and feature object’s shape are encoded autonomously.

  1. Shape coding: Unlike the MPEG-4 which utilizes bitmap- based strategies for shape coding, the proposed EFBE utilizes form based method which fits the semantic shape characterization. The shape form as either the division veil’s limit or the framework shape representation of OOI is approximated by a polygon utilizing successive technique such that the separation between the polygon and the form is short of what or equivalent to a given average rough guess mistake δ . In consecutive strategy, the form is checked from an introductory indicate on the bend focus the longest conceivable edge having the rough guess blunder short of what or equivalent to δ. The procedure is rehashed with the end purpose of the current edge as the following beginning stage. The vertices of the polygon are coded utilizing the article versatile vertex

Fig 3. The horizontal and vertical distances of the vertex ai belonging to polygon A from polygon B.

encoding system depicted in . The measure of shape mutilation is controlled by differing the estimation of δÆ; the bigger the estimation of δ , the higher the shape twisting. Lossless shape coding is accomplished by setting δ–0 .

The separation between the polygonal rough guesses of OOI shape in the current and the reference casing is utilized to catch the measure of worldly variety fit as a fiddle. The separation between two polygons is processed as takes after. Let A and B be the polygonal estimates of the current and the reference OOI shape. Let hi and vi be the flat and vertical separation of the ith vertex of A from B (see Fig. 3). At that point the separation of A from B is defined as

DAB =max (di)

where di=min(hi , vi ). For the objects of investment, for example, talking-head, the variety OOI fit as a fiddle over an arrangement of adjacent casings is typically little. Accordingly when the lossy shape coding is craved, the shape data is not transmitted with each casing. Rather, the polygonal estimate of the current OOI shape is coded and transmitted just if the separation between the polygonal estimates of the current and reference OOI shapes is more prominent than or equivalent to an edge T . Overall no shape data is transmitted in the current edge. At the decoder, the most as of late decoded shape is utilized to distinguish the OOI if no shape data is available in the current edge.

2) Texture coding: The essential steps of composition coding in the EFBE are basically the same as those in a normal rectangular edge based encoder. These fundamental steps comprise of separating a feature outline into an exhibit of essential units called macro squares and preparing every macro square by applying discrete cosine change, quantization and variable length coding. Truth be told, the surface coding square in the EFBE can be any rectangular edge based feature encoder (e.g., MPEG- 1, MPEG-2 or MPEG-4 (basic profile) feature encoder). In our execution of EFBE, we have utilized MPEG-4 (straightforward profile) encoder for casing based feature composition coding.

Find Out How UKEssays.com Can Help You!

Our academic experts are ready and waiting to assist with any writing project you may have. From simple essay plans, through to full dissertations, you can guarantee we have a service perfectly matched to your needs.

View our services

In the DST mode, the shape data is utilized to alter the composition coding parameters. The fundamental thought is to encode the composition in the area having a place with the polygonal estimate of the OOI shape with a finer quantization as contrasted with whatever remains of the feature outline. The quantizer qualities utilized for the two locales are installed in the header data which is annexed to the shape bit stream. At the decoder, the decoded shape data is used to accurately distinguish the locale fitting in with feature question on the feature outline and the quantizer data in the bit stream header is used for disentangling the edge surface.

3) Multiplexing shape and composition bits: The proposed upgraded casing based feature coding plan includes the multiplexing surface bits with the extra bits comprising of the shape bits and the bits that are produced by the post- preparing stage for following and connecting the objects of investment. The proposed improved casing based feature decoders would use the extra bits to give the substance based functionalities. We utilize the client information parcel insertion plan for MPEG-4 is depicted for this reason. We join the shape bits, extra header bits and the connection data bits into client information and spot the client information into the bit stream created by the edge based composition coding piece of the EFBE.


The construction modeling of the proposed EFBE is planned such that it can be actualized as a basic augmentation of a current casing based encoder structural planning. The main extra multifaceted nature that EFBE adds to a casing based encoder is that needed for shape coding. At the point when an EFBE bit stream is gotten by a current traditional edge based feature decoder, the shape data exhibit in the bit stream would essentially be overlooked and just rectangular casing composition would be decoded and showed. Since the shape and surface are encoded autonomously in the IST mode operation of EFBE, the IST mode furnishes the retrograde similarity with the routine edge based feature decoders. Notwithstanding, the DST mode of EFBE

Fig. 4 The source videos used in our experiments: a) the first frame in Akiyo and the corresponding shape contour of the OOI, and b) the third frame in Foreman and the corresponding shape contour of the OOI,

does not help retrogressive similarity with the current customary edge based decoders on the grounds that the composition coding is reliant on the shape data in this mode of operation.

The installed shape data in the bit stream of the EFBE can be used to help a few substance based functionalities. At the beneficiary, the shape data of a feature protest in the bit stream encourages the identification of the locale having a place with the item as a hotspot on the rectangular casing. A hyperlink can be accommodated the item on the rectangular casing when a client initiates the article by clicking on the hotspot. Subsequently the decoded feature works just about like a Web page, permitting individuals to connect with the picture on the screen. Such a feature bit stream in which a connection and substance data is connected with a district on a feature casing is for the most part alluded to as Hyper Video. Besides, lossy shape coding can be utilized to accomplish higher clamping.

The annotation of feature hyperlinks as little symbols containing the polygonal estimate of article con- visit can be shown at the base of the rectangular feature for a client to distinguish the problem areas in an edge. Here, the annotations give a thought regarding the present, past and next scenes to a client through the showcase of polygonal close estimations that give semantic depiction of the items in the scenes. This will permit a client to effortlessly look for a scene in a feature. Besides, amid quick forward or quick invert operations, no one but shape can be decoded and showed as opposed to deciphering the whole rectangular casing surface.

In the event that the limits of the shape cover consummately match the genuine limits of OOI (as on account of shape data acquired through the standard blue-screen system in studio situations), one may pick the lossless shape coding by setting the polygonal estimate lapse δ=0 . This permits the client to concentrate the OOI from the rectangular casing and overlay the OOI on a foundation picture of his own decision to show a feature scene which is unique in relation to the one present in the bit stream.

The DST mode of the EFBE is fit for giving extra substance based functionalities, for example, allocating distinctive quality, clamping, and lapse insurance levels to the areas of investment and the remaining zones in a feature outline.


The ordinary edge based feature encoder (CFBE) in the MPEG-4 Verification Model (VM) programming [1] is utilized as the premise to actualize the proposed EFBE. We joined the accompanying

modifications to VM programming: 1) expansion of our shape coding module, 2) conformity of quantization step focused around shape data in the DST mode, and 2) multiplexing the client information comprising of encoded shape data and the connection data of hotspots with the composition and header information.

We utilize the first 100 edges of the 30hz CIF-size Akiyo and Foreman feature groupings and related OOI shape forms in our analyses. Fig. 4 demonstrates an example outline and related OOI shape form in the first features. The feature successions are encoded at 10 edges/sec; so there are 34 coded casings in the bit stream.

Initially, we think about the execution of the IST mode of the EFBE with the execution of the CFBE. Since the surface coding in the IST mode of EFBE is the same as that in the CFBE, both the encoders yield the same feature quality. In this manner, we look at just the bit stream size. The accompanying encoder settings are utilized. A fixed quantization venture of Q=16 is utilized amid surface coding. For the EFBE, we have to define two extra parameters to be specific δ and T connected with shape coding. In our investigations, we set δ=10 and we use T=0 for Akiyo and T=5 for the Foreman. The Fig. 5 demonstrates the polygonal rough guess of OOI in an edge for δ=10 . The bitrates are recorded in Table I. Since T=5 is utilized for coding the state of Akiyo, we saw in our tests that the OOI shape was encoded in just four out of the 100 casings and the aggregate number shape bits in the whole bit stream was 720; 720/34=21 along these lines the normal number of shape bits for every edge is , which is an irrelevantly little esteem as contrasted with the normal number of surface bits. If there should be an occurrence of the Foreman, the state of OOI in each one casing is encoded in light of the fact that T=0. We watch that the shape bits are 0.125% and 1.29% of the surface bits for Q=8 and Q=16 , separately. On the other hand, this little extra overhead of shape bits in the EFBE bit stream as contrasted with the CFBE bit stream is incredibly justified by the benefit attained as far as a few helpful substance based functionalities that the shape data empowers.

We introduce the correlation of the execution of the DST mode of the EFBE with that of the CFBE utilizing the Foreman feature. A fixed quantization venture of Q =16 is utilized for all the

macro pieces in CFBE. Though in the DST mode operation of EFBE, a lower quantizer (Q =8) is utilized for OOI district and higher quantizer ( Q=31) is utilized for the remaining piece of the casing to attain almost the same composition bits as that needed by CFBE. For the shape coding in the DST mode of the EFBE, we set(δ=10 T=0 ) . The quality and bitrate for the first Intra-edge encoded by the two encoders are exhibited in Table II. A higher PSNR for the OOI area is attained at the expense of lower PSNR for the foundation district as contrasted with the general PSNR acquired with the CFBE. The EFBE requires extra 128 bits for coding the state of the OOI


The building design and configuration of the proposed improved casing based feature encoder is introduced. The fundamental point of the proposed encoder is to give an upgrade to the traditional edge based coding. It is conceivable to attain a few helpful substance based functionalities by inserting the coded representation of a feature object’s form alongside the coded surface in the bit stream,. The overhead of extra bits needed for shape coding is short of what 2% of the aggregate bits of the customary edge based coding in our exploratory results.


Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Related Services

View all

DMCA / Removal Request

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have your work published on UKEssays.com then please: