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All organizations that are currently undergoing some kind of change. Many of these programs on the changes resulting from management practices, such as culture change, business process engineering, empowerment and quality of the whole. Other initiatives, the changes are dependent on the needs of the organization to reposition the face of changing competitive conditions.
A good example is the ongoing process of change at Marks & Spencer. "Strategic Change" The term is usually reserved for such initiatives. These transitions are often related radicals in the organization, which includes strategy, structure, systems, processes and culture. Success in implementing strategic change in organizations is poor. Many simply do not understand that the implementation (which is actually turning plans into reality), and not the wording that is difficult. To the strategic objective becomes a reality, it is necessary to change the way people behave in organizations. This will require more restructuring and new systems.
Background of change
Faster pace of change is the starting point. Sure, companies live in times of change, indeed, more turbulent age than ever. But what was true for many years. What happened to that last, managers realized that without changes in not only miss opportunities, can kill or paralyze society. Even if an organization indulges in finally change may be too late to prevent continual arthritis of the company.
Marks & Spencer has been horribly damaged, not only by his lawyer about the size of its reserves, but by managing cattle demonstrated that corresponds to unravel. M & S, after serving what turned out to be a strong reflection of heavy blows of its reputation and profits fell by a few weak sales.
The worst thing is that Sun's statistics were accompanied by anecdotal evidence - bad choice of clothing for women, lack of resources, attractive shops - which confirmed that the problems were not resolved. M & S knew that he needed the conversion to a retailer who fleet feet, a magnet for vendors and managers, and a dynamic leader in the field of fashion. But M & S was never one of those three things.
During the long reign of dominance Rick Greenbury, the consolidated unnecessary functions from the past: from top to bottom, slowly and deeply conservative.
Description of changes in the organization
The process of change can be difficult, may be slow and painful. People by nature do not like change. Companies naturally do not like change. The question is whether we want to drive the implementation of strategic changes in our business, how much pain we are ready to commit to adopting means for change?
We must first ask the reasons for changes in the business environment? There are four modes of changes that may occur in any company and be seen as the primary cause.
The theory of change management
Managing change in the tradition of organizational development, considers the organization of social systems, and therefore relates to humanistic element in conjunction with the mechanics of the organization. The aim is to improve the efficiency and prosperity by facilitating the organization of the development process so that eventually the organization is able to solve their problems and adjust if necessary. Therefore, in order to implement effective change, the scientist-physician must be able to adapt and apply appropriate rules to the current situation.
Familiar models for inclusion in our 'theories in use "were selected for their usefulness, adaptation and integration of members of the organization. They are listed below.
Planned changes to the model of Lewin (1951)
These changes in the oldest and most fundamental are that Lewin's change model. It consists of three stages: melting, movement and refreezing. The publication is to reduce the peacekeeping forces of organizational behaviour. The movement involves moving behaviour of the organization and re-freezing is to stabilize the new state. Lewin's saw a change in behaviour of sources in the organization. These forces are trying to maintain the standard and those who fought for change.
Model of action research
The classical model of action research focuses on the planned changes as an iterative process in which a preliminary examination on the organization is a way for future research and future needs. Search in the initial phase is estimated to guide research.
The model focuses on the massive data collection and identification prior to any action taking place and a careful evaluation later. Emphasis is placed on the organization and work with your doctor to change all stages of the process.
Business model is based on the most current research approach to planned change and is often considered synonymous with the IP (Cummings and Worley, 2005)
According to Kotter, the plans should be established to "develop appropriate stages, achievable and measurable changes, while engaging, enable and facilitate the participation of people as quickly and as openly as possible" (Kotter, 1995, p. 2-3).
Changes must be realistic, achievable and measurable (Kotter, 1995, p. 6). These aspects are particularly relevant to management and changes in individual groups. Prior to the organizational changes, the organization must determine what it wants to achieve with this change, why and how he knows that change is achieved. It is the address that is affected by this change and how they will react. Finally, how changes in the organization are able to achieve alone and what aspects of the changes he needs a specialist or outside help to achieve.
Our diagnosis, offer interventions to deal with errors or problems and help Marks and Spencer in competition with other organizations. This list, which is not exhaustive credits towards a cultural change, but taking into account the wider context, which is defined at the beginning of the quantitative changes in corporate strategy are required. Therefore, the intervention process, which includes culture change, would be best suited for this case.
Transformational change is a relatively new organizational change. Is concerned about radical change and is essentially change the way the organization is perceived both internally and externally and how it works.
This type of change would be particularly relevant to the case of Marks and Spencer, as it must radically change the way you operate in a competitive environment.
The concept of organizational culture has brought a lot of research and culture, many models have been developed to define measure and observe the culture. However, little consensus about the nature of culture or to understand. Nevertheless, culture has become a very important part of the organization and activities covering a culture change have increased sharply.
Schein (1990), Millward (2005) model of culture is one of the most commonly used, consists of four layers at different levels of consciousness. In the centre of the basic assumptions (unconscious, reactions uncontested guide), values (this is important) and norms (how to behave), and finally, artefacts (observable behaviours and procedures).
This metaphor of culture cannot hope to capture all the elements of organizational culture, it is a useful tool in the study.
Need for change
To understand how organizations respond to the need for change, we must examine the organizational processes and management, organization transformation through additions, deletions or changes to the resource base leads to the attainment of these processes of change. We need to know not only what the organization which markets will come, how fast they grow, but how they do it.
Factors that determine the need for strategic change
Organizations usually in response to changes in the external environment, as well as the development of competitive advantages in the organization. External environmental factors, including:
Such as changes in demographics and purchasing habits of consumers.
Legal pressures that force organizations to comply with the law changes, for example, in response to environmental legislation.
Relate to the booms and declines in economic activity in general, changes in interest rates, inflation, etc.
These are related to wider policy changes - for example the government to take a particular line of the privatization / role of government in society.
Technological aspects of technological advances - such as developing new methods based on point of sale by the company.
In addition to these factors, he slept a significant impact on the organization, making competition.
Slept analysis is an analysis of the major changes in the environment of the organization. This is sometimes called environmental scanning. Managing change is a key aspect of how the organization responds to changes in an appropriate manner.
Today's managers believe that in the future, organizations need more "leaders" who can use the talents of the organization in achieving its objectives, the development of a culture that believes change as an opportunity rather than a threat, regularly invent the organization, effectively planning and implementing change. To succeed in this environment, managers have to do the right things in the existing well-defined procedures and limitations. Predictable and stable environment reduces the need to mobilize the organization's capacity, flexibility, creativity and innovation.
The environment has changed radically, and successful organizations and their managers
should behave differently. Managers in today's environment are needed to transformation of the organization, to develop good relationships with internal and external stakeholders, run horizontally and vertically, and not the entire culture lines enable employees and the development of networks and alliances.
Stakeholders in developing a strategy change
Stakeholders are those who have direct interest in the organization and may be beneficial, and harmful to the organization if not properly treated if a policy is adopted in order to keep the company and they should also participate in company affairs and decision making. The system is planned in this direction in which we can pass our message to all actors in society and be in the best interest of the latter. Some of it is also relevant for people who do not want to change or resist change. The behaviour of these people also consider.
Resistance to change
Responses to organizational change initiatives are no different. In the beginning there is a small proportion of the early adopters - those who want to participate, because I just changed a breakthrough that will lead to better conditions. Most of the people affected by the initiative of the changes will be far less enthusiastic than the early adopters, but over time they will eventually accept and adjust to it. Finally, the group will not be very resilient, many of whom will never adapt to the changes in place. This range of behaviour results from a normal distribution. It is a natural phenomenon intuitively understood by most managers of change. Unfortunately, though perhaps unconsciously, to understand the phenomenon, these managers often do not use this knowledge to better organize an effective change.
The aim is to adopt the first to develop their support and consciously use their influence to speed up the most reluctant to change. It is important to understand that they do not reflect the impact of hierarchical position. Leaders are natural leaders and respected functional experts who are well connected. They are nodes in the social, business, politics and communications networks, and their sphere of influence goes beyond the scope of their parent organization. While these influential illustrate its support for the changes, they are a marketing tool more powerful than any message issued by the office of managing change.
Strategies should be performed on the leaders of high or medium, the goal is to transform them into the first users, and use its influence over the end of the interest or commitment. For those who cannot be pulled forward or to the small force, aims to accelerate the speed of their adaptation to help them better understand and prepare for the consequences of change.
It is also focusing on people who are able to adapt, but because of its unique combination of knowledge, skills or abilities, but a significant contribution.
Some people will be unwilling or unable to adapt to change. They are already able to demonstrate their acceptance and respect for a change, otherwise, may suffer the consequences clear. Include initiatives that will affect change, how it will affect them and what their reactions might be important for the success of the strategy changes.
When an organization brings new things about people, there will be problems. Participation, involvement and open, early, full communication are important factors.
How to tell change to people
The workshops are very useful process to develop a common understanding, methods, principles, methods, systems, ideas, etc.
Surveys are useful to repair the damage and lack of trust among employees - if you allow people to fill them out anonymously, and provided that publish and implement the findings. You cannot force change - individuals and teams must have the right to seek their own solutions and responses, the facilitation and management support, tolerance and compassion for managers and executives. Management style and leadership behaviour are more important than intelligence and the political process. Employees must have confidence in the organization.
A leader must listen to and work with these ideas, or change can be very painful, and soon will be lost in the process.
You may also find that the main problem is the resistance of the people and defence of someone who is in the organization, what you do. After this challenge, you can begin to compare what is happening with what the organization intends to do (mission, values, goals, priorities, targets, key performance indicators, process measures), as people feel things (marketing, maintenance workers, morale and attitudes ) as well as customers and suppliers feel too much (in fact, go out and find clients and former clients in particular).
Follow the protocol is very difficult - you have properly with people and explain who you are and what you do. Be polite. Respect the people more than usual; because they are sensitive, it is understandable.
The framework for change management at Marks & Spencer
Marks & Spencer has been under pressure to change the external economic factors and not yet answered correctly. It is for this reason that the approach proposed amendment is necessary to initiate and implement change is being driven by the management of physician (s).
Using current models and theories of change management in the organization development, proposed a framework for planned changes that could be used by Marks & Spencer.
Context of Changing
First, in the context of the situation to be addressed in order to develop appropriate methods of change. This can be done in three dimensions:
The volume changes
â€¢ Incremental change to solve specific problems such as lack of communication and low customer satisfaction
â€¢ Quantum amendment to change the basic functioning of organizations, including the structure and culture
Degree of organization
â€¢ Over-organized where policies are too rigid for effective action due to poor communication, conflict avoidance, etc.
â€¢ Sub-structured where there is too little regulation for the effective operation due to lack of direction and coordination structure.
Domestic vs International
â€¢ Cultural differences, especially between Eastern and Western societies, for example, Asian countries tend to be hierarchical and North America deal with individuality. It can be difficult to implement change, which encourages openness among employees when it is not viewed positively.
In the case of Marks and Spencer, the magnitude of change is that major changes in the quantum of culture, structure and strategy must be addressed. They will be included in the applied intervention. They are also highly organized society with the management system now that he is honoured to be part of the overall problem. Although the system successfully in the past, is steeped in ancient culture and able to adapt to a redesigned image of Marks & Spencer. Therefore, the process of change at Marks & Spencer will focus on "softening" of the structure. General review, Marks & Spencer, will be treated as a citizen of the operation of this case, since closed down its operations in Europe and North America sold its franchise stores in Hong Kong.
The model change is composed of seven steps to help developers to the key issues of transformation. Activities focus on people, leadership, trust, vision, empowerment, celebration and institutionalization. Despite the emerging linear stages can occur simultaneously. Effective communication is the mortar. There must be open and honest communication in every step of the process, and communication needs to combine these steps together. Nothing can destroy the effort to change sooner or permanently, that poor communication.
Here are the steps for effective transition.
Assessment and solve human problems
Contractor changes need to invest time and effort to understand the problems of people does not appear in place of those who suffered, and then practice the golden rule of treating others as they would be treated.
Exercise strong leadership in the organization
Without strong leadership, positive change will not. Leadership can no longer be the domain of a few organizations - all the staff responsible should do what it takes to achieve organizational goals. This is especially true when change must occur. Many must step in and assume leadership. Spreading leadership and decision-making responsibilities, inspires and motivates everyone to play a role in implementing the changes.
Building trust in the leadership
Confidence is simply the belief that it would suffer if threatened. Obviously, the level of mutual trust between labour and management or between supervisors and subordinates affects the health of the organization.
Clearly articulate the vision to all
If you want to change, please explain the reason and purpose of fundamental change. People cannot have a real idea of where the organization is or what problems it faces. You have to tell them. They need to understand the purpose for the desired result. Be prepared to answer these questions: What is the problem? Who said that? What happens if you do not change?
Creating an helpful environment
Organizations can do everything possible to prepare the ground for change - in response to the concerns of people in order to demonstrate strong leadership, building trust, formulating a vision - all, that is, but to create an environment to enable success.
Honest answer is that you can get almost as much as you want to manage anything else of a turbulent, messy, chaotic nature, it is not really manage it, talk with her. It is a question of leadership is one of management skills.
The first thing to do is jump in. You cannot do something outside.
A clear sense of mission or purpose is essential. A simple mission, the better.
Building a team that can work hard and one of them is the team leader.
Pick people with relevant skills and high energy levels. You'll need two.
Set flexible priorities. You must have the ability to drop what you're doing and tend to something more important.
Treat everything as a temporary measure.
Ask for volunteers. You will be surprised that arises. You will be pleasantly surprised what you can do.
Find a good boss or team leader and stay in his way.
In concluding this report, we can say that effective reforms introduced to the strategy are to maximize the huge returns if these changes are well managed.
In this report, and Spencer takes on the characters thinking and different models are also discussed to show the strategic shift from Marks & Spencer, which is a leading company in the UK, but suffered from some activities for that has to change, and finally models Kotter and Lewin's, a representative of the role of stakeholders that their existence in the affairs of the company is very necessary to be able to join in their decisions and At last appropriate model is also developed, which will provide guidance for better performance.