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Majority of organizations have a management structure that determines the relationships between the members and different activities happening within the organisation, the responsibilities ,the assigned roles and finally the authority to carry out different tasks. Organizations are open systems, their surroundings or environments affect them and they in turn affect their environment.
What do organisations do?
The ultimate goal of an organization is the ability working together. The strength of an organization arises from its capacity for coordination of systems, people, and activities. Coordination and integration is very essential to every single organisation, because this not only helps the organisation grow, but also makes it stronger as a unit. So therefore integration and coordination are the most advanced tools of an organisation.
What are they composed of?
Organisations are composed of major subsystems, such as teams, groups, departments and programmes etc. departments, programs, divisions, teams, etc. Each of these subsystems has a way of doing things to, along with other subsystems.
How are organisations; organised? Organisations are made up of different sub structures.
In any organization employees duties are typically defined by who they report to, what they do, and for the managers, who reports to them. As the organization grows bigger these roles are assigned to positions within the organization rather than to specific individuals. The best an organization is organized depends on many factors including the work it does; its size in terms of labor, capital, revenue, and the location of its facilities; and the types of the businesses the organization is involved in.
Are they all the same; or are there differences?
Organisations are not all the same
If they are different; in what way do they differ?
Organisations differ through the structures a particular organisation chooses to run its firm on.
What are the reasons for the differences?
Seminar Question Two
Why is understanding the context within which an organisation operates important?
(Remember you should be using the literature to develop and support your answers)
The organizational context refers to the scope of an entity, such as an entire organisation, a sub-organisation within the overall organisation, a work unit, a parent organization a work role etc. There are three perspectives to which an organisation operates; they are the strategic, tactical and operational. The strategic focuses on long term needs within the organisation, the tactical focuses on long term needs within the organisational context, and the operational perspectives is based on users task within the organisation.
Seminar Question three
What benefit would strategic decision-makers gain from utilising a definitive framework and following a specified strategy development and deployment process?
Strategic management evaluates the major initiatives taken by a company's top management on behalf of owners, involving resources and performance in external environments. It specifies the organization's vision, mission, and goals. It helps shapes up policies and plans, often in terms of certain target to be meet or projects and programs, which are designed to achieve these goals.
According to recent studies carried out by leading management theorists strategy needs to start with stake holders' expectations when dealing with any major problem.
Strategic management provides guidance and an overall direction to the firm. According to Arieu (2007), "there is strategic consistency when the actions of an organization are consistent with the expectations of management, and these in turn are with the market and the context."
Seminar Question Four
Carry out a PESTLE analysis of a nationally operating retailing organisation. Discuss the results of your analysis and any conclusions you can make concerning the organisations mid to long term future. What trends might be useful to monitor as a performance indicator for strategic actions the organisation might take? Use the PESTLE grids we looked at this week and submit copies with your answer
PESTLE ANALYSIS FOR COCA-COLA
Coca-Cola, the largest manufacturer, distributor and marketer of beverage drinks in the world as of today. Coca-Cola is recognized as the world's most valuable brand in the beverage industry. They have the world's largest beverage distribution system, plus boasting total consumers in more than 200 countries
Government regulations and rules make Coca-Cola follow and open strict laws and regulations. Government have potential fines and penalties set aside if they do not meet this rules. Different changes in laws and regulations, changes in non-alcoholic environment
Seminar Question Five
Conduct a review of the business literature, and then carry out a Five Force analysis of the Coca-Cola organisation.
Describe and discuss the results of your analysis
The competitive structure of coca cola organisation and can be analysed using Porter's five forces.
This model attempts to analyse the coca cola industry by considering five forces within its market.
The extent to which barriers to entry exist. The more difficult it becomes for other firms to enter the market, therefore making it more likely for existing firms to make more profits.
Coca cola as an existing brand would have a high level of loyalty form its customers and as an already existing it may react aggressively to any new entrant into its type of market.
Thirdly the stronger the power of buyers in an industry the more likely it is that they will be able to force down prices and reduce the profits of firms that provide the product. There would also be heavy competition coca cola faces regularly from its different rivals such as Pepsi, and since there is a high degree of rivalry that exist between these two fierce competitors, it would be relatively hard for coca cola to generate high profits.
In addition, supplier power plays a big role in Coca-Cola operating strategy because, if the supplier power is strong, then it would be difficult for Coca-Cola to make high profits if the suppliers determine the terms and conditions on which the business is run.
Finally Coca-Cola is likely to generate higher returns if the industry Is difficult to enter, there are limited rivalry, the buyers are relatively weak, Suppliers are also relatively weak, and there are few substitutes. On the other hand from my review, they would make low returns, if the suppliers are strong, there are numerous substitutes available, there is a high degree of rivalry between the firms, buyers are strong, and the industry is easy to enter.
Seminar Question Six
In an organisation change programme after PESTLE and 5 force analysis have been completed the 7S Model specifies seven factors that are classified into soft and hard elements. Soft elements are skills style and shared values, while the hard elements on the other hand are easily identified and influenced by management. The hard elements are systems, structure and strategy.
Seminar Question Seven
When considering the Boston Matrix explains what causes products and services to be "cash users, cash neutral or cash generators".
Explain why an organisation might decide to keep providing a product or service long after it has reached the decline and low return stage of the life cycle.
Cash cows have high customer loyalty and own a high percentage of the market share .This is because customers have a good understanding of the product and most times are loyal, and less marketing support is needed to promote the particular good or service.
These high sales results in economies of scale so therefore the average unit costs are relatively low. Profit margins, on the other hand, are likely to be on the high side because the product is a major cash generator.
Seminar Question Eight
What would the value chain of a university look like?
Produce a value chain model and a short description. Make some suggestions of how to improve the cost effectiveness of some of the value chain elements.
Seminar Question Nine
Produce a table that records the features of the competitive positioning strategies of:
Ryan Air, BMW and Rolls Royce.
Where do each of these organisations fit in the Porter Generic Strategy Model?
Describe how each organisation sustains their competitive advantage
Seminar Question Ten
The key stakeholders for the University of Huddersfield are:
The students /parents alumni:
The students want a good valued degree leading to further study or graduate employment. A good caring safe student experience with a good quality accommodation and top class facilities is also needed. Furthermore high standards of teaching and academic support
3. Employees businesses
4. School colleges
5. Applied research funders