Motivation Theories Maslows Hierarchy Commerce Essay


It is interesting to learn more about motivation because it has a long way to grow a business. First of all, motivation can be explained in simple terms as "desire or willingness to do something; enthusiasm: keep staff up to date and maintain interest and motivation" (Oxford dictionaries online, 2012). Motivation can be defined as "Motivation is a reflection of the reasons why people do things. All behavior is therefore based on choice-people choose to do things that they do" (Richard, 2007, p553). Moreover, Cole states that "Motivation is the term used to describe those processes, both instinctive and rational, by which people seek to satisfy the basic drives, perceived needs and personal goals, which trigger human behavior". (Cole, 1995, p119).The motivation is one of the employer needs which encourage him to be more loyal and work with more enthusiasm.

Motivation theories

Maslow's Hierarchy

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Maslow's theory relates motivation to a hierarchy of needs with basic needs at the bottom and higher needs at the top as in Figure 1. The first level is the physiological needs such as food, housing and clothing…is it enough to allow you to enjoy life. The second level is safety needs it is needs for stable environment relatively free from threats and it is security that your job is safe and secure that your working condition are safe. The fourth level is love and belonging it is being recognized for doing your job well, for example a feeling of belonging with your colleagues they support you and communicate with you. The fifth level is self-actualisation it is being promoted and more responsibility also given the chance and the scope to develop new ideas. ( Richard,2007,p557, from class)

Maslow argued that there was a relationship between the different classes, the needs at the bottom of the hierarchy are basic and they need to be satisfied before a person can move on to the next level. For example an individual has not eaten; he or she feels hungry and as a response he or she eats and diminishes feelings of hunger so he or she cannot work well before this need is satisfied.

Maslow's theory became an early useful framework for discussions about what people needs may experience ate work also the ways in which their motivation can help them to meet managers.

One criticism of this theory is that systematic movement up the hierarchy does not seem to be a consistent form of behaviour for many people.

Figure 1: Hierarchy of needs (GOOGLE)

Taylor's Scientific

Taylor's motivation theory is created in 1911 and this theory is called a scientific management theory, that's mean a relation between science and management at the organization of work. According to Taylor's research motivation thinks that money is the first thing which motivates people to work. But give to the employers some promotion and time to think about them self can help them to improve and work more seriously. Taylor believed that monetary reward was an important motivating factor. This is known as 'piece work'. He lined how much money a person earned to how much the produced in a day. Their output was linked to a piece rate if people worked hard and produced a lot that day they would earn a lot of money, if they didn't work hard and didn't produce much they would not earn a lot of money that day. (From class)

There are some problems with Taylor's approach. He treats people as machine rather than as humans. He assumes that people are only interested in getting money from work in fact people want other things from work, a service of achievement, friendships with colleagues and work fulfills more than just monetary needs.

Elton Mayo

Elton Mayo (1880-1949) participated in Human relations Movement. He contributed with the social research performed at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago, USA, between 1927 and 1932, and named the Hawthorne Studies. Elton Mayo is considered as the founder of the human relations movement. He was working on some studies concerning fatigue; accidents and labor turnover at work when he was approached by executives of the Western Electric Company for advice. The studies were conducted over several years in a number of different stages, as follows: first stage (1924-1927). This was carried out by the company's own staff under the direction of Messrs Pennock and Dickson. This stage was performed with respect to the effects of lighting on output. One group, had a consistent level of lighting, the other group had its lighting varied. The experimental group productivity increase even when the lighting was reduced to a low level. Stage two (1927-1929) is to make more detailed study of the effects of differing physical conditions on productivity. In this research the separated six women working in the relay assembly section from the rest and they give them rest pauses and lunch times different in timing and in length. The result was that their productivity increased in better and worse conditions. The women productivity increased because they were the center of attention.(Cole,2004,p33)

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Mayo suggested that motivation at work was promoted by such factors as:

-a good communication with the employer

-a good teamwork which the employer feel relaxed

-showing interest in others

-ask the other before to make a decision

-ensuring the wellbeing of other

-ensuring work is interesting and non-repetitive

Mayo believe that motivation encourage employer to work more and to choose their position in the work.

1-4 Herzberg

Herzberg concentrated on satisfaction and dissatisfaction at work. His theory is sometimes called the two-factor theory which divided into:

-Motivators factors or satisfiers for example: work itself, responsibility, achievement.

-Hygiene factors or dissatisfies for example salary, company policy, working conditions.(Cole,2004,p37)

The factors of motivators are all related to the actual content of the work place and job responsibilities.

The hygiene factors are good or adequate will not in themselves make the person satisfied, by ensuring that they are indeed adequate. In other part, where these aspects are bad, extreme dissatisfaction was reported by all respondents.

The work of Herzberg has tended to encourage attention to such as factors as:

Suitable supervision which encourages the labor force rather than restricts it.

Job enlargement programs, job enrichment and job satisfaction which can often be increased through work restructuring.

The setting and achieving of targets and objectives.

In order to manage the two-factor approach to motivation effectively, attention in the following areas:

-A management style, attitude and approach to staff, trust and honesty, limitations or technology concerned in the work itself.

-General factors of status, believed in, given opportunities for change and development of the organization.

-staff has a good relationship between each other that is facilities the successful of the activities within organization.(Pettinger,2007,p560)

David McClelland

McClelland (1961) and his colleagues have examined how people think and their work led them to identify three categories of human need which are:

Need for affiliation: to develop and maintain interpersonal relationships.

Need for achievement : to show successful task results and take personal responsibility

Need for power: to be able to influence and control others and to shape events. (Boddy,2002,p399)

McClelland secluded need for achievement as a main human motive, and one that is influenced strongly by personality and by environment.

Humans with a high need of achievement seem to have characteristics such as: their need for achievement is consistent, they seek tasks in which they can exercise personal responsibility, they prefer tasks which present a challenge without being too difficult and which they see as within their mastery and they want feedback on their results. Also they are less concerned about their social or affiliation needs.

McClelland realized that the need for achievement is affected by education, childhood experiences and culture background. Therefore designing helping programmes can help increase the achievement motive in employees at work place.

Using motivation theories in business

It is important when doing investigative work, especially about motivation, that we remember that the existing theories on human behavior are just that - theories. Theories are there to be challenged. Over a period of time, theories come and go. Just because you read one theory does not mean to say it is exactly what happens or that is how humans behave. As time passes and we gain new knowledge, theories may become totally discredited. The identification of the fact that business organisations employ people because of the contribution they make to production. In return for that contribution, people receive money in the form of a wage or salary.The successful of business start from the motivation theory for example if a firm can motive its employees after that it can improve employee morale and increase productivity then the business will be enhance. (bized, 2012). Motivation within the institution is when leaders encourage their subordinates to accomplish their tasks and provide a suitable environment in which they feel able to work. Employees give of themselves to change the work environment, considering each as an employee in order to ensure the proper functioning of the company so that its resources are fully optimized. Ensure that the tasks well paid because employees are a "Family Company" that is why they are the first team success, in order to generate intense harmony between all members of the institution to create its own culture the company. This allows the institution to stand very well on the socio-economic and financial institution made ​​him guaranteed future periods, since everyone is projected to a plane that is the health of the firm as the short, medium and long term. (Memoire online, 2012)

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The successful of business start from the motivation theory for example if a firm can motive its employees after that it can improve employee morale and increase productivity then the business will be enhance as in figure2:

Figure2 (Madura,2007)

A firm may not be able to motivate some employees, regardless of its efforts or the methods used to motivate them. If not form of motivation is effective, the threat of being fired may serve as a last resort to motivate these employees. Firms can enhance job satisfaction and therefore motivate employees by providing: an adequate compensation program, which aligns compensation with performance; job security; employee involvement programs and a flexible work schedule. A firm's decisions regarding the motivation concepts summarized here affect its performance, if a firm can motivate its employees, it can improve employee morale and increase productivity. While there are many motivation theories, the proper form of motivation varies with the firm's characteristics and may even vary among employees.(Madura,2007)

Example of company using a motivation theories

Case study: Kellogg's

Kellogg's created in 1898 from W.K. Kellogg, and his brother, Dr. John Harvey Kellogg and this company produced the delicious recipe for Kellogg's Corn Flakes. In 2006, The Kellogg Company celebrated its 100-year commitment to nutrition, health and quality. In this time e Kellogg Company is the world's leading producer of breakfast cereals. Its products are manufactured in 18 countries and sold in more than 180 countries also it has been a leader in health and nutrition.

The most important of success the company it return from adapt the motivation theory. Kellogg's culture supports its role as a good employer. Employees are encouraged to speak positively about each other when focusing on their strength. The creating of a great place to work for Kellogg's is supported by the motivation theory.

First of all Kellogg's adapt the motivation theory of Maslow by every employee is motivated to work through each of 5 levels and it's positive effects for each employee and the company for instance:

In physiological needs: Kellogg's offers competitive salaries this helps people to acquire the basic needs for living. Also Kellogg's gives people a childcare vouchers, cash alternatives to company cars and discounted life assurance schemes. These things help workers to be motivated and to be loyal to the company.

In safety needs: Kellogg's securities the safety of all employees. The company is responsible to give a safe and healthy work environment to prevent accidents. Kellogg's also offers employees a range of working patterns. For example some may want to work part-time others may want career breaks or undertake homeworking. This will be a variety of options for the employees in a healthy work-life balance.

In social needs: Kellogg's operates weekly group 'huddles'. These provide opportunities for employees to receive information on any part of the business, including sales data and company products. Kellogg's positively recognizes and rewards staff achievements.

In self-actualization: Kellogg's supplies employees with the possibility to take stimulating responsibilities and on challenging. This is helpful to the employees to develop and improve. For example:

Laura Bryant joined Kellogg's in 2002 after fished her university. She joined the Field Sales team initially that help her to visit five to ten supermarkets a day to develop relationships at a local level. After two years she was promoted to Customer Marketing Manager at Head Office. This helped to increase her profile as she wanted to move into marketing. By encouraging from her manager, Laura made the transition from Sales to Marketing as Assistant Brand Manager on Rice Krispies and Frosties. In 2009 she was promoted again to manage the marketing plan for Special K and she is now Brand Manager for Kellogg's Cornflakes. The company has helped motivate her to raise the hierarchy of needs and achieve her career ambitions.

In the second part Kellogg's adapt the motivation of Taylor for example many employees are motivated by cash alternatives which include the opportunity to buy and sell their holiday days. Also Taylor's theory breaks down jobs into specialist tasks through the division of labor and this is corresponds to large companies like Kellogg's. Also the staffs of the company are encouraged to be creative and use their imagination to contribute towards change.

In the third part, Kellogg's apply the motivation theory of Mayo in keeps a two-way dialogue with employees through its communication programs. This is helpful to allow the workforce. Kellogg's has kind of dialogue recording for communication like this one:

'Here at Kellogg's listening is a central premise of the way we work. We believe that our employees have some of the best ideas and that a successful company is one that listens to the grass roots feedback and acts on it. Any employee can raise an issue or a suggestion via their rep who will raise it at one of their monthly meetings.' (Sue Platt, HR Director)

The Kellogg's suggestion box scheme helps to improve productivity and making business a great place to work. Also Kellogg's helps to generate ideas and has an initiative called 'Snap, Crackle and Save' an employee suggestion scheme to save costs within the supply chain.

For example a lot of ideas have been put forward over the last couple of years. One idea suggested that one thickness of cardboard could be used for packaging in all manufacturing plants in Europe. This saved around £250,000 per year. Kellogg's helps personal development planning for employees which includes provisions such as study leave as part of staff development. This reinforces staff commitment and their sense of being treated well.

In the fourth part, Kellogg's adapt the motivation theory of Herzberg by developed a number of motivating factors. For example this company has a 'Fit for Life' program offering to the employees' access to fitness centers, annual fitness assessments by healthcare specialists every spring and free health checks. It also provides a summer hours from May to September so if employees have worked a lot of hours they can adjust their working hours to balance their work against family or lifestyle commitments. This motivation is related to Herzberg because in the workplace he want to give individuals job satisfaction These include, for example, promotion or recognition for effort and performance also the level of responsibility of the job. . Herzberg believed that businesses needed to ensure hygiene factors were minimised in order to enable motivators to have their full effect, because hygiene factors make the employees in the work place feel unhappy. This motivation from Herzberg helps Kellogg's to build a business that delivers consistently strong results. For example:

- Home working, part-time working, flextime and job sharing.

- Subsidized access to local facilities or on-site gyms

- Parental leave, career breaks, time off for depends and paternity and maternity.

This an example of employee works with Kellogg's:

"Claire Duckworth works in the Consumer Insight team at Kellogg's. She takes part in Latin American ballroom dancing competitively with her partner. They are ranked 7th in England in the over-35 category. Flexible working at Kellogg's enables her to travel to events and provides her with the opportunity to pursue her hobby at a serious level. This opportunity to adjust her working life to accommodate her personal ambitions makes Claire feel respected and supported".

Also the Kellogg's sales team meets every Friday morning to share success stories of the week.


This case study illustrates the range of different motivation measures in practice at Kellogg's. It demonstrates that highly motivated employees can improve efficiency, output and quality for a business. Kellogg's is able to make work a more profitable and competitive business also more exciting and interesting experience for employees whilst creating a more productive.

Conclusion: The importance of Motivation Theory

Motivation at work is the taste that the subject has to do, the extent to which it involves, perseverance, continuity of effort he agrees.

Motivation resulting from the satisfaction, it is important to specify certain criteria which are:

· The work itself,

· The economic level it provides,

· Relations in which he bathes.

Operation depends as much on human motivational balance and satisfaction of the tension on the search for new tensions, thus some form of imbalance, for example, when a project (cognitive or social) is the subject humans often developed another action project, he tries to carry and so on. Arguably enhancing cognitive and social activities is their own creation and not in an external object.