Within an organisation, the management is a process of five fundamental functions, planning, controlling, organising, staffing and leading. Human Resource management (HRM) is the planned and logical approach to the management of an organisation especially in regards to its assets for example the staffs who independently contributes to the achievement of the business objectives. HRM is also the function that concentrates on the policies and practices that need to be carried out within the organisation, including recruiting screening, training, rewarding, and appraising and other such activities.
Having HRM in a business is very essential and there are many reasons why it is important. If there is not an effective process of human resource management within an organisation there is a chance that many things that are not useful for the organisation could occur such as hiring an unsuitable person for the job, workers not doing their best, business time wasted with useless interviews and experiencing legal and labour issues. On the other hand, a good HRM system would allow the organisation to experience high turnover and give the organisation support in achieving good outcomes. HRM is a method of getting individuals and organisations together so that the goals and objectives of each are accomplished. There are a variety of characteristics of HRM which include it being present in all enterprises, it also focuses on results rather than on rules and policies and it tries to assist workers to fully develop their working potential. HRM also encourages workers to give their best to the organisation and produce good results and it also helps an organisation meet its aims by building and maintaining good relations with people working at different levels in the organisation.
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In commercial organisations and businesses, the HRM is influenced by many different factors which also affect its strategy. These include:
â€¢ Size of the workforce and arrangement
â€¢ Increasing expectations of employees
â€¢ Radical modifications in technology and life-style
â€¢ Environmental challenges
â€¢ Impact of new economic policies and political ideologies of the Government
â€¢ Existing culture in the organisation
There are four common objectives of HRM:
Societal objective: To be socially responsible for the needs and challenges of the society.
Organizational objective: To recognize HRM exists to contribute to organizational effectiveness. Simply stated the department exists to serve the rest of the organization.
Functional objective: to maintain the department's contribution at a level appropriate with the organization's needs. Resources are wasted when HR department is more or less sophisticated.
Personal objective: To assist employees in achieving their personal goals, personal objectives of employees must be given importance in order to retain, maintain and motivate them.
Under the Equality Act 2010 it is unlawful for an employer to discriminate against you because of your sex (DirectGov 2011). Men and women in the same employment have the right to equal pay for work of the same value.
Define equal opportunities (200)
Equal opportunity is a standard of non-discrimination which highlights the opportunities in education, employment and benefits, and also in other areas which should be freely available to all citizens in regards to their age, race, sex, religion, ethnic origin, or any other individual or group characteristic which is not related to ability, performance, and qualification. The right to equal opportunities is one that is given evenly to all. Since the Sex Discrimination Act 1975, there have been many issues raised of equal opportunities in the workplace for women. Equal opportunities is concerned with keeping within the law and ensuring that all personnel decisions concerning pay, recruitment and promotion are based only on an individual's ability to do their job well. This is achieved by pre-empting discrimination through a systematic policy approach to all aspects of personnel activities. Diversity is a more wide-reaching approach to equal opportunities work. It incorporates the principle that all workers should receive equal rights but, rather than ignoring the differences between people in terms of their gender and race, this diversity should be recognised and respected. By valuing the varying qualities that different workers bring to their job and organisation, managers may create an environment where everyone feels valued for their individual talents, and where his or her skills and competencies are fully utilised.Unleashing all employees' full potential benefits the bottom line.
Why it is important?
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Business are nowadays more interested in equal opportunities because it allows businesses to gain benefits. People are more attracted to businesses that have equal opportunities in place and have same policies in place for males and females. Over the past decades, gender inequalities has been an issue in the management system of organisations. This means that all employees are treated with fairness and respect in that they are not subject to discrimination or harassment in the workplace.Equal Opportunity is an outcome, not just a process. It is also very important to have equal opportunities set in the management of business as it attracts more clients, more customers and in turn more sales.
Â Factors that affect equal opportunities :
Small to medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and family businesses do not really take into account equal opportunities. On the other hand, large organisations value the human resources system and equal opportunities very much and it is essential for the daily running of their business.
Define managing diversity :
Managing diversity effectively follows on from, and expands on, equal opportunities. Diversity may be defined as the presence of differences among members of a social unit. Embracing diversity brings to an organisation a wide range of experience, ideas and creativity whilst giving the individual employee a feeling of being enabled to work to their full potential. Managing diversity means establishing a heterogeneous workforce to carry out its potential in an reasonable work environment where no member or group of members has an advantage or a disadvantage (Torres and Bruxelles, 1992). The focus of the workforce diversity issue has diverged from equal employment opportunities to effectively managing workforce diversity as an organisational essential. Managers should be able to bind the issues of managing cultural differences to the needs of the business and be well rooted in business issues, goals and results. Managing the diversity in an organisation should be considered by managers as an opportunity to serve the requirements of customers better and also to influence new markets. By valuing and managing different workers, it is possible to enhance flexibility, creativity and quick response to change.
Why is it important :
Companies that manage diversity among their employees can get the most benefit out of each employee's unique talents, experiences, insight and creativity. The successful management of workplace diversity reflects positively on a company. Many customers choose to do business with companies that are fair in both their hiring and promotional procedures. The companies that properly manage diversity within their organization can increase their chances of doing business with more diverse vendors and partners, even on an international level. Managing diversity means acknowledging people's differences and recognizing these differences as valuable; it enhances good management practices by preventing discrimination and promoting inclusiveness. Good management alone will not necessarily help you work effectively with a diverse workforce.
What problems women face in business especially management :
Much as the public and business people would like it otherwise, women are still facing obstacles that men are not. Yes, they have made progress, but there's a lot more to be done before they can drop the phrase 'special challenges'. Women have always taken part in the work force but have traditionally worked in lower-status jobs or at pay rates which are lower than men. For one point to consider, women are still working less than our male counterparts in management due to the male dominated. In a Boston Globe article titled, Gap shrinking, but women still working for less/Study cites gains; disparity lingers, 3/4/04, staff writer, Diane E. Lewis refers to a new study presented at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston the previous day. She states, "The pay gap between young men and women is smaller than it's ever been, but women still face an uphill climb in the workplace.
How equal opportunities overcome women problems in organisations :
With equal opportunies in place women are being treated fairly and equally. It also eliminates discrimination and encourages consultation between employers and employees on any issues.
Women have the right to work regardless of their colour, race, age or disability. There is no difference in pay or promotion. They are being treated the same.
How managing diversity in HR overcomes women problems :
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Managing diversity is about valuing differences. Women are treated with dignity and allowed to perform to their level of ability. From the organisation perspective it means improved effectiveness and efficiency.
In summary, the management process within an organisation consists of five fundamental functions which are planning, controlling, organising, staffing and leading. To make management more effective and more directive in terms of the organisation's workforce, human resource management is introduced into the organisation. HRM is the function that involves things such as recruiting, screening and policies.