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In this assignment as per question I am going to describe the motivation ,three different motivational theories and I choose Ryanair which is struggling by the demotivation of his staff and the high staff turnover .
Motivation is human psychological characteristic which shows the level of commitment towards a particular goal. Motivation shows that how employee think about his job, if he is motivated than productivity level will be high. Motivation linked with morale as well ,if the morale is high it shows employees job satisfaction and they are dedicated and loyal for their works. But if morale is low it results low productivity, absenteeism, and the high staff turnover. In another words performance mainly depend on motivation.
job performance= motivation +ability
Contemporary views on motivation
in this section we will be discuss about the three motivation theories which can be a good example for the managers who are struggling with the low motivation of staff and the high staff turnover and these theorise can help to learn how to motivate the staff .we are now going to talk about three types of theorises:-
1. Need theory
2 Expectancy theory
3 Reinforcement theory
Need theory of motivation was developed by Maslow which basically focuses on the basic needs of a person. It tells us that a person first motivated for food, wages, and shelter. This theory also explains that a person is motivated when he didn't get a certain level of satisfaction in his life. For example: - a child cannot be motivated for his class if he didn't take breakfast. According to this theory when a person fulfils his basic needs he move to next one.
For example:- a person who don't have basic things for survival like food, shelter so his first priority will be food .After fulfilling the basic needs he will looks for job security, protection , love belongings ,then he motivate himself to his self-esteem where he look for his status in society and in organisation where he is working and living .This theory shows us that a person can't be a motivator himself his needs didn't force him to motivate .
This theory was given by victor vroom.according to this theory everybody has his own gaol and his own set of objective .and they can motivate themselves only when they think that there is some connection between performance and efforts.if this performance results favourable for them and its satisfy the special needs so they can make efforts worthwhile.this theory contains more practical solutions rather than other theories .
We can understand this by a Â scenario that in a five star hotel tow marketing agents are on promotion stage for a marketing manager's job.mike who has a good marketing results in whole year and he always gets a good appraisal and good performance result .but he is little bit confuse to accepting this job because this job requires a lot travel,long hours working shifts ,more stress,and target pressure .but in another side paul wants this job as well.paul is also had a good results in last year he improve himself.and he think that he is a suaitable candidate for this job .now according to Expectancy theory paul is a suitable candidate for this job because he is motivated for the promotion and in another side mike is not motivated to get promotion.
This theory is contains reversiable process it means when you put any action different outcomes came these outcomes maybe positive or negative or .for example in any organisation when people do overtime and hardwork .for this outcome came with salary raise,promotions,or new skills but in negative approach they didn't get time to their social life
Managers can implement this theory in a several way.
Managers must make sure that workers should increase their performance level to achive their goals.
The dedicated workers must be reward as per their performance
This theory was given by BF Skinner and his associates . this theory is based on law and effect .this theory says that rewarded behaviour should be repeated again and again .but individual's behaviour which has a negative approach should not be repeated . this theory is the strong method to control or manage the individuals behaviour .
Positive reinforce used to gave a positive response for an individual who shows a appropriate behaviour for example:- when you ask your any employee to cover some other employees shift who is not coming because of sickness.and your employee has their own plan but you ask him and he ready to work do immediately praising .or any of your employee is very nice to customer just reward him on the spot that you done a great job.
Negative reinforce or punishment is for unsuitable behaviour which is not suppose to be at the work place for example:-any of your employee was rude to the customers .he must be punished or should be issued a warning
When implement reinforcement theory managers make sure that do not reward all empoloyees in a same manner .they should tell everybody that you did well this section but not here .
In this section I will be describe Ryanair motivation problem in all cabin crew and ground staff members .rayanair is a cheapest airline in Europe .according to deputy general of irish trade union ,Ryanair has a very high staff turnover in all department like pilots cabin crews, and the ground staff.its just because that all the employees have to pay some money for company for their own uniforms,meals,and training session. Instead of this company have to pay for them for everything and provide traning.
Because of this many of employees left the job and now they have to recruit the new peoples, so they recruit peoples from the agencies ,and they were not good .after that they ask pilots that pay for their retraining . A cabin crew member of Ryanair writes comment on a website where he wrote: " Ryanair does not care about its cabin crew and just takes the most they possibly can squeeze out of us. After a twelve hour day without a break, I don't have the energy to be nice to passengers or check that my nail polish is still on. Come on Ryanair start valuing what we do because without us you could not fly".
The Ryanair cabin crew member are not nice with passenger , we can see why thses are not loyal with them in the statement of a crew member on website . because the employees work hard but they are not treat as per their performance . they do the long shifts without any break because of this they become very stressed and it make them rude with their passengers .because of this there is a high staff turn over and Ryanair losing more passenger and its totally depend on staff motivation
According to Taylor's "scientific management" theory people motivate by money in other words wages or salary .but in Ryanair compare to their employees hard work ,long shifts and the working enviorment , wages and salary are not good which they deserve for .its true that Ryanair is a low cost airline but many other low cost carriers are not facing this type of staff turnover and their employees are getting good pay.
Ryanair boss have to be understand that without any dedicated and smart employees they will be no more in this industry and without any break working in long shifts is inhuman and paying for their uniforms ,food and even for training when you earning a less is not acceptable .
For this problem ryanair's human resource department should follow the Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory as I mention before that if rayanair will fulfil the basic needs of the employees like good wages ,friendly working environment ,and good training and development .the employees will be motivated to work and it will good for company's reputation as well as employees morale and after that they can serve in good manner for passengers.
Selection and recruitment process
In this section I will describe that what the process should be follow at the time of recruiting people.Recruitment and selection process should be done in a proper way because recruiting a wrong person can be harmfull for orgnistion to increase cost,labour turnover,and demotivating the morale of the exiting employees
Shortlisting - when company invite applications for any job there are a lot application and the CV send by candidates . the first procedure is shortlisting according to the requirements of the job, education and skills of a candidate .
Forms of assessments - for some jobs candidates may ask for a written test or making a presentation .its depend on the job profile .for example- for a engineer post a technical exam should be take to know about the candidates knowledge .
Interview - the purpose of conducting the interview is to know more about the candidate ,to know about the ability to do the job and to get some personal information.
Reference checks - this is the most important part of the selection process .which information you gathered from interview beside from this you can get information form reference check to insure the suitable candidate is hired .you can also verify the information which you got from interview Basicly effective employment depend on the recruitment and selection process. If you follow the appropriate process and you find a suitable candidate to perform the job according to the needs of the job .
it will be a good sign for organisation and for candidate as well because person will be motivated and he will do the job in appropriate way .but if you choose a wrong candidate it be a loss for company that investing money for his training , high staff turnover ,and low staff morale for working employees and for candidate that he will be demotivate to got a another job .
Your selection process should be fair enough because when you select candidates there should not be discrimination in the ground of sex, age ,religion or belief .it means you should provide a equal opportunity to all .because if discriminate people your existing may be demotivate. And in another side if you continuously choosing the wrong candidates for the wrong job ,so they are leaving the organisation time to time
it can be bad impression of company in your employees or may be outside as well same like Ryanair they choose the simple way of selection,because of this they couldn't find the good candidates to perform the duties and then staff was demotivated and staff turnover was very high.
For example:- A five stat hotel choose a candidate who don't have any experience in hotel industry for a front office assistant job and the hotel gave him training and develop his personality in one year, now when the time came to take back the investment which hotel invest to give training and development ,the candidate left the organisation because he think that there is no future for him in this organisation. It was just because of lack of motivation . it cost a lot for organisation in economically and its demotivate the existing staff members
Second example:- A airline appoint a fresh candidate as a cabin crew member and provide him a training by investing a lot of money but after sometime because of some reason airline transfer him in ground staff in a good position but because he was trained for cabin crew ,he don't know anything about the ground staff jobs.so his morale become low and he left the job and because of this airline lost a lot of money .and the other staff members demotivate.
By these two example we can understand that by using a right method of selection ,we can minimise the cost of organisation to selecting people . And we can offer a right job for right candidate according to his skills ,interest, and ability .
From the above assignment i have concluded that if any company is following the appropriate way of recruitment and selection as I wrote before ,there will be no motivation problem will be happen in the organisation and the managers can implement any motivation theory to motivate his staff. And to reduce the staff turnover, organisation must be fulfil the employees needs and give them right job for right person according to their ability and the performance level .Managers also must make sure that they provide appraisal to all employees time to time so they can check themselves as their performance basis .