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“ADSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS (Fe, Zn, Cr, Pb, Ni) WITH SOME AGRICULTURAL SOILS AND CORRELATION TO PHYSICO – CHEMICAL AND SPECTRAL ANALYSIS (including XRD, FTIR, Zeta potential, Particle size)”
- Role of Clays in Metal Adsorption
Soil is one of the key components for every single terrestric biological system. It gives the supplement bearing environment for vegetation and it is important for exchange of biomass and degradation. Soil is an extremely complex medium, which contains of soil matrix like minerals, organic matter and liquid phases, which connect with one another and ions particles entering the soil system [Ubaet al., 2009]. Soils get contamination due to accumulation of heavy metals and metalloids through discharge from rapidly developing industrial ranges, mine tailings, transfer of high metal squanders, leaded fuel and paints, land use of manures, fertilizers, wastewater system, sewage, pesticides, coal burning deposits, and spillage of petrochemicals [S. Khan 2008]. Heavy power metals constitute a non specific groups of inorganic compound, and most generally found at contaminated sites are lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), and nickel (Ni) [GWRTAC 1997]. Soils are more important for heavy metals discharged into environment conditions by previously stated anthropogenic movements and dissimilar to natural contaminants which are oxidized to carbon (IV) oxide by microbial activity, most metals don’t experience substance decomposition, and their total fixation in soils holds for a quite long time after their production [D. C. Adriano 2003]. Changes in their chemical structures (speciation) and bioavailability are possible. The toxic metals in soil can be extremely hindering the biodegradation of natural contaminants. Heavy metal contamination to the soil may let to high risk for humans and the biological system through, contaminated of soil, drinking of debased ground water, food chain decreases in the area, use for agricultural production causing food nourishment, and land issues [M. J. McLaughlin 2000].
1.2 Dominant Types of Clays in Various Types of Soils
There are mainly five types of soils, these types of soils are combined with three types of endures such as sand, clay, slit and the rock particles are made up by the soil.
- Soil Type: Sandy
Sandy soil has the largest particles among the different types of soil. It is very dry and rough to touch, because the particles have huge spaces between them, it can’t hold the water because due to large crack the water will drains rapidly.
- Soil Type: Silty
Silty soil has much smaller particles than sandy soil, and it is very fine and smooth to feel. During moistening condition, it is like lathered, silty soil retains water for longer time not like as sandy soil.
- Soil Type: Clay
Clay soil has the smallest fine particles among the three so it has very good quality of water storage. It is sticky to touch while in wet, but it is smooth in dry condition. Then it slowly drains the water and it has a tighter hold on plant nutrients. Clay soil is rich in plant food for their better growth.
- Soil Type: Peaty
Peaty soil is dark brown or black in color. It is soft and easily condensed due to its high water content, and rich in organic matter. Peaty soil is been mount by several years ago due to rapid melting of larva. Peaty contains acidic water, but growers use it to regulate soil chemistry or pH levels as well as an agent of disease control for the soil.
- Soil Type: Saline Soil
Saline soil present in the dry regions and it is usually brackish because of high salt content, known as saline soil; it can cause damage and stall plant growth, hinder germination, and cause difficulties during irrigation.
- Agricultural Pollution as A Source of Heavy Metal
It is more important to identify the sources and status of soil contamination by heavy metals, to take proper treatments to reduce soil contamination and agricultural pollution.
The early origin of heavy metals in soils are the initial materials from which the soils were determined, yet the impact of initial materials are on the total focus and manifestations of metals in soils is adjusted to changing the degrees by pedogenetic methods (Herawati et al., 2000). The regions influenced elegantly by human actions, were heavy metals in the soils are primarily derived from pedogenetic initial materials, and metals collection status was influenced by a few elements for example, soil moisturizes. These components were connected with indigenous clay minerals in the high soil in Al and Fe.
(2) Fertilizers and agrochemicals Heavy metals
The input of cropland soils, the fertilizers are expanding the concern toward their potential risk to the natural environment. [Lu et al. 1992] reported that the phosphate fertilizers are the major source for trace metals among every inorganic fertilizer, and there should be more attention to add Cd in the phosphate fertilizer. Soils in southern Asian nations have Phosphate necessities, so that histories of phosphate fertilizer is connected with polluting influences (Cd, Cu, As, and Zn), appear to be more noteworthy on these nations [Zarcinas et al., 2004]. Horticultural utilization of pesticides was another source of heavy metals in arable soils from non-contamination. Despite the fact that pesticides containing Cd, Hg and Pb had been forbidden, there were still other elements containing pesticides in presence, particularly copper and zinc. The plant accessible metal substance in the soil shoes the highest amount of Fe and least level of Ni.
Waste water irrigation can reduce the water shortage to some extent, but it can also bring some toxic materials, to agricultural soils, especially heavy metals, and cause serious environmental problems. This is particularly a problem in densely populated countries where pressure on irrigation water resources is extremely high [Patel 2005]. Biosolids are increasingly used as soil ameliorants and streams and rivers are the primary source of water for irrigation.
(4) Sewage sludge application
In spite of the fact that the substance of toxic metals in sewage sludge had been notably decreased, and the greater part of them were below the national release standard of contaminations for civil wastewater treatment plants, because of the immense increment in the measure of wastewater treated, the sewage are mean increasing rapidly. In the agriculture areas of Hyderabad, Pakistan, researchers concentrating on the impact of long time wastewater sludge on the concentrations of heavy metals in soil irrigated with fresh canal water (SIFW) and soil irrigated with waste water (SIDWS) are as take after: the mean concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd are 11.2, 105, 21.1 and 1.6 mg kg-1, in soil of SIFW and 32.2, 209, 67.4 and 4.3 mg kg-1 in soil of SIDWS. The absorption of metals in the soil of SIDWS is higher than in SIFW. The high rate of Cd and Cr in SIDWS, are credited into waste matter from small commercial industries (tanneries and batteries) arranged in domestic area (Jamali et al., 2007).
- Factors Governing Adsorption – Desorption in Soil
The adsorption-desorption phenomena of pesticides in soils are of incredible significance from the environment. Pesticide action influences different methodologies like transport, volatilization and bioaccumulation, which pressure the compounds in the soil [M. Kumar 2006]. The clay and the organic matter content inclined the adsorption-desorption process considerably. Adsorption and desorption factors governs the compost soil had shown the maximum adsorption capacity. In order, adsorption capacities of various soils were compost soil, clayey soil, red soil, and sandy soil. Adsorption will increase the organic matter content of the soils. Adsorption was exothermic in nature. Clay content and organic matter played a significant role in pesticide adsorption and desorption processes. The physical phenomenon increases in the organic matter and clay content of the soils. Desorption process of pesticides is also important since it determines the potential mobility of pesticides in soil [Rama Krishna 2008].
1.5. Types of Soils in India
There are mainly six types of soils in India and the Soil is classified according by the factors on the basis of pH, depth, colour, productivity, texture and process of formation [Raychaudhari 1963].
1. Alluvial Soils
2. Black Soils
3. Red Soils
4. Laterite Soils
5. Mountain Soils
6. Desert Soils
- Alluvial Soils
It is the most important type of soil found in India covering about 40 per cent of the total land area. These are formed by the deposition of sediments by rivers. They are found in Great Northern plain, Tapti and lower valleys of Narmada and Northern Gujarat. These soils are renewed every year; it is very fertile and contributes the largest share of agricultural wealth. This soil supports almost half of the Indian population. The fertility of the alluvial soil varies from place to place.
The alluvial soils contain adequate potash, phosphoric acid and lime. They are generally deficient in organic and nitrogenous contents. The fine particles of sediment, sand and clay are called as alluvium. The alluvial soil can be classified into two types such as old alluvium, additionally called bangar, and new alluvium, called khadar.
- The new alluvium is deposited in the flood plains and deltas. These areas are flooded almost every year.
- khadar soil is sandy and light in colour
- Khaddar soil is more fertile
- The old alluvium is found on the higher side (i.e. about 25 meters) of the river valleys.
- The bhangar soil is clayey and dark.
- The bhangar soil is less fertile
- Black Soils
The black soil is mostly called as regur; it is derived from Telugu word ‘reguda’. It is moreover called as Black Cotton Soil, whereas cotton is the most essential product developed in this soil. The black soil has been formed by thousands of years prior, because of the hardening of volcanic lava. Black soil is mostly found thought over Deccan Lava areas which include parts of Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. It comprises of calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate Lime, Iron, Magnesium furthermore Potash however needs in Phosphorus, Nitrogen and Organic matter. The black soil is made up of extremely fine clay material and it is well-known for its capacity to hold moisture.
- Red Soil
The red soil is formed due to weathering of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Its redness is because of iron content. At the point when iron substance is low it is yellow or cocoa colour. The red soil occupies around 10% area of India, for the most part in the south-eastern piece of the Peninsular India. The red soil is found in Tamil Nadu, southeast Maharashtra, eastern parts of Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand. This red soil is rich in potash, yet poor in lime, nitrogen and phosphate.
4. Laterite Soil
“Laterite” has been derived from a Latin word means ‘brick’. The Laterite soil is formed under conditions of high temperature and heavy rainfall with wet and dry conditions. The Laterite soil is in red colour and made out of little mud and much rock of red sandstones. The Laterite soil is broadly spread in India and is basically found on the summits of the Western Ghats, Eastern Ghats, Rajmahal Hills, Vindhyas, Satpuras and Malwa level. They are generally found in Kerala, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and sloping ranges of Assam and Orissa. Laterite soil is generally poor in lime and lacking in nitrogen and the phosphate substance are high.
- Mountain Soils
The mountain soil is usually found on the hill slopes covered with forests. It is formed as a result of the accumulation of organic matter derived from forest growth. This soil is rich in humus, but poor in potash, lime and phosphorus. They are found in Himalayan areas and indicated by altitude. The north-facing slopes generally support soil cover. Aside from the Himalayan region, this soil is also found in the Western and Eastern Ghats and in some parts of the Peninsular India. The mountain soil is sandy with rock and is permeable.
- Desert Soils
In desert area, the soils are not well developed. The desert soil is found generally in the dry and semi-dry areas, getting less than 50 cm of yearly rainfall. The desert soil has sand (90 to 95 every penny) and clay (5 to 10 every penny). Such areas are generally found in Rajasthan and the adjoining regions of Haryana and Punjab. The Rann of Kachchh in Gujarat is an expansion of this region. These soils are generally sandy and insufficient in organic matter. In a few regions this soil has high rate of solvent salts, yet needs in organic matter.
1.6 Soils in Andhra Pradesh
The circumstance has three main physiographic regions such as the coastal plain, Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats. The coastal plain is also known as the Andhra region, it runs almost the entire length of the state and it is surrounded by several rivers, flowing from west to east through the hills into the bay. The deltas are formed by most important rivers—the Godavari and the Krishna—build the central part of the plains, an area of fertile alluvial soil [Govinda Rajan 1971]. Andhra Pradesh is one of the major producers of rice in the country and one of the best in producing additional cash crops too. The types of soil, which are usually found in Andhra Pradesh, are: Red soil, alluvial soil, Black soil, Saline soil, Laterite soil, and Peaty soil.
Northern Black Soils (NBS)
The black soils situated in the districts of Khammam, Warangal, Karimnagar East and West Godavari constitutes the Northern Black soils.
Central Black Soils (CBS)
The black soils are obtainable in Krishna and Guntur district of Andhra Pradesh as in the position of central region.
Southern Black Soils (SBS)
The black soils are present in Nellore districts and Prakasam nearer to the coast from the Southern black soils.
Southern Light Soils (SLS)
The light soils existing in Prakasam and Nellore districts constitute the southern light soils (SLS).
Northern Light Soils (NLS)
The light soils existing from East and West Godavari and parts of Khammam districts constitute the Northern light soils (NLS). These Light soils mostly exist in the Vijayanagaram district of Andhra Pradesh.
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