rates of chemical reactions- lo3 questions

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Rates of Chemical Reactions- LO3 Questions

1.1 Two Grand-Pa tablets would have the same effect as one Grand-Pa powder this is because Grand-Pa Headache Tablets each contain, Aspirin: 226,8mg, Paracetamol: 162,0mg and Caffeine: 32,4mg where as Grand-Pa Headache Powders each contain Aspirin: 453,6mg, Paracetamol: 324,0 mg and Caffeine: 64,8 mg thus to obtain the same dosage of ingredients, twice the dosage, thus one would have to take two tablets to equal one powder.

1.2 Drinking them with warm water will allow for a faster reaction rate thus allowing the effect of the pain killer to work faster. Also, if the powder is dissolved into a small amount of water then the solution will be more concentrated and will therefore be able to get to work in a more effective manner quicker, which will allow for the powder to work quicker in relief of pain.

1.3 The granules in the powder have a larger combined surface area than that of a tablet, which results in a reaction with the water to be done quicker with the powder for, resultant of the larger exposed surface area of the granules, more reactions occur/are allowed to occur at a quicker rate between the reacting particles. The tablet, being comprised of compounded granules together, the collisions between the reacting particles is limited for the surface area of one whole tablet is less than the combined surface area of granules. Therefore less reactions are allowed/do occur, therefore the powders provide faster relief than the tablets for they react faster with the water and thus will work faster in supplying pain relief.

1.4Total: 453.6mg+324.0mg+64.8mg=842.4mg

Aspirin: (453.6mg/842.4mg) * 100/1=53.85%

Paracetemol: (324.0mg/842.4mg)*100/1=38.46%

Caffeine: (64.8mg/842.4mg)*100/1=7.69%

1.5

Symptoms of Overdose

Aspirin: These include dizziness, tinnitus, sweating, nausea, vomiting, mental confusion, hyperventilation, respiratory alkalosis, metabolic acidosis, ketosis and depression of the central nervous system. In children serious signs of overdosage may develop rapidly. May include: burning pain in the throat/stomach, confusion, mental/mood changes, fainting, weakness, ringing in the ears, fever, rapid breathing, change in the amount of urine, seizures and loss of consciousness.

Paracetamol: Liver damage which may be fatal may only appear after a few days. Symptoms of overdosage include nausea and vomiting. Acute intoxication causes kidney failure. Pallor, nausea, vomiting, anorexia and abdominal pain. Liver damage may become apparent 12 to 48 hours after ingestion. Abnormalities of glucose metabolism and metabolic acidosis may occur. In severe poisoning: hepatic failure may progress to encephalopathy, haemorrhage, cerebral endema (brain swelling), and death. Cardiac arrhythmias and pancreatitis have been reported.

Caffeine: Large doses may cause restlessness, excitement, muscle tremor, tinnitus, scintillating scotoma, tachycardia, extrasystoles, restlessness, nervousness, excitement, insomnia, flushed face, dieresis (frequent urination), gastrointestinal disturbance, muscle twitches, rambling flow of thought and speech, tachycardia or cardiac arythmia (fluctuating heart patterns), periods of inexhaustibility (continuous awareness) and psychomotor agitation ( trouble sitting still and being calm).

1.6 I would advise them not to, because they are already coffee addicts they are probably taking in a lot of caffeine already thus to take the Grand-Pa powders would increase their risk of an overdose. It also has the ability to enhance the effects of paracetamol and aspirin so not only will the caffeine have an effect on the person's body in an overdose situation, but the other contents of the Grand-Pa powders, namely the aspirin and the paracetamol will also have an effect on the body, and the combination of all three of them in an overdose situation will result in certain kidney failure and death resultantly.

2.1 The surface area of wood flour is great, because it is composed of grains which are very small this would cause for a large, sudden explosive effect should the cigarette ignition come into contact with the wood flour. The concentration of the reactants (the wood flour) is great having the granules that are very small and in piles together. Should the ignition/flame from the cigarette come into contact with the piles of the wood flour an explosive effect, resultant of the concentration of the wood flour. The application of the heat to the piles of wood flour will result in the reaction, for the increase in heat will result in a reaction and will work in supplying the sudden reaction of the wood flour parts. The smoking of a cigarette is also banned because cigarette ash can serve as a catalyst and when coming into contact and mixing with wood flour it can become a highly volatile blend. The owners of these mills do not wish to lose their supply and suffer damages to their facilities thus; they prohibit people from smoking or bringing fire or ignited material into the mill.

A dust explosion is the explosive combustion of a dust suspended in air in an enclosed location, which results in harmful effects of overpressure, thermal radiation, and ensuing projectiles. Many materials which are commonly known to combust can generate a dust explosion, such as coal, sawdust, and magnesium. However, many otherwise mundane materials can also lead to a dangerous dust cloud such as grain, flour, sugar, powdered milk and pollen. Mining of coal leads to coal dust and flour mills likewise have large amounts of flour dust as a result of milling. A similar problem occurs in saw mills and other places dedicated to carpentry. The dust must also consist of very small particles, where the surface area is very large, and so will support combustion. Dust is defined as powders with particles less than about 500 micrometres in diameter, but finer dust will present a much greater hazard than coarse particles by virtue of the larger surface area.

There are five necessary conditions for a dust explosion:

  1. A combustible dust; (Flour or Wood Flour)
  2. The dust is suspended in the air at a proper concentration; (Possible)
  3. There is an oxidant (typically atmospheric oxygen); (Possible)
  4. The dust is confined; (Yes)
  5. There is an ignition source. (Provided by cigarette)

Thus there is a high risk of a dust explosion already and the cigarette would just complete the necessary conditions by providing an ignition source.

2.2.1 Use of Oxidant Concentration Reduction

Use of Deflagration venting through a dust retention and flame-arresting device

2.2.2 Use of Deflagration venting

Use of Deflagration pressure containment

Use of Deflagration suppression

Use of masks to ensure the reduction of the inhalation of the wood flour.

2.3

1. As an absorbent

Absorbent qualities are utilized in cleansers to remove unwanted water, oils, or greases from such articles as delicate machinery parts, jewellery, and furs, or to carry cleansing, poisonous, or other chemical agents to an object. In the manufacture of dynamite, the extreme sensitivity of the explosive agent can be reduced to safe levels by solidifying the liquid nitro-glycerine by absorbing it in a solid medium such a3 wood flour.

2. As decorative material

Wood flour is used decoratively in the production of “oatmeal” and “velvet” wallpapers, where decoration by design and texture is provided by wood flour, coloured as desired, onto a prepared paper surf ace.

3.1Iron (a porous iron catalyst prepared by reducing magnetite, Fe3O4)

Osmium is a much better catalyst for the reaction but is very expensive.

3.2 A catalyst such as an iron catalyst is used to speed up the reaction by lowering the activation energy so that the N2 bonds and H2 bonds can be more readily broken. The catalyst has no affect whatsoever on the position of the equilibrium. Adding a catalyst doesn't produce any greater percentage of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture. Its only function is to speed up the reaction. In the absence of a catalyst the reaction is so slow that virtually no reaction happens in any sensible time. The catalyst ensures that the reaction is fast enough for a dynamic equilibrium to be set up within the very short time that the gases are actually in the reactor. Catalysts lower the activation energy in a reaction by holding particles onto their surface and pointing them into the right direction for a product to form, which in this case is Ammonia. This catalyst, Iron (Fe3O4) , is used for it is ideal for allowing the nitrogen (N2 (g) ) and hydrogen (3H2 (g) )reactants to react and form the products which entails Ammonia (2NH3 (l) ) rapidly.

3.3Ammonia; NH3 (l)

3.4 Fertilizer: Approximately 83% (as of 2003) of ammonia is used as fertilizers either as its salts or as solutions. Consuming more than 1% of all man-made power, the production of ammonia is a significant component of the world energy budget.

Cleaner: Household ammonia is a general purpose cleaner that can be used on many surfaces. Because ammonia results in a relatively streak-free shine, one of its most common uses is to clean glass, porcelain and stainless steel. It is also frequently used for cleaning ovens and soaking items to loosen baked-on or caked-on grime.

As a fuel: Ammonia was used during World War II to power buses in Belgium, and in engine and solar energy applications prior to 1900. Liquid ammonia was used as the fuel of the rocket airplane, the X-15. Although not as powerful as other fuels, it left no soot in the reusable rocket engine and its density approximately matches that for the oxidizer, liquid oxygen, which simplified the aircraft's design.

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