# Expiremnt on Combustion and the Number of Carbon Atoms in an Alcohol Chain

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08/02/20 Chemistry Reference this

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Chemical Fundamentals

Student Experiment: Molar Heat

Rationale

Alcohol can be burned as a source of energy instead of using fossil fuels. Smith and Workman [1] say that alcohol has been used as a fuel for the internal combustion engine since its invention. Reports on the use of alcohol as a motor fuel were published in 1907 and detailed research was conducted in the 1920s and 1930s (OCR, 2013).

Alcohols are organic compounds containing Oxygen, Hydrogen and Carbon. They are a family of

hydrocarbons that contain the –OH group. The alcohols are a homologous series containing the functional

–OH group, which determines the characteristic reactions of a compound.

The general formula of alcohols is CnH2n+1OH, where n is a number. Alcohols are also referred to as

alkanols. The simplest alcohol contains a single Carbon atom and is called Methanol. Its molecular

formula is CH3OH. As we move down the homologous series of alcohols, the number of Carbon atoms

increase. Each alcohol molecule differs by –CH2; a single Carbon atom and two Hydrogen atoms.

The figure below is the structural formula of Methanol (CH3OH) and Ethanol (C2H5OH) respectively:

Methanol Ethanol

(Pictures taken From: http://www.gcsescience.com/Methanol.gif and http://www.gcsescience.com/Ethanol.gif)

This table below shows the molecular formulas of the early members of the alcohol homologous series.

It can be seen as we go down the homologous series of alcohols, carbon atoms are added onto the

hydrocarbon chains. These chains are becoming longer and much more complex. Moreover, as we go

down the group, the alcohols’ boiling points, heat of combustions, and other characteristics show changes

as well.

Combustion is principally the oxidation of carbon compounds by oxygen in air to form CO2 if there is a

sufficient amount of oxygen. The hydrogen in a compound forms H2O. Combustion produces heat as

well as carbon dioxide and water. The enthalpy change of combustion is the enthalpy change that occurs

when 1 mole of a fuel is burned completely in oxygen.

(Taken from:

http://www.coursework.info/AS_and_A_Level/Chemistry/Organic_Chemistry/Find_the_enthalpy_chang

e_of_combustion_o_L61656.html#ixzz0fokacpwD)

The heat of combustion (standard enthalpy change of combustion) is the enthalpy change when one mole

of the compound undergoes complete combustion in excess oxygen under standard conditions. It is given

the symbol ∆H˚comb and standard conditions simply refer to room conditions with a temperature of 298K

and pressure of 1 atm.

As a result, the aim of the experiment is to determine whether there is a relationship between the number

of carbon atoms in an alcohol chain and its respective standard enthalpy change of combustion.

Original Experiment

Measure the mass of the empty spirit lamp using the electronic balance. Record the result in Table 1 below. Measure 30 mL of ethanol and pour it into the spirit lamp. Measure the mass of the spirit lamp containing the ethanol and record the result in Table 1. Measure 100 mL of distilled water (record the result in Table 1) and add it to the calorimeter. Insert the stirrer into the calorimeter and set up the thermometer so that the bulb of the thermometer is in the centre of the volume of water. Use the thermometer to record the initial temperature of the water (Ti). Cover the calorimeter with the lid and place it directly over the spirit lamp (Figure 1). Place safety mats around the spirit lamp to limit heat lost to the environment. Use a match to light the spirit lamp. Once the ethanol is burning, start the stopwatch. Record any change in the temperature of the water. Gently stir the water during the heating. Extinguish the spirit lamp and halt the stopwatch as soon as the temperature has risen 30°C. Record the final temperature of the water (Tf). Record the mass of the spirit lamp containing the remaining the ethanol.

Diagram 1 – The setup used.

Research question

To investigate the relationship between the numbers of carbon atoms in an alcohol chain; methanol,

Ethanol and propanol and their respective standard enthalpy change of complete combustions.

Modifications to the methodology

The original experiment was modified by investigating the addition of two other alcohols so that the research could be answered. This also involved taking 5 tests for each alcohol this was done so that the most accurate results were gained. It is assumed that no heat escapes into surrounding but limit the effect of this assumption we put two heatproof mats either side of the spirit lamp so that as much heat was maintained and focused onto the water. In addition to this, a chimney was made so that the flame its self and heat was funnelled onto the water beaker. Aluminium foil was added to surround the temperature probe so that the plastic did not melt.

Management of risks

 Hazard Risk Precaution Comments Glassware (beaker) When it gets hot you could burn your hand or you could drop it and break it and cut yourself Use tongs when removing it from the clamp stand. Don’t do the clamp up tight. Dispose of glass appropriately if broken and record any injuries Alcohol Flammable, harmful. Methanol is toxic leading to blindness if swallowed Wear PPE, especially safety glasses and gloves. Wash hands after use. Make sure there is ventilation such as an open window. Seek medical attention if you get burned or ingest any fuels. Metal stand Could fall off the table and break your foot Make sure the setup is position in the middle of the workbench.

Variables

The dependent variable, which I will be measuring, is the temperature rise.

My independent variable is the alcohol/number of carbon atoms.

My control variables are:

•  the temperature rise of the water*

•  volume of water to be heated†

•  the same distance between the spirit burner and the boiling tube

•  the same spirit burner each time. I will rinse it out each time with the new alcohol used

* I cannot control this exactly as the temperature might carry on rising after I’ve put out the flame, but I will make sure

that I record the highest temperature reached. I will also stir the water with the thermometer to make sure I get as

accurate result as I can

† I will measure the volume of water as accurately as I can, but I will be limited by the accuracy of the measuring

cylinder. As the density of water is 1.0 g/cm3

, I will measure the mass of the water each time to make sure I get an

accurate measurement.

Qualitative observations

The flame height and direction varied throughout the several tests. Even though the chimney was designed to focus the flame the height still varied. As the metals and clamps were kept at the same distances between tests the different flame hight could affect how much heat was being absorbed by the water. There is not much that could be done to prevent this. The alcohol was colourless and the flame was odourless. The flame was divided into two sections, one was blue and one was yellow.

Summary Data

 Methanol Experiment Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Mass of water, g 100.7 99.6 99.7 98.9 101.1 Start Temperature, OC 25.5 24 23.8 25.8 23.8 End Temperature, OC 80.1 83.2 86.9 87.9 88.2 Temperature Changed, OC 54.6 59.2 63.1 62.1 64.4 Start mass (fuel + burner), g 152.44 139.64 128.37 144.07 133.16 End mass (fuel + burner), g 140.11 123.92 116.24 133.77 120.01 Mass of fuel used, g 12.33 15.72 12.13 10.03 13.15

Table 1 – Methanol summarised data.

 Ethanol Experiment Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Mass of water, g 99.3 101.6 99.8 100 102.11 Start Temperature, OC 25.1 25.2 24.3 25 24.1 End Temperature, OC 88.5 85.1 86.9 87.9 88.2 Temperature Changed, OC 63.4 59.9 62.6 62.9 64.1 Start mass (fuel + burner), g 135.96 141.85 134.93 153.29 131.11 End mass (fuel + burner), g 128.67 131.95 124.02 144.57 121.85 Mass of fuel used, g 7.29 9.9 10.91 8.72 9.26

Table 2 – Ethanol summarised data

 Propanol Experiment Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Mass of water, g 99.03 100.76 100.12 99.89 98.99 Start Temperature, OC 24.2 23.9 25.3 26.2 24.1 End Temperature, OC 86.3 84.4 86.2 95 85.4 Temperature Changed, OC 62.1 60.5 60.9 68.8 61.3 Start mass (fuel + burner), g 135.57 145.59 106.64 129.68 102.93 End mass (fuel + burner), g 126.52 135.14 95.52 119.79 92.7 Mass of fuel used, g 9.05 10.45 11.12 9.89 10.23

Table 3 – Propanol summarised data

These are outliers and won’t be included in the average. The outliers were determined using the interquartile range method.

Processing data

The summarised data was processed to determine the molar heat of the three alcohols shown in Table 4. The researched molar heat values of the three alcohols were used as the ‘true’ value or theoretical values at laboratory conditions. This value was compared with the experimental molar heat produced to determine the accuracy of the experimental results and, therefore, the validity of the experimental process. The measurement uncertainty was converted to percentage uncertainty and propagated to determine the precision of the experimental results and, therefore, the reliability of the experimental process. A spreadsheet program was used to graph the experimental results to allow patterns to be examined.

 Formula to process data Sample calculation for methanol Average mass of fuel used = Average mass of fuel used =                                             = 12.672 g Average Δ temperature= Average Δ temperature =                                      = 60.68 Uncertainty = ± $\frac{\mathit{range}}{2}$ Uncertainty of Δ temperature = ±                                                       = 60.68 OC ± 4.9 Uncertainty = ± $\frac{\mathit{range}}{2}$ Uncertainty of  mass of fuel used = ±                                                       = 12.672 g ± 2.845 Percentage uncertainty = $\frac{2.845}{12.672}×100=22.4511%$ Percentage uncertainty = 22.4511% Percentage uncertainty = $\frac{4.9}{60.68}×100=8.07514832%$ Percentage uncertainty = 8.07514832% Heat of combustion = mcΔt Heat of combustion = 100 x 4.168 x 60.68                                  = 25 400.648 j                                  = 25.4 kj Moles of Methanol Burnt = Average Mass of Methanol Burnt = 12.672g Molar Mass of Methanol = CH3OH                                         = (12.01) + (4 x 1.01) + (16)                                         = 32.05 g/mol Moles of Methanol Burnt = $\frac{12.672}{32.05}$                                         = 0.39538 mol Molar Heat of Methanol = Molar Heat of Methanol = $\frac{25.4}{0.39538}$                                        = 64.241995 kJ/mol Percentage error =   x 100% Percentage error = $\frac{726–64}{726}$   x 100%                             = 91.18%
 Formula to process data Sample calculation for ethanol Average mass of fuel used = Average mass of fuel used = $\frac{7.29+9.9+10.91+8.72+9.26}{5}$                                             = 9.216 g Average Δ temperature= Average Δ temperature = $\frac{63.4+59.9+62.6+62.9+64.1}{5}$                                      = 62.58 Uncertainty = ± $\frac{\mathit{range}}{2}$ Uncertainty of Δ temperature = ± $\frac{64.1–59.9}{2}$                                                       = 62.58OC ± 2.1 Uncertainty = ± $\frac{\mathit{range}}{2}$ Uncertainty of  mass of fuel used = ± $\frac{10.91–7.29}{2}$                                                       = 9.216g ± 1.81 Percentage uncertainty = $\frac{2.1}{62.58}×100=3.36%$ Percentage uncertainty = 3.36% Percentage uncertainty = $\frac{1.81}{9.216}×100=19.64%$ Percentage uncertainty = 19.64% Heat of combustion = mcΔt Heat of combustion = 100 x 4.168 x 62.58                                  = 26196 j                                  =26.20 kj Moles of ethanol Burnt = Average Mass of ethanol Burnt = 9.216g Molar Mass of ethanol = C2H5OH                                        = (12.01 x 2) + (6 x 1.01) + (16)                                        = 46.08 g/mol Moles of ethanol Burnt = $\frac{9.216}{46.08}$                                         = 0.2 mol Molar Heat of ethanol = Molar Heat of ethanol = $\frac{26.20}{0.2}$                                        = 131 kJ/mol Percentage error =   x 100% Percentage error = $\frac{1360–131}{1360}$   x 100%                             = 90.37%

 Formula to process data Sample calculation for propanol Average mass of fuel used = Average mass of fuel used =                                             = 10.148 g Average Δ temperature= Average Δ temperature =                                      = 62.72 Uncertainty = ± $\frac{\mathit{range}}{2}$ Uncertainty of Δ temperature = ±                                                       = 62.72 OC ± 4.15 Uncertainty = ± $\frac{\mathit{range}}{2}$ Uncertainty of  mass of fuel used = ±                                                       = 10.148 g ± 1.035 Percentage uncertainty = $\frac{4.15}{62.72}×100=6.62%$ Percentage uncertainty = 6.62% ercentage uncertainty = $\frac{1.035}{10.148}×100=10.1991%$ Percentage uncertainty =10.1991% Heat of combustion = mcΔt Heat of combustion = 100 x 4.186 x 62.72                                  = 26254.6 j                                  = 26.25 kj Moles of Methanol Burnt = Average Mass of Methanol Burnt = 10.148g Molar Mass of Methanol = C3H7OH                                        = (12.01 x 3) + (8 x 1.01) + (16)                                         = 60.11 g/mol Moles of Methanol Burnt = $\frac{10.148}{60.11}$                                         =  0.168824 mol Molar Heat of Methanol = Molar Heat of Methanol = $\frac{26.25}{0.168824}$                                        = 155.487 kJ/mol Percentage error =   x 100% Percentage error = $\frac{2021–155.487}{2021}$   x 100%                             =92.257 %
 Alcohol Formula Number of Carbon Atoms Molar Heat Percentage Error Methanol CH3OH 1 64.241995 kJ/mol 91.18% Ethanol C2H5OH 2 131 kJ/mol 90.37% Propanol C3H7OH 3 155.487 kJ/mol 92.257%

Graph 1 – Experimental values graphed against the number of carbon atoms in the organic solution

Graph 2 – Experimental Values and True Values

Trends patterns and relationships

It is interesting that the experimental value of ethanol -while still on the line- appears as lower

than the other experimental values. This is not observed in the values based on BE where the five

energy values are perfectly aligned. Ethanol´s value is clearly lower than that of methanol and

slightly lower than the other higher alcohols.

Therefore there seems to be some structural difference between ethanol and the rest, with a

more marked variation with the first member of the homologous series. I tend to believe that this

may result from the significantly lower inductive effect that the ethyl group has on the C-O bond

when compared with the methyl group. If the inductive effect is lower the bond is less polar,

resulting in an increased covalent character and therefore a stronger bond. As the bond is

stronger more energy is needed to break it, and the enthalpy change would therefore be smaller.

The inductive effect is not changed by adding CH2 in the higher alcohols but still there must be

some, as they are slightly lower than methanol (but perfectly aligned with each other). Still other

possibility is that differences result from experimental errors which references do not report.

Results may suggest that the difference in the bond O-H could be affecting alcohols to a different

degree. More data are needed to clarify why the second CH2 affects the C-O bond in ethanol but

not in the rest providing a satisfactory explanation for this anomaly.

Limitations of evidence reliability and viability

1) Around 90% of the heat from the spirit lamp did not reach the base of the tripod stand itself. This

was the main reason of error. Heat was lost very easily. A lot of heat was lost in this manner and

contributed to a lower than expected temperature change in the water. This was undoubtedly, the

main source of experimental error.

2) Although, the copper calorimeter was properly insulated, heat loss was prevalent. The lid had a

hole to allow the thermometer to be placed inside. This meant heat could be lost in this manner as

well.

3) The mass of water might not have been constant throughout the heating process. Some of the

water might have evaporated off, suggesting a mass loss. This would then give different results.

4) It was observed that during the combustion of alcohols, a yellow flame was obtained at times.

This is the sign of the incomplete combustion of alcohols. As a result, carbon monoxide is formed

instead of carbon dioxide. Therefore, this incomplete combustion results in low standard enthalpy

of combustion values as the reaction is not complete.

5) During calculations, the specific heat capacity of the copper calorimeter was not included. This is

wrong. The copper beaker did absorb some heat from the spirit lamp. This should have been

added onto the heat energy absorbed by the water. Due its absence, a lot of heat was absorbed

through the copper calorimeter itself, and this was not calibrated.

Conclusion

I may finally conclude that my hypothesis has been validated both by experimental values found in

cited resources and those calculated using bond energies. The investigation has evidenced that

there is a positive linear relationship between the ΔH of combustion and the number of C atoms in

a homologous series of simple alcohols. It has also shown that results based on bond energies are

lower than those experimentally obtained underlining the relevance of chemical environments in

the energy needed to break specific bonds even when extremely similar. An unexpected small

anomaly was found in the experimental value of ethanol which is not shown in the trend based on

bond energies, reinforcing the limitations that average values may impose on accurate

descriptions

Suggested improvements and extensions

1) This experiment could have been carried out at a place of constant temperature.

2) The calorimeter could have been insulated more. A thick cotton wool could have been added.

3) Minimize the heat lost by ensuring no gas (vapour) is lost during the heating process, by adding

more cotton for insulation or covering the calorimeter with a thick lid.

4) Black coloured cardboard can also be used for preventing heat loss.

5) Stir the water at all times to distribute heat evenly.

6) Blow out the spirit lamp as soon as possible. A delay here means that there is more loss of

alcohol.

7) Carry out the experiment in the presence of excess oxygen to ensure that no incomplete

combustion takes place.

8) Repeat with a much larger variety of alcohols. (C6H13OH, C7H15OH, C8H17OH, etc).

Some alcohols also have slightly different structures. The alcohols we had to choose from included propan2-ol.

This means that the OH group was at a different position in the alcohol. We should test some of these

different alcohols to see if our finding still stands.

It may also be difficult to transfer our results to the real world. Fuels are not usually pure chemicals but

mixtures (for instance alkane fuels). It is likely that alcohol fuels are mixtures of alcohols and not pure. We do

not know from the new methods of production of alcohol fuels ([5] and [6]) how pure the alcohols for the

fuels will be (and mixtures may be better).

Methanol has the lowest combustion energy, but it also needs the least oxygen to burn (see page 6). It

therefore has the lowest chemically correct air-fuel ratio, so an engine burning methanol would have the

most power [1]. But alcohols with fewer carbon atoms might be a problem on a hot summer’s day or at high

altitudes. From butanol upwards, the alcohols are relatively insoluble in water, and will attract less, making

them better for engines.

## Raw Data

Trial 1

 Beaker – 57.96 g Ethanol Propanol Methanol Mass of spirit lamp + alcohol 135.96g 135.57 152.44 Mass of water 99.3g 99.03g 100.7 Initial temp of the water 25.1 24.2 25.5 Water temp 20 sec 25.4 24.7 25.6 Water temp 40 min 27.7 26.6 25.7 Water temp 1 min 31 28.1 27.1 Water temp 1:20 min 34.8 29.4 29.7 Water temp 1:40 min 40.1 30.8 31 Water temp 2 min 47.1 32.5 34.4 Water temp 2:20 min 55.5 35.3 38.4 Water temp 2:40 min 65.6 40 41.5 Water Temp 3 min 76.6 45.8 45.7 Water Temp 3:20 min 88.5 48.8 51.8 Water Temp 3:40 min 56.2 57.8 Water Temp 4 min 63.8 63.5 Water Temp 4:20 min 71.9 69.9 Water Temp 4:40 min 78.8 76.1 Water Temp 5 min 86.2 80.1 Final Temp of water 88.5 86.2 80.1 Mass of spirit lamp + remaining alcohol 128.67 126.52 140.11

Trial 2

 Beaker – 57.96 g Ethanol Propanol Methanol Mass of spirit lamp + alcohol 141.85g 145.59 139.64 Mass of water 101.6g 100.76 99.6 Initial temp of the water 25.2 23.9 24 Water temp 20 sec 25.2 24.1 23.9 Water temp 40 sec 25.4 24.8 24.8 Water temp 1 min 26.7 25.8 25.3 Water temp 1:20 min 27.5 27.3 27 Water temp 1:40 min 28.5 29.6 29 Water temp 2 min 31.8 30.6 30.5 Water temp 2:20 min 36 32.4 32.8 Water temp 2:40 min 40.6 34 36.3 Water Temp 3 min 46.6 36.2 41.4 Water Temp 3:20 min 55.4 38.4 44.1 Water Temp 3:40 min 63.2 40.6 46 Water Temp 4 min 70.6 42.3 49.7 Water Temp 4:20 min 76.1 44.3 54.5 Water Temp 4:40 min 85.1 46.7 58.2 Water Temp 5 min 50.8 63.8 Water Temp 5:20 min 55.4 69 Water Temp 5:40 min 62.5 73.6 Water Temp 6 min 70.1 78 Water Temp 6:20 min 77.8 80.5 Water Temp 6:40 min 84.4 Water Temp 7 min Final Temp of water 85.1 84.4 83.2 Mass of spirit lamp + remaining alcohol 131.95 135.14 123.92

Data from other groups includes trials 3 to 5.

 Methanol Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Mass of spirit lamp + methanol 128.37g 144.07g 133.16g Mass of distilled water 99.7 98.9 101.1 The initial temperature of the distilled water oC 23.8 oC 25.0 oC 23.8 oC Water temperature 20s 23.8 oC 25.2 oC 24.5 oC Water temperature 40s 25.6 oC 26.5 oC 25.3 oC Water temperature 60s 28.5 oC 29.4 oC 27.5 oC Water temperature 80s 32.4 oC 35.9 oC 30.9 oC Water temperature 100s 37.8 oC 37.8 oC 36.2 oC Water temperature 120s 41.7 oC 40.1 oC 42.6 oC Water temperature 140s 47.6 oC 46.5 oC 50.4 oC Water temperature 160s 54.0 oC 54.3 oC 57.6 oC Water temperature 180s 60.2 oC 61.5 oC 63.9 oC Water temperature 200s 69.2 oC 70.8 oC 70.2 oC Water temperature 220s 77.2 oC 79.9 oC 80.6 oC Water temperature 240s 86.9 oC 87.9 oC 88.2 oC Point where reaction had a temperature increase of 60OC Between 220-240s at 83.8oC Between 220-240s at 85.0oC Between 220-240s at 83.8 oC Mass of spirit lamp + remaining methanol 116.24g 133.77g 120.01g Mass of methanol used in the reaction 12.13g 10.3g 13.15g
 Ethanol Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Mass of spirit lamp + ethanol 134.93g 153.29g 131.11 Mass (volume) of distilled water 99.8 100 102.11 The initial temperature of the distilled water oC 24.3 oC 25.0 oC 25.0 oC Water temperature 20s 24.8oC 25.5 oC 25.1 oC Water temperature 40s 26.7 oC 26.8 oC 26.7 oC Water temperature 60s 29.2 oC 28.6 oC 27.7 oC Water temperature 80s 31.9 oC 31.1 oC 30.6 oC Water temperature 100s 34.4 oC 34.4 oC 35.6 oC Water temperature 120s 39.1 oC 40.5 oC 43.5 oC Water temperature 140s 43.4 oC 45.8 oC 51.3 oC Water temperature 160s 54.3 oC 54.8 oC 60.5 oC Water temperature 180s 58.2 oC 65.8 oC 70.7 oC Water temperature 200s 65.7 oC 72.6 oC 82.4 oC Water temperature 220s 77.7 oC 82.2 oC 97.4 oC Water temperature 240s 87.7 oC 96.4 oC 100 oC Point where reaction had a temperature increase of 60OC Between 220-240s at 84.3oC Between 220-240s at 85.0oC Between 200-220s at 85.0 oC Mass of spirit lamp + remaining ethanol 124.02g 144.57g 121.85g Mass of ethanol used in the reaction 10.91g 8.72g 9.26g
 Propanol Trial 3 Trial 4 Trial 5 Mass of spirit lamp + propanol 106.64g 129.68g 102.93g Mass (volume) of distilled water 100.12 99.89 98.99 The initial temperature of the distilled water oC 25.3 oC 26.2 oC 24.1 oC Water temperature 20s 26.1 oC 26.9 oC 25.7 oC Water temperature 40s 28.2 oC 28.0 oC 30.4 oC Water temperature 60s 32.1 oC 31.9 oC 35.0 oC Water temperature 80s 34.4 oC 36.8 oC 37.6 oC Water temperature 100s 38.7 oC 44.7 oC 41.7 oC Water temperature 120s 47.8 oC 49.7 oC 47.7 oC Water temperature 140s 59.7 oC 58.3 oC 62.1 oC Water temperature 160s 72.4 oC 66.7 oC 71.2 oC Water temperature 180s 84.3 oC 80.9 oC 83.2 oC Water temperature 200s 98.7 oC 99.2 oC 99.3 oC Water temperature 220s 100.2 oC Over 100 oC and boiling Over 100 oC and boiling Water temperature 240s Over 100 oC and boiling Over 100 oC and boiling Over 100 oC and boiling Point where reaction had a temperature increase of 60OC Between 180-200s at 85.3 oC Between 180-200s at 85.0 oC Between 180-200s at 85.0 oC Mass of spirit lamp + remaining propanol 97.99g 119.53g 93.18g Mass of propanol used in the reaction 8.65g 10.15g 9.75g
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