Expiremnt on Combustion and the Number of Carbon Atoms in an Alcohol Chain

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Chemical Fundamentals

Student Experiment: Molar Heat

Rationale

 

Alcohol can be burned as a source of energy instead of using fossil fuels. Smith and Workman [1] say that alcohol has been used as a fuel for the internal combustion engine since its invention. Reports on the use of alcohol as a motor fuel were published in 1907 and detailed research was conducted in the 1920s and 1930s (OCR, 2013).

Alcohols are organic compounds containing Oxygen, Hydrogen and Carbon. They are a family of

hydrocarbons that contain the –OH group. The alcohols are a homologous series containing the functional

–OH group, which determines the characteristic reactions of a compound.

The general formula of alcohols is CnH2n+1OH, where n is a number. Alcohols are also referred to as

alkanols. The simplest alcohol contains a single Carbon atom and is called Methanol. Its molecular

formula is CH3OH. As we move down the homologous series of alcohols, the number of Carbon atoms

increase. Each alcohol molecule differs by –CH2; a single Carbon atom and two Hydrogen atoms.

The figure below is the structural formula of Methanol (CH3OH) and Ethanol (C2H5OH) respectively:

 Methanol Ethanol

(Pictures taken From: http://www.gcsescience.com/Methanol.gif and http://www.gcsescience.com/Ethanol.gif)

This table below shows the molecular formulas of the early members of the alcohol homologous series.

It can be seen as we go down the homologous series of alcohols, carbon atoms are added onto the

hydrocarbon chains. These chains are becoming longer and much more complex. Moreover, as we go

down the group, the alcohols’ boiling points, heat of combustions, and other characteristics show changes

as well.

Combustion is principally the oxidation of carbon compounds by oxygen in air to form CO2 if there is a

sufficient amount of oxygen. The hydrogen in a compound forms H2O. Combustion produces heat as

well as carbon dioxide and water. The enthalpy change of combustion is the enthalpy change that occurs

when 1 mole of a fuel is burned completely in oxygen.

(Taken from:

http://www.coursework.info/AS_and_A_Level/Chemistry/Organic_Chemistry/Find_the_enthalpy_chang

e_of_combustion_o_L61656.html#ixzz0fokacpwD)

The heat of combustion (standard enthalpy change of combustion) is the enthalpy change when one mole

of the compound undergoes complete combustion in excess oxygen under standard conditions. It is given

the symbol ∆H˚comb and standard conditions simply refer to room conditions with a temperature of 298K

and pressure of 1 atm.

As a result, the aim of the experiment is to determine whether there is a relationship between the number

of carbon atoms in an alcohol chain and its respective standard enthalpy change of combustion.

 

Original Experiment

 

Measure the mass of the empty spirit lamp using the electronic balance. Record the result in Table 1 below. Measure 30 mL of ethanol and pour it into the spirit lamp. Measure the mass of the spirit lamp containing the ethanol and record the result in Table 1. Measure 100 mL of distilled water (record the result in Table 1) and add it to the calorimeter. Insert the stirrer into the calorimeter and set up the thermometer so that the bulb of the thermometer is in the centre of the volume of water. Use the thermometer to record the initial temperature of the water (Ti). Cover the calorimeter with the lid and place it directly over the spirit lamp (Figure 1). Place safety mats around the spirit lamp to limit heat lost to the environment. Use a match to light the spirit lamp. Once the ethanol is burning, start the stopwatch. Record any change in the temperature of the water. Gently stir the water during the heating. Extinguish the spirit lamp and halt the stopwatch as soon as the temperature has risen 30°C. Record the final temperature of the water (Tf). Record the mass of the spirit lamp containing the remaining the ethanol.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diagram 1 – The setup used.

Research question

 

To investigate the relationship between the numbers of carbon atoms in an alcohol chain; methanol,

Ethanol and propanol and their respective standard enthalpy change of complete combustions.

 

Modifications to the methodology

 

The original experiment was modified by investigating the addition of two other alcohols so that the research could be answered. This also involved taking 5 tests for each alcohol this was done so that the most accurate results were gained. It is assumed that no heat escapes into surrounding but limit the effect of this assumption we put two heatproof mats either side of the spirit lamp so that as much heat was maintained and focused onto the water. In addition to this, a chimney was made so that the flame its self and heat was funnelled onto the water beaker. Aluminium foil was added to surround the temperature probe so that the plastic did not melt.

 

Management of risks

 

Hazard

Risk

Precaution

Comments

Glassware (beaker)

When it gets hot you could burn your hand or you could drop it and break it and cut yourself

Use tongs when removing it from the clamp stand. Don’t do the clamp up tight.

Dispose of glass appropriately if broken and record any injuries

Alcohol

Flammable, harmful.

Methanol is toxic leading to blindness if swallowed

Wear PPE, especially safety glasses and gloves. Wash hands after use. Make sure there is ventilation such as an open window.

Seek medical attention if you get burned or ingest any fuels.

Metal stand

Could fall off the table and break your foot

Make sure the setup is position in the middle of the workbench.

 

Variables

 

The dependent variable, which I will be measuring, is the temperature rise.

My independent variable is the alcohol/number of carbon atoms.

My control variables are:

•  the temperature rise of the water*

•  volume of water to be heated†

•  the same distance between the spirit burner and the boiling tube

•  the same spirit burner each time. I will rinse it out each time with the new alcohol used

* I cannot control this exactly as the temperature might carry on rising after I’ve put out the flame, but I will make sure

that I record the highest temperature reached. I will also stir the water with the thermometer to make sure I get as

accurate result as I can

† I will measure the volume of water as accurately as I can, but I will be limited by the accuracy of the measuring

cylinder. As the density of water is 1.0 g/cm3

, I will measure the mass of the water each time to make sure I get an

accurate measurement.

 

 

Qualitative observations

 

The flame height and direction varied throughout the several tests. Even though the chimney was designed to focus the flame the height still varied. As the metals and clamps were kept at the same distances between tests the different flame hight could affect how much heat was being absorbed by the water. There is not much that could be done to prevent this. The alcohol was colourless and the flame was odourless. The flame was divided into two sections, one was blue and one was yellow.

 

Summary Data

 

Methanol

Experiment

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

Mass of water, g

100.7

99.6

99.7

98.9

101.1

Start Temperature, OC

25.5

24

23.8

25.8

23.8

End Temperature, OC

80.1

83.2

86.9

87.9

88.2

Temperature Changed, OC

54.6

59.2

63.1

62.1

64.4

Start mass (fuel + burner), g

152.44

139.64

128.37

144.07

133.16

End mass (fuel + burner), g

140.11

123.92

116.24

133.77

120.01

Mass of fuel used, g

12.33

15.72

12.13

10.03

13.15

Table 1 – Methanol summarised data.

Ethanol

Experiment

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

Mass of water, g

99.3

101.6

99.8

100

102.11

Start Temperature, OC

25.1

25.2

24.3

25

24.1

End Temperature, OC

88.5

85.1

86.9

87.9

88.2

Temperature Changed, OC

63.4

59.9

62.6

62.9

64.1

Start mass (fuel + burner), g

135.96

141.85

134.93

153.29

131.11

End mass (fuel + burner), g

128.67

131.95

124.02

144.57

121.85

Mass of fuel used, g

7.29

9.9

10.91

8.72

9.26

Table 2 – Ethanol summarised data

Propanol

Experiment

Trial 1

Trial 2

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

Mass of water, g

99.03

100.76

100.12

99.89

98.99

Start Temperature, OC

24.2

23.9

25.3

26.2

24.1

End Temperature, OC

86.3

84.4

86.2

95

85.4

Temperature Changed, OC

62.1

60.5

60.9

68.8

61.3

Start mass (fuel + burner), g

135.57

145.59

106.64

129.68

102.93

End mass (fuel + burner), g

126.52

135.14

95.52

119.79

92.7

Mass of fuel used, g

9.05

10.45

11.12

9.89

10.23

Table 3 – Propanol summarised data

        These are outliers and won’t be included in the average. The outliers were determined using the interquartile range method.

 

Processing data

 

The summarised data was processed to determine the molar heat of the three alcohols shown in Table 4. The researched molar heat values of the three alcohols were used as the ‘true’ value or theoretical values at laboratory conditions. This value was compared with the experimental molar heat produced to determine the accuracy of the experimental results and, therefore, the validity of the experimental process. The measurement uncertainty was converted to percentage uncertainty and propagated to determine the precision of the experimental results and, therefore, the reliability of the experimental process. A spreadsheet program was used to graph the experimental results to allow patterns to be examined.

 

Formula to process data

Sample calculation for methanol

Average mass of fuel used =

Trial 1 +Trial 2+ Trial 3 ....Number of trial

Average mass of fuel used =

12.33 + 15.72 + 12.13+ 10.03 + 13.155

                                            = 12.672 g

Average Δ temperature=

Trial 1 +Trial 2+ Trial 3 ....Number of trial

Average Δ temperature =

54.6 + 59.2 + 63.1 + 62.1 + 64.45

                                     = 60.68

Uncertainty = ±

range2

Uncertainty of Δ temperature = ±

64.4  54.62

                                                      = 60.68 OC ± 4.9

Uncertainty = ±

range2

Uncertainty of  mass of fuel used = ±

15.72  10.032

                                                      = 12.672 g ± 2.845

Percentage uncertainty =

 Uncertainty of measurementMeasurementx100%

2.84512.672×100=22.4511%

Percentage uncertainty = 22.4511%

Percentage uncertainty =

 Uncertainty of measurementMeasurementx100%

4.960.68×100=8.07514832%

Percentage uncertainty = 8.07514832%

Heat of combustion = mcΔt

Heat of combustion = 100 x 4.168 x 60.68

                                 = 25 400.648 j

                                 = 25.4 kj

Moles of Methanol Burnt =

mass of methanolmolar mass of methanol

Average Mass of Methanol Burnt = 12.672g

Molar Mass of Methanol = CH3OH

                                        = (12.01) + (4 x 1.01) + (16)

                                        = 32.05 g/mol

Moles of Methanol Burnt =

12.67232.05

                                        = 0.39538 mol

Molar Heat of Methanol =

Heat of combustionMoles of Methanol Burnt

Molar Heat of Methanol =

25.40.39538

                                       = 64.241995 kJ/mol

Percentage error =

|accepted value  experimental value|accepted value

  x 100%

Percentage error =

72664726

  x 100%

                            = 91.18%

Formula to process data

Sample calculation for ethanol

Average mass of fuel used =

Trial 1 +Trial 2+ Trial 3 ....Number of trial

Average mass of fuel used =

7.29+9.9+10.91+8.72+9.265

                                            = 9.216 g

Average Δ temperature=

Trial 1 +Trial 2+ Trial 3 ....Number of trial

Average Δ temperature =

63.4+59.9+62.6+62.9+64.15

                                     = 62.58

Uncertainty = ±

range2

Uncertainty of Δ temperature = ±

64.159.92

                                                      = 62.58OC ± 2.1

Uncertainty = ±

range2

Uncertainty of  mass of fuel used = ±

10.917.292

                                                      = 9.216g ± 1.81

Percentage uncertainty =

 Uncertainty of measurementMeasurementx100%

2.162.58×100=3.36%

Percentage uncertainty = 3.36%

Percentage uncertainty =

 Uncertainty of measurementMeasurementx100%

1.819.216×100=19.64%

Percentage uncertainty = 19.64%

Heat of combustion = mcΔt

Heat of combustion = 100 x 4.168 x 62.58

                                 = 26196 j

                                 =26.20 kj

Moles of ethanol Burnt =

mass of ethanolmolar mass of ethanol

Average Mass of ethanol Burnt = 9.216g

Molar Mass of ethanol = C2H5OH

                                       = (12.01 x 2) + (6 x 1.01) + (16)

                                       = 46.08 g/mol

Moles of ethanol Burnt =

9.21646.08

                                        = 0.2 mol

Molar Heat of ethanol =

Heat of combustionMoles of Methanol Burnt

Molar Heat of ethanol =

26.200.2

                                       = 131 kJ/mol

Percentage error =

|accepted value  experimental value|accepted value

  x 100%

Percentage error =

13601311360

  x 100%

                            = 90.37%

 

Formula to process data

Sample calculation for propanol

Average mass of fuel used =

Trial 1 +Trial 2+ Trial 3 ....Number of trial

Average mass of fuel used =

9.05 + 10.45 + 11.12 + 9.89 + 10.235

                                            = 10.148 g

Average Δ temperature=

Trial 1 +Trial 2+ Trial 3 ....Number of trial

Average Δ temperature =

62.1 + 60.5 + 60.9 + 68.8 + 61.35

                                     = 62.72

Uncertainty = ±

range2

Uncertainty of Δ temperature = ±

68.8  60.52

                                                      = 62.72 OC ± 4.15

Uncertainty = ±

range2

Uncertainty of  mass of fuel used = ±

11 12 9.052

                                                      = 10.148 g ± 1.035

Percentage uncertainty =

 Uncertainty of measurementMeasurementx100%

4.1562.72×100=6.62%

Percentage uncertainty = 6.62%

ercentage uncertainty =

 Uncertainty of measurementMeasurementx100%

1.03510.148×100=10.1991%

Percentage uncertainty =10.1991%

Heat of combustion = mcΔt

Heat of combustion = 100 x 4.186 x 62.72

                                 = 26254.6 j

                                 = 26.25 kj

Moles of Methanol Burnt =

mass of methanolmolar mass of methanol

Average Mass of Methanol Burnt = 10.148g

Molar Mass of Methanol = C3H7OH

                                       = (12.01 x 3) + (8 x 1.01) + (16)

                                        = 60.11 g/mol

Moles of Methanol Burnt =

10.14860.11

                                        =  0.168824 mol

Molar Heat of Methanol =

Heat of combustionMoles of Methanol Burnt

Molar Heat of Methanol =

26.250.168824

                                       = 155.487 kJ/mol

Percentage error =

|accepted value  experimental value|accepted value

  x 100%

Percentage error =

2021155.4872021

  x 100%

                            =92.257 %

Alcohol

Formula

Number of Carbon Atoms

Molar Heat

Percentage Error

Methanol

CH3OH

1

64.241995 kJ/mol

91.18%

Ethanol

C2H5OH

2

131 kJ/mol

90.37%

Propanol

C3H7OH

3

 155.487 kJ/mol

92.257%

Graph 1 – Experimental values graphed against the number of carbon atoms in the organic solution

Graph 2 – Experimental Values and True Values

 

Trends patterns and relationships

It is interesting that the experimental value of ethanol -while still on the line- appears as lower

than the other experimental values. This is not observed in the values based on BE where the five

energy values are perfectly aligned. Ethanol´s value is clearly lower than that of methanol and

slightly lower than the other higher alcohols.

Therefore there seems to be some structural difference between ethanol and the rest, with a

more marked variation with the first member of the homologous series. I tend to believe that this

may result from the significantly lower inductive effect that the ethyl group has on the C-O bond

when compared with the methyl group. If the inductive effect is lower the bond is less polar,

resulting in an increased covalent character and therefore a stronger bond. As the bond is

stronger more energy is needed to break it, and the enthalpy change would therefore be smaller.

The inductive effect is not changed by adding CH2 in the higher alcohols but still there must be

some, as they are slightly lower than methanol (but perfectly aligned with each other). Still other

possibility is that differences result from experimental errors which references do not report.

Results may suggest that the difference in the bond O-H could be affecting alcohols to a different

degree. More data are needed to clarify why the second CH2 affects the C-O bond in ethanol but

not in the rest providing a satisfactory explanation for this anomaly.

 

Limitations of evidence reliability and viability

 

1) Around 90% of the heat from the spirit lamp did not reach the base of the tripod stand itself. This

was the main reason of error. Heat was lost very easily. A lot of heat was lost in this manner and

contributed to a lower than expected temperature change in the water. This was undoubtedly, the

main source of experimental error.

2) Although, the copper calorimeter was properly insulated, heat loss was prevalent. The lid had a

hole to allow the thermometer to be placed inside. This meant heat could be lost in this manner as

well.

3) The mass of water might not have been constant throughout the heating process. Some of the

water might have evaporated off, suggesting a mass loss. This would then give different results.

4) It was observed that during the combustion of alcohols, a yellow flame was obtained at times.

This is the sign of the incomplete combustion of alcohols. As a result, carbon monoxide is formed

instead of carbon dioxide. Therefore, this incomplete combustion results in low standard enthalpy

of combustion values as the reaction is not complete.

5) During calculations, the specific heat capacity of the copper calorimeter was not included. This is

wrong. The copper beaker did absorb some heat from the spirit lamp. This should have been

added onto the heat energy absorbed by the water. Due its absence, a lot of heat was absorbed

through the copper calorimeter itself, and this was not calibrated.

 

Conclusion

 

I may finally conclude that my hypothesis has been validated both by experimental values found in

cited resources and those calculated using bond energies. The investigation has evidenced that

there is a positive linear relationship between the ΔH of combustion and the number of C atoms in

a homologous series of simple alcohols. It has also shown that results based on bond energies are

lower than those experimentally obtained underlining the relevance of chemical environments in

the energy needed to break specific bonds even when extremely similar. An unexpected small

anomaly was found in the experimental value of ethanol which is not shown in the trend based on

bond energies, reinforcing the limitations that average values may impose on accurate

descriptions

 

 

Suggested improvements and extensions

 

1) This experiment could have been carried out at a place of constant temperature.

2) The calorimeter could have been insulated more. A thick cotton wool could have been added.

3) Minimize the heat lost by ensuring no gas (vapour) is lost during the heating process, by adding

more cotton for insulation or covering the calorimeter with a thick lid.

4) Black coloured cardboard can also be used for preventing heat loss.

5) Stir the water at all times to distribute heat evenly.

6) Blow out the spirit lamp as soon as possible. A delay here means that there is more loss of

alcohol.

7) Carry out the experiment in the presence of excess oxygen to ensure that no incomplete

combustion takes place.

8) Repeat with a much larger variety of alcohols. (C6H13OH, C7H15OH, C8H17OH, etc).

Some alcohols also have slightly different structures. The alcohols we had to choose from included propan2-ol.

This means that the OH group was at a different position in the alcohol. We should test some of these

different alcohols to see if our finding still stands.

It may also be difficult to transfer our results to the real world. Fuels are not usually pure chemicals but

mixtures (for instance alkane fuels). It is likely that alcohol fuels are mixtures of alcohols and not pure. We do

not know from the new methods of production of alcohol fuels ([5] and [6]) how pure the alcohols for the

fuels will be (and mixtures may be better).

Methanol has the lowest combustion energy, but it also needs the least oxygen to burn (see page 6). It

therefore has the lowest chemically correct air-fuel ratio, so an engine burning methanol would have the

most power [1]. But alcohols with fewer carbon atoms might be a problem on a hot summer’s day or at high

altitudes. From butanol upwards, the alcohols are relatively insoluble in water, and will attract less, making

them better for engines.

Raw Data

Trial 1

Beaker – 57.96 g

Ethanol

Propanol

Methanol

Mass of spirit lamp + alcohol

135.96g

135.57

152.44

Mass of water

99.3g

99.03g

100.7

Initial temp of the water

25.1

24.2

25.5

Water temp 20 sec

25.4

24.7

25.6

Water temp 40 min

27.7

26.6

25.7

Water temp 1 min

31

28.1

27.1

Water temp 1:20 min

34.8

29.4

29.7

Water temp 1:40 min

40.1

30.8

31

Water temp 2 min

47.1

32.5

34.4

Water temp 2:20 min

55.5

35.3

38.4

Water temp 2:40 min

65.6

40

41.5

Water Temp 3 min

76.6

45.8

45.7

Water Temp 3:20 min

88.5

48.8

51.8

Water Temp 3:40 min

56.2

57.8

Water Temp 4 min

63.8

63.5

Water Temp 4:20 min

71.9

69.9

Water Temp 4:40 min

78.8

76.1

Water Temp 5 min

86.2

80.1

Final Temp of water

88.5

86.2

80.1

Mass of spirit lamp + remaining alcohol

128.67

126.52

140.11

Trial 2

Beaker – 57.96 g

Ethanol

Propanol

Methanol

Mass of spirit lamp + alcohol

141.85g

145.59

139.64

Mass of water

101.6g

100.76

99.6

Initial temp of the water

25.2

23.9

24

Water temp 20 sec

25.2

24.1

23.9

Water temp 40 sec

25.4

24.8

24.8

Water temp 1 min

26.7

25.8

25.3

Water temp 1:20 min

27.5

27.3

27

Water temp 1:40 min

28.5

29.6

29

Water temp 2 min

31.8

30.6

30.5

Water temp 2:20 min

36

32.4

32.8

Water temp 2:40 min

40.6

34

36.3

Water Temp 3 min

46.6

36.2

41.4

Water Temp 3:20 min

55.4

38.4

44.1

Water Temp 3:40 min

63.2

40.6

46

Water Temp 4 min

70.6

42.3

49.7

Water Temp 4:20 min

76.1

44.3

54.5

Water Temp 4:40 min

85.1

46.7

58.2

Water Temp 5 min

50.8

63.8

Water Temp 5:20 min

55.4

69

Water Temp 5:40 min

62.5

73.6

Water Temp 6 min

70.1

78

Water Temp 6:20 min

77.8

80.5

Water Temp 6:40 min

84.4

Water Temp 7 min

Final Temp of water

85.1

84.4

83.2

Mass of spirit lamp + remaining alcohol

131.95

135.14

123.92

Data from other groups includes trials 3 to 5.

 

Methanol

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

Mass of spirit lamp + methanol

128.37g

144.07g

133.16g

Mass of distilled water

99.7

98.9

101.1

The initial temperature of the distilled water oC

23.8 oC

25.0 oC

23.8 oC

Water temperature 20s

23.8 oC

25.2 oC

24.5 oC

Water temperature 40s

25.6 oC

26.5 oC

25.3 oC

Water temperature 60s

28.5 oC

29.4 oC

27.5 oC

Water temperature 80s

32.4 oC

35.9 oC

30.9 oC

Water temperature 100s

37.8 oC

37.8 oC

36.2 oC

Water temperature 120s

41.7 oC

40.1 oC

42.6 oC

Water temperature 140s

47.6 oC

46.5 oC

50.4 oC

Water temperature 160s

54.0 oC

54.3 oC

57.6 oC

Water temperature 180s

60.2 oC

61.5 oC

63.9 oC

Water temperature 200s

69.2 oC

70.8 oC

70.2 oC

Water temperature 220s

77.2 oC

79.9 oC

80.6 oC

Water temperature 240s

86.9 oC

87.9 oC

88.2 oC

Point where reaction had a temperature increase of 60OC

Between 220-240s at 83.8oC

Between 220-240s at 85.0oC

Between 220-240s at 83.8 oC

Mass of spirit lamp + remaining methanol

116.24g

133.77g

120.01g

Mass of methanol used in the reaction

12.13g

10.3g

13.15g

Ethanol

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

Mass of spirit lamp + ethanol

134.93g

153.29g

131.11

Mass (volume) of distilled water

99.8

100

102.11

The initial temperature of the distilled water oC

24.3 oC

25.0 oC

25.0 oC

Water temperature 20s

24.8oC

25.5 oC

25.1 oC

Water temperature 40s

26.7 oC

26.8 oC

26.7 oC

Water temperature 60s

29.2 oC

28.6 oC

27.7 oC

Water temperature 80s

31.9 oC

31.1 oC

30.6 oC

Water temperature 100s

34.4 oC

34.4 oC

35.6 oC

Water temperature 120s

39.1 oC

40.5 oC

43.5 oC

Water temperature 140s

43.4 oC

45.8 oC

51.3 oC

Water temperature 160s

54.3 oC

54.8 oC

60.5 oC

Water temperature 180s

58.2 oC

65.8 oC

70.7 oC

Water temperature 200s

65.7 oC

72.6 oC

82.4 oC

Water temperature 220s

77.7 oC

82.2 oC

97.4 oC

Water temperature 240s

87.7 oC

96.4 oC

100 oC

Point where reaction had a temperature increase of 60OC

Between 220-240s at 84.3oC

Between 220-240s at 85.0oC

Between 200-220s at 85.0 oC

Mass of spirit lamp + remaining ethanol

124.02g

144.57g

121.85g

Mass of ethanol used in the reaction

10.91g

8.72g

9.26g

Propanol

Trial 3

Trial 4

Trial 5

Mass of spirit lamp + propanol

106.64g

129.68g

102.93g

Mass (volume) of distilled water

100.12

99.89

98.99

The initial temperature of the distilled water oC

25.3 oC

26.2 oC

24.1 oC

Water temperature 20s

26.1 oC

26.9 oC

25.7 oC

Water temperature 40s

28.2 oC

28.0 oC

30.4 oC

Water temperature 60s

32.1 oC

31.9 oC

35.0 oC

Water temperature 80s

34.4 oC

36.8 oC

37.6 oC

Water temperature 100s

38.7 oC

44.7 oC

41.7 oC

Water temperature 120s

47.8 oC

49.7 oC

47.7 oC

Water temperature 140s

59.7 oC

58.3 oC

62.1 oC

Water temperature 160s

72.4 oC

66.7 oC

71.2 oC

Water temperature 180s

84.3 oC

80.9 oC

83.2 oC

Water temperature 200s

98.7 oC

99.2 oC

99.3 oC

Water temperature 220s

100.2 oC

Over 100 oC and boiling

Over 100 oC and boiling

Water temperature 240s

Over 100 oC and boiling

Over 100 oC and boiling

Over 100 oC and boiling

Point where reaction had a temperature increase of 60OC

Between 180-200s at 85.3 oC

Between 180-200s at 85.0 oC

Between 180-200s at 85.0 oC

Mass of spirit lamp + remaining propanol

97.99g

119.53g

93.18g

Mass of propanol used in the reaction

8.65g

10.15g

9.75g

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