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Effect of pH on Catalase on Hydrogen Peroxide

3434 words (14 pages) Essay in Chemistry

08/02/20 Chemistry Reference this

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Contents

Rationale:

Research question:

Original method:

Modification to the methodology:

Modifications:

Refined by:

Extend:

Redirection:

Risk Assessment:

Processed data:

Table 1:

Table 2: Raw data: outliers included

Interpretation:

Table3: modified data: no outliers

interpretation

Graph 1:

INTERPRETATION

ANALYSIS

Evaluation:

Sources of error

Suggested improvements and extensions:

Conclusion:

References

Rationale:

Catalase can be defined as a chemical property that increases the rate of which a chemical reaction arises, without its structure being altered (Martin Hall, 2019). Hydrogen Peroxide is a toxic waste product created from the cells and needs to be removed. The catalyzes help to break down the hydrogen peroxide that is present in the cells; without this chemical reaction, the catalases will not perform its function of breaking down the hydrogen peroxide into H2O and O2.

For the enzyme to work effectively, it requires a specific environment or condition, such as temperature and PH levels as these affect the rate of which enzyme functions. Enzymes have their optimal range for PH levels that allows the enzyme to function the correct way. In human substance such as a liver catalyzes only work between PH 7 and PH 11, if the PH level is lower than 7 or higher than 11(Gillespie, 2019), the enzyme will start to denature, or loose is structure. For a liver to sustains a neutral PH of approximal PH 7; this would create the optimal environment for catalase to perform its functions.

Research question:

How does PH 4,7,10 affect the rate on which catalase sourced from the liver act on hydrogen peroxide?

Original method:

  • pineapple, protease, gelatine excrement- modified and alter from temperature, PH, and liver.
  • The methodology from Pearson’s place 2019: page –
  • IV: The temperature which the pineapple was removed from the water bath.
  • DV: How much liquid was left over after the pineapple enzyme affected the gelatine.

The original methodology was in Pearson’s place in 2019. The original excrement used both canned and fresh pineapple to see the effect of pineapple enzymes (protease). The independent variable present in the original experiment was the temperature that the pineapple was removed from the water bath, and it is summarised that the canned pineapple would have less enzyme (proteases) action, as of the increased temperature would denature the pineapple enzymes. The dependent variable was the amount of liquid that was left over after the pineapple enzyme(proteases) affected the gelatine. The original experiment was modified to ensure that significant and relevant data was collected, allowing the data to be more precise and accurate.

Modification to the methodology:

Modifications:

To ensure that sufficient and relevant data were collected, the original experiment was changed to increase accuracy and precision. The original experiment was altered by increasing the number of trials per PH level.  As well as changing the measuring cylinder from 250 MLS that went up in 3 MLS increments, to a measuring cylinder that went up in one MLS increments allowing the data that was collected to be more precise and accurate.  This was modified as low ph such as 4 and high PH such as ten was not showing accurate data.  This occurred as the liver and hydrogen peroxide was not producing enough gas to be able to collect accurate results. Calculations such as, mean, standard error, standard deviation, the uncertainty of mean and R2 values, are examples of uncertainties or limitation for the experiment, and data collected. To minimize error, all three PH’s were controlled as per the original experiment.

Refined by:

  • Three trials from each sample will be taken to ensure that the data was sufficient to calculate the mean, standard deviation, standard error, and accuracy of mean, establishing a confidence interval.
  • Changing from 250 MLS cylinder to a 100 MLS cylinder allows the measurements for the gas collected to be more accurate.
  • The variables were controlled by having the same person complete each job.

Extend:

  • The original experiment was extended observing the PH level that caused the most amount of H2O, and O2 to be created.

Redirection:

  • The original experiment had an indirect method, where the refined method had a direct correlation, by looking at the indirect and direct methods, it allows the data to be more accurate and precise.

 

Risk Assessment:

Risks

How they were limited

Liver, biological specimen

  • Teacher handled
  • Wore gloves
  • Washed hands
  • Used proper handling technique when handling the biological specimen

Glass

  • The glass where was placed in the center of the table to limit the chance of something braking and injuring a group member

Wore PPE (personal protection equipment)

  • Wore PPE
  • Including leather shoes
  • Lab coat
  • Protective glasses
  • Gloves if needed

Throughout this experiment, the group adhered to all safety considerations outlined in the original experiment. By following all the protocols, it was going to limit the number of risks that could occur during or while completing, thus allowing the experiment to be completed safely and securely.

Processed data:

For the analysis of the modified date the following processing occurred

  • Standard deviation was calculated as a measure of central tendency; this was also used to assist the calculation of standard error
  • The mean was chosen to be a measurement of central tendency
  • The stranded error was chosen as another measure of uncertainty

The measure of uncertainty is an expression of the statistical dispersion of the values attributed to measurement quality or data quality. (“Measurement and Uncertainty”, 2019)

Table 1:

Calculations

Examples

Mean

 

PH 4

PH7

PH10

Standard deviation

The standard deviation was calculated in Excel by using the STDEV function.

PH4:

SD=2.3

PH7:

SD=4.1

PH10:

SD=3.1

Standard error

Range

uncertainty of mean 

R2 value

The stranded error was calculated in Excel by dividing the stranded deviation by the square root of the sample size

PH 4

 

PH7

PH 10

PH4:

10-15

= 5

The range was calculated by the smallest value that the largest value.

PH7

34-25

=9

Ph10

31-25

=6

Uncertainty of mean was calculated by the range divide by  2

PH4:

5/2 = 2.5

PH7

 9/2

=4.5

PH10

6/2

=3

R2 was calculated by the polynomial function in excel

R2=1

 

Table 2: Raw data: outliers included

Table 2 Processed data for PH  V catalyse activity

Trials (MLS) ± 0.5ml

Measures of central tendency

Ph

1

2

3

4

5

6

Mean

Uncertainty of mean

Range

Standard deviation

Standard error (±)

PH4

15

10

13

15

10

13

12.6

±2.5

5

2.3

0.9

PH 7

28

32

39

34

25

25

30.6

± 4.5

9

4.1

1.8

PH10

38

25

25

31

30

31

30.0

±3.0

6

4.8

2.2

Interpretation:The data shown is the original data from Gas production at each PH level, the results from PH7 and PH10 trial one and trial three show an outlier, these have been removed to create a more accurate standard error and standard deviation. However, the graph did not show the theoretical models for enzyme action.

The outlier is data that is not necessarily related to the rest of the data; the information has been removed as it allows the standard deviation and error to be closer to the standard deviation that is needed.

Table3: modified data: no outliers

Table 2 Processed data for PH V catalase activity

Trials (MLS) ± 0.5ml

Measures of central tendency

Ph

1

2

3

4

5

6

Mean

Uncertainty of mean

Range

Standard deviation

Standard error (±)

PH4

15

10

13

15

10

13

12.6

±2.5

5

2.3

0.9

PH 7

28

32

34

25

25

28.8

± 4.5

9

4.1

1.7

PH10

25

25

31

30

31

28.4

±3.0

6

3.1

1.3

interpretation: The data shows that the mean Gas production at each PH levels, the result on PH 7 and PH10 have similar results; however, this does not reflect the theoretical models for enzyme action and PH Levels, which would suggest a bell-shaped curve.

The uncertainty of the mean data points ranges from ± 2.5 to 4.5 MLS, which relates to the data points of PH 4 and PH 10 having the highest and lowest uncertainty of mean. The standard deviation is a measure of the groups precision (“What Does Standard Deviation Measure?”, 2019), which reflects the methodology — this reflects on our precision for PH10. A standard error has been used as a measure of uncertainty, this related to the accuracy associated with the average(±SE). The means between PH7 and PH 10 are shown to immense SE, and this could suggest a lower accuracy during the data collection at these PH levels, this could also be related to the liver being older.

Graph 1:

INTERPRETATION:  This graph shows that the enzyme actions and PH does not fit the model by theoretical model for enzyme action. This could have been caused by the groups precision and accuracy while completing the experiment. The graph shows that the PH increases between PH 4 and PH 7; however, it looks to Plato out as seen in the results from PH10. This could have occurred as the optimum PH value for catalase was to be approximately 7.0. However, the activity of catalase does not change between the PH range of 5.1-8.

Further trials would need to be undertaken to achieve reliable results, as this would help achieve results that show the theoretical model for enzyme action.  Further statistical tests would need to be conducted to confirm that there is a relationship between enzymes and PH value.

ANALYSIS: The standard error and standard deviation reflect on accuracy and precision. However, this is not the cases for PH 10. However, while the data that was collected throughout the experiment fits the trendline, (that is shown on the graph), this is out R2=1, reflecting an extraordinarily long relationship between PH and the action caused from catalase.  It still is shown as incomplete as when comparing it to the theoretical bell-shaped curve, as it does not have the stereotypical shape and looks. Including further teaching and trials would address this problem.

Evaluation:

The uncertainty of mean, standard error, standard deviations are all examples PH the uncertainty and limitation that are observed from the analysis of the evidence recorded from the data. This could be explained by the lack of accuracy and effectiveness of the experimental processes.

The data recorded for PH 10 trial 1, and PH 7 trial 3 contains an outlier (Refer table 2, trial 1, trial 3, PH 10, PH 7).  Hence the changes in the mean (Refer table 2 and table 3, mean) the calculations for standard deviation, standard error, and uncertainty of mean were taken for the modified, as it was more accuracy indicated by the standard deviation and standard error (refer to table 2 and 3, standard deviation and standard error). The data suggest that all the variables may not have been controlled throughout the experiment. The standard error of the PH 7 and PH 10 was higher than the PH 4 (refer table 2 and 3) this could suggest that low precision in collecting the data.

The outlier was determined and removed from the data allowing the data to be more accurate and precise; this allows the standard deviation and standard error to decrease, the closer the standard deviation is to 1 and below the more precise the results will be.  The mean was altered from the original data (refer table 2) as the outliers were moved from the data collected (refer table 3).  By removing the outliers, it allows the data to be more reliable.

Sources of error:

Human error:  The majority of mistakes in experiments are due to simple mistakes that occurred during the practical experiment itself. There is an endless number of errors that could have potently happened during the experiment; examples such as miss reading the cylinder, as well as not having an accurate liver sample. 

Sample size:  The sample size of the experiments was a small sample size as the laboratory could not do a considerable amount of trials, increasing the number of trials would decrease the number of errors that encountered. 

To illuminate the errors that occurred, a margin of error was included, indicating that there will always be an error; however, this was taken into consideration.

Suggested improvements and extensions:

Improvements:

Redacting the number of random errors in the practical experiment processes would improve its, reliability, accuracy, and perception of the experiment. Throughout the experiment that the reliability of the data collected could be improved, to improve the data, the amount of trials would need to increase, this would decrease the standard error, for the practical experiment.

Extensions:

  • Redirect:  redirect the experiment by choosing a variant of PH strengths, this would allow the reliability of the results to increases, and give the theoretical models for enzyme action and PH Levels, which would suggest a bell-shaped curve
  • Extend: Extend this experiment by varying he amount of liver to see if the results increased with the more significant amount of liver. The experiment could also be extended by using a variety of technique of applying the PH solution to the bionomical specimen, as well as using different strains of the PH solution.

Conclusion:

In conclusion, the evidence that was collected throughout the trials suggested that the PH 4,7,10 on which catalyst sourced from liver effect and acts on hydrogen peroxide, has a significant effect on the reaction that encountered throughout the experiment. However, there is a significant amount of limitations to the destiny of this experiment, and further statistical analysis would be required to support this conclusion.

References

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