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CFRP: carbon fiber reinforced polymer
- Urvish Gajjar
In the end of 1800s first time Edison used the carbon fiber in the electricity bulb. CFRP- carbon fiber reinforced polymer is a one type of the carbon fiber. Edison used the fiber into the filament of bulb but he was unsuccessful because his fiber produced by carbonization of cellulose stand such as cotton or from bamboo. Because of the not specific design and not specified properties his fiber was failed. Then after that time the research was start on fiber and in the middle of the 19th century carbon fiber used in insulation or in high temperature furnaces and in the industries like chemical plants and mechanical plant where we need some strength material. Before end of 19th century the increment shows in the carbon fiber field when the manufacturing process developed very well and allows for high modulus and high powerful fiber the reinforced process apply to the fiber and then they find the new type of carbon fiber which is CFRP.
In Japan, first time work done in the CFRP field by 3 scientist of Japanese bureau of industrial technology. They were using poly acrylonitrile – PAN in the base material to manufacture carbon fiber this fiber had a high degree of molecular orientation. Then from that days the improvement is in process and now a days we can use PAN is major material in common use. The high stiffness and strength properties and low mass of CFRP have lead to more use in the aircraft and other industries. In 1977 CFRP use as skins in the aircraft. It was used in the vertical fin box and leading edge in the F-16 air force aircraft. CFRP has a very different properties one of its property is a very low co-efficient of thermal expansion that’s way it can used in space air craft because space aircraft has been work in the galaxy and there the temperature is between -110c to90c. Then in the 1980 CFRP was taken as reinforcement to strong then concrete beams then they people use carbon fiber polymer in reinforced process and got the CFRP. So that’s a short past about the carbon fiber reinforced polymer
In the synthesis or in making of the structure of CFRP in this composite more than two materials can be use so in the first step one material can be take as a basic or supporting matrix and at that time the second material build a structure on that base and reinforced the the hall material . this process is a very complex and costly .this hall process can be work under the certain temperature and pressure . After this process an epoxy can be filled out on the base material and make a hard and strong material then after the material cooled out . the mixture can produce by fiber of the different material in the main matrix. This way we can produce the CFRP from the carbon fiber.
Fig 1. CFRP bond view
In the Fig 1 we can see the large view from the gap of the two layer and how to build the layer of the polymer. In the aircraft the part of the aircraft need a strong tensile strength and the need the material which can not react on the environmental condition. So CFRP satisfy all this condition so it can be easily used in the aircraft industries for making the wings, tail of the aircraft
For aircraft most important is the properties of the material which is used in manufacturing of aircraft because if the material has not sufficient properties related to aircraft it can be fail in future . CFRP is a one type of composite material. So it has a mixture of the two material so, it has two different kind of properties of two different material. CFRP has two part one is matrix and another is reinforcement. Second part is fiber so they give a high strength and first one is polymer which give a rigidity.In that because of carbon fiber CFRP has a high modulus of elasticity. And also have a low density, high tensile strength and last one is most important which low chemical reaction which is most useful properties for aircraft material. Fiber has a many different type of composite material but CFRP is a special one because it has a many positive properti9esw and many advantage given composite material the start with it’s advantage CFRP is a very strong material but with the extremely light weight it has been used in internal part of aero plane and car’s structure. The good thing about the CFRP is it has a high strength, rigidity, resistanc3e and low corrosion. so that’s way it is use in various important structure component. There are in composite material other material also have a good properties but CFRP is manufacture in specific condition so because of that reason CFRP has a good properties then other composite material .especially in field of aviation and space lights. This reinforced polymer s are the incredible potential see on other benefits of this material is that it is a low thermal expansion so it cannot more contract orexpand in such a different thermal condition.
CFRP is a less corrosion properties because when the material manufacture with the specific resins, carbon fiber is used ant this one is a most corrosion resistance material so it is a less corrosive. We see the different advantage of CFRP is durability, radiolucency, electrical conductivity and ultra-violate resistance. CF is transparent to radian and invisible in X- rays so CFRP is radiolucency. Every material has a benefits and a drawback. CFRP also have some disadvantages. This material is very costly and its structure is very complicated and complex. It is a creep, low flexibility and brittleness material. In its disadvantage one of the major is that in the manufacturing time if there some mistake happen or process run improperly themn the hall material is useless and we can not use that material any more. So in it’s production time have to very carefull and we need special skilled worker.
CFRP’s uses are increase day by day because now a days people need a reliable and easy accessable products. CFRP is a l0ow weight and good properties so people used this composite material in different field . In aerospace industries there are highest use of this material In past first aircraft made by composite material in that almost half percent material is CFRP. Then the branded car rolls-royce also use this material in that cars and bow a days in automotive, civil that’s all engineering field increase the use of the CFRP. If we see the different field like a sports , music and kitchen thaqt’s goods are make from the CFRP. In in future in this world mostly products are make from the carbon fiber. Second, in medical field dentist use the machine for operation that’s all are made from carbon fiber. So, we see small part of machine to Hugh aircraft all where we use this material.
Fig. 2 composite material used in aircraft
If we see from environment engineering site, the nature is give a high thinking and attention from today’s community. This is right for composite material as well. As we see ahead , that composite material is a light weight and high strength, that’s affect the environmental but it is low compare to real material like steel. Yes some time if we make a wrong composition for material that time its affect the nature .polymer is only affect by it’s pollution not other way. So, at last, CFRP is a good composite material if we use it perfectly
- History of carbon fiber
- Sarah Lynn Orton. “Development of CFRP system ” UMI Ann Arbor, USA September 2007
- Dr. Joseph Kuruvilla , “CFRP composite-preparation , properties and app” , Wiley-Vch verlag & Co. , March 2012
- Hinton M.J, “ Failure Criteria in Fibre-Reinforced-Polymer Composites: The World-Wide Failure Exercise” journal , online published on 2004.
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