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Bio-based Polymers and Their Future Trends: Article Review

Paper Type: Free Essay Subject: Chemistry
Wordcount: 1945 words Published: 18th Aug 2017

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The selected article, ‘Current progress on bio-based polymers and their future trends’[1], provides insight into the present tendencies, technological advancements, and the prospective utilisation of bio-based polymers obtained with renewable means. A wide domain of bio-based polymers are analysed in this article specifically focusing on its production, its characteristics and its potential in commercialisation. The review also measures the subsequent challenges whilst introducing these polymers for appliance. Consequently, the analysis of the review article pertains generally to specialists such as scientists possessing a background knowledge of bio-based polymers, to entrepreneurs who intend to commercialise these bio-based polymers due to their increase in allure as a renewable and environmentally friendly product and perhaps to enthusiasts. Part of this reasoning is due to the extensive use of chemical jargon and its passive and scientific articulation. Subsequently, the review article was difficult to comprehend as a scientifically sound reader.

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The discipline ideally suited for the review article is a combination of organic chemistry, polymer chemistry. Organic chemistry and polymer chemistry are both a chemistry subdiscipline where the former deals with the study of organic materials[2], matter formed with carbon atoms, and where the latter deals with the study of synthetic polymers[3]. The article examines the bio-based polymers, hence falling into the categories of organic chemistry and polymer chemistry. Additional disciplines can be related to this article but may seem ambiguous such as materials science which briefly covers the study of polymers[4] and industrial engineering[5] which examines the cost effectiveness of the production of these bio-based polymers. Therefore, article should be categorised as a discipline of organic chemistry as it focuses on bio-based polymers.

The association concerning the discipline of organic chemistry and the review article from the journal ‘Progress in Biomaterials’ relates thoroughly within. As stated in the description[6], this journal examines the preparation and characteristics of biomaterials in vitro and in vivo and assesses its compatibility in areas such as tissue engineering, drug delivery and implants and regenerative medicine. The editorial board regarding this journal is of an international standard where people from universities universally gather in order to publish and review this journal. Hence this journal is open accessed and peer reviewed published under the SpringerOpen brand and also approved by the Ministry of Science, Research and Technology, obtaining a high credible standard[7]. The journal, published by one of the many leading academic services[8], is therefore associated with the discipline of organic and polymer chemistry.

The purpose of the review is to assess a variety of bio-based polymers of their production, characteristics, their effective future applications in our society and its difficulties. The review article investigates and assesses as much as ten bio-based polymers, each with diverse scrutinies, and therefore cellulose[9] will be briefly discussed as an example of what is reported as it is also associated with the primary article[10] that will be compared from the review articled. In this review article, cellulose, reported to be one of the largest bio-based polymer produced[11], is attained through the two methods: sulfite and pre-hydrolysis kraft pulping and has a ninety seven percent purity rate[12]. Cellulose is a rigid polymer and is highly tensile relative to other bio-based polymers. This causes processing problems and therefore is plasticised, mixing itself with other polymers, to soften itself for ease of use[13]. Subsequently, there are three main branches of which cellulosoic polymers are classified under after chemical modification for applications: cellulose esters, cellulose ethers and regenerated cellulose. Each of these have difference uses: cellulose esters are mainly utilised for film and fiber, cellulose ethers are used in food and personal care and regenerated cellulose are used for disposables, textiles and fabrics[14]. The main drawback to the production of this renewable source is the low yields compared to its high expense.[15]

The immense amount of professional research expressed into this review article accounts for the 159 references. Many of these references are primary articles which are peer reviewed whilst there are also some that are also review articles. Most of these references are linked to reputable academic services such as Oxford Academic and Science Direct. The sources of the review article are generally recent as most of them are from the 21st Century.

The selected primary article, ‘Cellulose Extraction from Palm Kernel Cake Using Liquid Phase Oxidation’[16], is an experimental report that investigates the production of cellulose via its extraction from palm kernel cake with the method of liquid phase oxidation. Specifically this primary article highlights the optimization of this process where the yield of cellulose would increase as a variable changed such as the ration of hydrogen peroxide and the hot water treatment. As a result a theoretical optimal point was discovered. The investigations of this primary article is significant to the review article as it contributes through the production of cellulose, one of the many bio-based polymers discussed in the review article. This helps the audience to understand how cellulose is produced, providing insight on its benefits and drawbacks.

While both articles relate to cellulose, the nature and purpose can be distinguishable. The primary article contains experimental data and methods which aimed to optimise the yield of cellulose whereas the review article aimed to provide information to an audience, gathering its data from a variety of sources.

Reference List

Babu, R.P., O’Connor, K. & Seeram, R. ‘Babu et al.: Current progress on bio-based polymers and their future trends’. Progress in Biomaterials 2013 2:8, accessed 22 March 2017, <https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/2194-0517-2-8>

Farm Yan Yan, Duduku Krishniah, Mariani Rajin, Awang Bono. ‘Cellulose Extraction from Palm Kernel Cake Using Liquid Phase Oxidation’. Journal of Engineering Science and Technology 2009, accessed 25 March 2017, <https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Yan_yan_Farm/publication/49593921_Cellulose_extraction_from_palm_kernel_cake_using_liquid_phase_oxidation/links/57bc0e4e08aefea8f0f5f46e.pdf>

[1] Babu, R.P., O’Connor, K. & Seeram, R. 2013

[2] ACS, Chemistry for Life, accessed 25 March 2017, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/careers/college-to-career/areas-of-chemistry/organic-chemistry.html

[3] ACS, Chemistry for Life, accessed 25 March 2017, https://www.acs.org/content/acs/en/careers/college-to-career/areas-of-chemistry/polymer-chemistry.html

[4] Merriam-Webster, accessed 25 March 2017, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/materials%20science

[5] Oregon state University, accessed 25 March 2017, http://mime.oregonstate.edu/what-do-industrial-engineers-do

[6] Springer Link, accessed 25 March 2017, https://link.springer.com/journal/40204

[7] Springer, accessed 25 March 2017, http://www.springer.com/materials/biomaterials/journal/40204?detailsPage=editorialBoard

[8] Springer, accessed 25 March 2017http://www.springer.com/gp/about-springer

[9] Babu, R.P., O’Connor, K. & Seeram, R. 2013

[10] Journal of Engineerring Science and Technology, accessed 25 March 2017 https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Yan_yan_Farm/publication/49593921_Cellulose_extraction_from_palm_kernel_cake_using_liquid_phase_oxidation/links/57bc0e4e08aefea8f0f5f46e.pdf

[11] Farm Yan Yan, Duduku Krishniah, Mariani Rajin, Awang Bono. 2009. Sec. 1 Para. 1

[12] Babu, R.P., O’Connor, K. & Seeram, R. 2013 Page 9 Para.1

[13] Babu, R.P., O’Connor, K. & Seeram, R. 2013 Page 9 Para 2

[14] Babu, R.P., O’Connor, K. & Seeram, R. 2013 Page 9 Para 3

[15] Babu, R.P., O’Connor, K. & Seeram, R. 2013 Page 10 Para 1

[16] Farm Yan Yan, Duduku Krishniah, Mariani Rajin, Awang Bono Sec.4 Para.1


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