An organization is a place where a person or group of people intentionally organized their activities for fulfil their misson.An organization future depends on its planning process. Different organization has different aims structurally those are different as well. That's why different organizations activities are also different according to their mission, vision and values.But all organization intention is to achieve their goal by their strategic planning process. All members of an organization always have some image in their minds about how the organization should be working, how it process should appear when things are going well.
What is Organization?
An organization is a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. Your college or university is an organization; so are fraternities and sororities, government departments, churches, Amazon.com etc. these are all organization because they all share three common characteristics.
First, each organization has a distinct purpose. This purpose is typically expressed in terms of a goal or a set of goals that the organization hopes to accomplish. Second, each organization is composed of people. One person working alone is not an organization, and it takes people to perform the work that's necessary for the organization to achieve its goals. Third all organizations develop some deliberate structure so that their members can do their work. That structure may be open and flexible. [MANAGEMENT, ROBBINS COULTER, SEVENTH EDITION, PAGE-16]
"When two or more people get together and agree to coordinate their activities in order to achieve their common goals, an organization has been born".http://socybetry.com
According to mintzberg (1979) an organization is the sum total of the way in which it divides its labour into distinct tasks and then achives coordination between them . Mintzberg (1983) his rational concept of an organization as composed of five segments .Those are given as follows,
Strategic apex (Directors,Chief Executive and staff)
Technostructere middle line Support staff (provides (Industrial engineers, (operational of direct services to the planners,personnel managers) line:R&D pay rool publice specialists etc) relations,canteen etc)
Operating core (operators direct sales staff,purchasing and depatch etc)
(Figure 22.1 the basic parts of organizations mintzberg"s etc)
(Management theory and practice.G.A Cole,sixth Edition)
Future aim of an organization
Every organization has a goal and for this reason organization tries to achive their goals by organizing their management with talent people. Present business market is very competitive,changeable and fastest.so tallent, competitive,motivated,skillful and dynamic manager is most essencial for achiving the goals of an organigation. Besides talented group of designers,engineers,and fabricators are must needed for an organization.
What Is Management?
Management as the process of coordinating work activities so that they are competed efficiently and effectively with and through other people.
Specific parts of these definitions,
ââ‚¬Â¢ Process - represents the ongoing functions or primary activities engaged by in manager.
[managerial one. [Management, Robins Coulter, seventh edition, Prentice Hall]
Different levels of management:
Different organization's have different levels of management. Some organization's have multiple levels of management. Such as, top management, middle management, and first line supervisory management. Basically all organizations have more middle managers than top managers (typically owners), who maintain the responsibilities of all three levels. King size business more managers in at each levels to coordinate the use of the organization's resources. Manager's at all three levels perform all five management level functions. In business top managers include the President and other to executives, such as the chief executive officer (CEO), Chief Financial officer (CFO), and Chief Operations officer (COO), who have over all responsibility for the organization.[htt://www.associated content.com 22/02/10]
Who are managers?
- Or departments carry out assigned duties as required. Depending on the size of the company there might be a someone who works with and through other other people by coordinating their activities in order to accomplish organizational goal.
-A manager is a person tasked with overseeing one or more employees or departments to ensure these employees single, dual or triple management layer involved.[www.wisegeek.com 18/02/2010]
-First-line managers - manage the work of non managerial individuals who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization's products.
- Middle managers - all managers between the first - line level and the top level of the organization. These managers manage the work of first line managers.
- Top managers- responsible for making organization wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that effect the entire organization. [Management, Robbins coulter, seventh edition, prentice]
What do managers do?
A French industrialist" Henry Fayol" proposed that all managers perform five management functions: such as,
- Planning - defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and co ordinate activities.
- Organising - determining what tasks are to be done, who is it to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are made.
-Leading - directing and motivating all involved parties and dealing with employee behaviour issues.
-Controlling- monitoring actual performance, comparing actual to standard and taking action if necessary. [Management, Robbins coulter seventh edition, Prentice Hall]
Decision Making Process:
Decision making is the most essential things of an organization management. All managers always like to make good decisions since they are judged on the out comes of those decisions. All levels of managers an organization do participate for making decision in different way. Such as, top level managers make decisions for their organization's goals where to locate manufacturing facilities, or what new market to move into. Middle and lower level managers make decisions about production schedules, product quality problems, pay raises and employee discipline. Making decisions is not something that just managers do; all organizational members make decisions that affect their jobs and the organization they work for.[management. Stephen p. Robins. Mary Coulter page-136] By following a set of eight steps managers need to take decision. such as, identification of a problem, identification of decision criteria , allocation of weights to criteria, development of alternatives, analysis of alternatives, selection of an alternative, implementation of the alternative and evaluating the decision's effectiveness.[ Management, ROBINS, COULTER , seventh edition, Prentice Hall]
What is talent management:
Talent management focuses on the skills and abilities of the individual and on his or her potential for promotion to senior management rules. It refers to the process of recruitment, selection, identification, attracting, training,developing and promoting employees through an organization. Actually talent management is a model of personal management. It also asses how much of a contribution the individualcan make to the success of the organization. [http://dictionary.bnet.com/definition/Talent+Management.html ]
History of talent management:
"Talent management is a process that emerged in the 1990s and continues to be adopted,as more companies come to realize that their employees` talents and skills drive their business success. Companies that have put into practice talent management have done so to solve an employee retention problem. The issue with many companies today is that their organizations put tremendous effort into attracting employees ti their company,but spend little time into rating and developing talent. A talent management system must be worked into the business strategy and implemented in daily process through out the companyas a whole. The business strategy must include rresponsibilities for line managers to develop the skills of their immediate subordinates. Divisions within the company should be openly sharing information with other departments in order for employees to gain knowledge of the overall organization objectives. Companies that focus on developing their talent integrate plans and process to track and manage their employee talent,inclouding the following: "
In a modern market place should be talent.A talent marketplace is an organization whereemployees are being skilled by training and all development strategy are also being followed.this market place is more beneficial for a companies where the most productive employees can pick and choose the projects and assignmentthat are most ideal for the specific employee. A good setting where productivity is employee centric and tasks are described as "judgement-based work," for instance,a law firm. The point of activating a talent market place within a depertment is to harness and links individuals` particular skills (project management or extensive knowledge in a particular field) with the task at hand. Example of companies that implement the talent marketplace strategy are American Express and IBM. [www. Talent management.com]
Important of talent management:
Now talent management is most important for the sccessful in long term and short term decision making. Besides companies need high-performance work force, and the rule of human resource management in developing a dynamic and effective work force fo a possitive impact on overall business performance. Initially a talent management plan can also be used to attract the the types of employees that a organization need to recruit. This process will enable to learn what types of people work best in the organization; where implements can be made and how to make adjustments as business and culture cchange. Performance management system and talent management plan can work hand in hand to improve the overall environment of the organization.
In present economic conditions,many companies have felt the need to cut expenses. This should be the ideal environment system as a means of optpmizing the performance of each employee and the organization. However,within many companies the concept of human capital management has just begun to develop. "In fact, only 5 percent of organizations say they have a clear talent management strategy and operational programs in place today. Now a days talent management is increasingly becoming a critical part of the corporate business management strategy for most organization. It is a never ending process, that manages the start point of a new employee to the end point when termination of either party occures, namely attracting, developing and retaining.
The diversity and talent management practices of the US-based IBM, the leading Itcompany in the world. IBM figured in the Fortune magazine`s list of "America`s Most admired Companies "in the year 2004. It was appreciated for recruting and retaining the best talent across the world. IBM acitvely encouraged recruting people from various social and cultural backgrounds irrespective of their age, sex, or physical status. In the same year, IBM had developed a talent market place to effectively manage its work force. The market place supported employees to find the most suitable job across different organizational units within the company.
Experts felt that the talent management invites of IBM would help to gain competitive advantage in the long run as talent is the key differentiator in the Itindustry.
The Case of Aborted New-Company
Formation: Organizational Failure or Emergent Potentiality?
Gemma M. Cox
Since the early 1980s, the notion of public enterprise in Britain has been dramatically reshaped by its political caretakers. With a shift from public service industry to large-scale privatization, there has been growth in the perception of competitive opportunities within the private sector, and in the emphasis placed on accountability for action carried out in the public sector. In government research organizations, managers are encouraged to move their divisions from cost-centre status to operational profit centres, by employing their research knowledge in consultancy and contract research activities. How ever, this trend has resulted in impractical constraints for some R & D groups. As they move from basic to applied research, they find the structure of the research organization can withhold the greater capital input required for innovation. The development of an innovation to a standard product is, in many cases, legally as well as practically impossible within the codes of operation that define the activity of the research organization.
One option for a research group that has become impractically constrained is to leave the organization and to create a new company in which it can develop and produce the intellectual expertise or tangible product that has become the groupââ‚¬â„¢s fundamental activity. This case study examines one such attempt at new-company formation, and considers the factors that prevented the goal from being achieved as initially intended.
Agilent Technologies, a spin-off of Hewlett-Packard (HP), is a world leader in talent management practices. This is partly based on HPââ‚¬â„¢s track record of over 30 years, but more recently, based on the work of its 15-person new HR global talent team and extended global talent network. Talent management is positioned strategically in the organization and directly integrates business and diversity strategies.
US electronic payment and Internet commerce provider, First Data Corporation, has built its successful global business over the last few years on systems and operational excellence. But, given a newer solutions focus within and fundamental change in financial services markets, it has been rethinking its talent management strategy and programmes. These shifts are as much the remit of organizational development executives as those in HR.