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Organisations goal and objective of the project can be achieve by using a suitable management approach. A series of management approaches will be study and discuss in this report to outline the major trends in the management approaches. The management approaches had been selected to study are Classical Approach, Scientific Management, Bureaucracy Approach, Human Relations Approach, Neo-Human Relations Approach, Systems Approach, Social Action Approach and Contingency Theory. Besides, one of the most effective approach in promoting a good organizational structure and organizational relationship will be select from the various management approaches. Moreover, the attributes to be a good leader would also be discuss in this report.
TYPES OF MANGEMENT APPROACHES
Classical approach was associated by some writers who are Taylor, Fayol, Urwick, Mooney and Reiley, and Brech at the early of last century. "They placed emphasis on the planning of work, the technical requirements of the organisation, principles of management, and the assumption of rational and logical behavior." (Mullins, 2007). The classical approaches was basically focused on the understanding of the purpose of an organization by the employees to create the understanding of how the organisation work and how can the working methods to be improved. Hence, to create an effective organization, the division of work in the hierarchy of authority and formal organizational relationships was important and it can be achieves through the scientific ways. Besides, classical approach has provide some common principals to all the organisations today such as the guidelines to the structuring and efficiency of organisations as a starting point to achieves the effectiveness of an organisations.
Scientific management was contributed by F.W. Taylor (1856-1917). Taylor was believed that there is a best machine for each job so the scientific approach was focused on the scientific method to arrange the job into the most efficient methods of working. "Deemed the 'Father of Scientific Management', Taylor is credited with the early attempts at determining the best way of undertaking human-based work by simplifying its component parts and task." (Alan, 2011). Mullins (2007) had summarized some principles of scientific management as:-
the development of a true science for each person's work;
the scienti¬c selection, training and development of the workers;
co-operation with the workers to ensure work is carried out in the prescribed way;
the division of work and responsibility between management and the workers.
The management idea was to reduce the working time by simplify the working task of the human-based work. However, the contribution thinking of Taylor has been misinterpreted. Some organisations had misused his idea to invoke the employees to conduct more work at the less cost basis. Nonetheless, by followed the idea of F.W. Taylor (1911), a series of long term working chart method has been emerged by Henry Gantt (1919). Such working chart has been known as the Gantt or bar chart. The most prominent idea of management was developed by Henri Fayol (1949) which known as the 'five process of management'. The management process has been known as forecasting, organizing, commanding, co-ordinating and controlling. This management strategic has been widely use over the last half century.
Bureaucracy management approach was written by a German sociologist named Max Weber. According to VectorStudy.com (2008), bureaucratic management can be described as a formal system of organisation based on clearly defined hierarchical levels and roles in order to maintain efficiency and effectiveness. The view of Weber on the bureaucracy can be defined as a system based on discipline which the leader has to exercise their power to control over others. Bureaucracy management has clearly defined and stated the authority power of the hierarchy in the organisations. Besides, by referring to Mullins (2007), the growth of bureaucracy has contributed to the increasing size and complexity of organisation and the associated demand for effective administration. Hence, the rational-legal form stressed by Weber was a more stable of systems between the superiors and subordinates. This system allows the subordinates to challenge the decisions of their leaders by referring to the stated rules. As a result, bureaucratic management can handle some more complex operations than the traditional management approach.
Human Relations Approach
The principal advocate of the human relations approach was Elton Mayo (1880-1949) in year 1920s. Human relations approach was became famous with the Hawthorne Experiment conduct at the Western Electric Hawthorne Plant near Chicago, America (USA) from years 1924s to 1932s. This approach was advocate on the human welfare and motivation will link to the productivity. According to Alan (2011), this theory has suggested that the sense of belonging of a working group by an individual and their level of motivation and productive outputs has a direct relationship. Mullins (2007) asserts that "The Hawthorne experiments undoubtedly marked a signi¬cant step forward in providing further insight into human behaviour at work and the development of management thinking." Thus the productivity of an organisation can be increased upon the rise of the communication, teamwork, motivation and morale among the employees.
Neo-human relations approach was arise due to some shortcoming in the human relations approach and assumptions which of the studies of Hawthorne experiments were not necessarily supported by the empirical evidence. However, the result of Hawthorne experiments was the reason for the subsequent motivation of study at the theory. The neo-human approach was reformed by Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) in years 1943. As refer to Mullins (2007), Maslow has classified the motivation into five level of hierarchy from the lowest level which are the basic level to achieve as physiological needs, through safety needs, love needs and esteem needs to the need for self-actualisation at the highest level to achieve. This famous theory was known as Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs. Others writers of the neo-human relations approach was Frederick Herzberg (1923) who isolate two sets factors which affecting the motivation and satisfaction at work such as 'hygienic' factors and the 'motivators' factors. Besides, McGregor was argued that the management style adopted by the manager will affect the human nature and behavior at work so he has wrote two theories named as Theory X and Theory Y which based on the manager's behavior.
System approach was generally generated by the German philosopher G.W.F. Hegel (1770-1831). "The systems approach views the organisation as a whole and involves the study of the organisation in terms of the relationship between technical and social variables within the system. Changes in one part, technical or social, will affect other parts and thus the whole system." (Mullins, 2007). System approach is a system which the whole organisation was divided into various parts by the characteristics, the parts in the system was synergy or interdependent which mean the changes of any part in the organization will affect other part and the whole system. In order to produce the higher productivity, all the parts must be working together to achieve the outcome. According to Alan (2011), system theory can provide a framework for the managed direction of the organizational activity through the provision of all its managed parts with a focus on and benefit to the core business it undertake. This will create the synergy and a holistic perspective of an organization. Thus, this approach was adapted and used in the configuration of almost all the organization nowadays.
Social Action Approach
Social action approach can be defined from the theory presented by Bowey. It is an approach which the individual members will complete their work in their own satisfaction result at each situation of work. According to Mullins (2007), the theory can be analyse on three essential principles of action theory, and augmented by the four additional concepts which taken from the system approach. The three essential principles can be summarised as the sociology is concerned not only with behaviour but with the meaning of action. The second essential principles are some specific meanings are persist through the reaffirmation in actions. The third essential principles was action can also lead to changes in meanings. Besides, the four additional concepts which taken out from the system approach are therole, relationship, structure and process concepts. The organisations behaviour of social action approach can be achieve through the three principles of action theory together with the four additional concepts from the system theory.
Contingency theory has stated that the organization must evolve to accommodate change within both the organization itself and the environment with the prosper changing of political, regulatory and financial marketplace. "Essentially, the tenets of contingency theory are that: there is no one right or best way to manage; the configuration of an organization must be commensurate with its environment; effective organisations have effective sub-elements, or system; and the operation of the organisation is closely linked to the management style adopted." (Alan, 2011). According to Mullins (2007), the contingency approach implies that organisation theory should not seek to suggest one best way to structure or manage organisations but should provide insights into the situational and contextual factors which in¬‚uence management decisions. Thus the management of an organization must frequently change to suit the circumstances of the organization exists to maintain the prevailing status of the organisation.
MOST EFFECTIVE APPROACH IN PROMOTING A GOOD ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATIONAL RELATIONSHIP
The Contingency approach was the management approach which I had been considered as the most effective management in promoting a good organizational structure and organizational relationships. According to Zeithaml (1988), contingency approaches are positioned within management as mid-range theories between the two extreme views which state either that universal principles of organisation and management exist or that each organisation is unique and each situation must be analysed separately. Mullins (2007) stated contingency approach implies organisation theory should not seek to suggest one best way to structure or manage organisations but should provide insights into the situational and contextual factors which in¬‚uence management decisions.
There are always have some arguments, variables and conflicts arise in an organization. Contingency approach can be used to solve those problems as it is based on the management that there are no one right or best way to manage the way of planning, organizing, leading, controlling and effective. The judgment on who are right or fault could not be analyses in this situation as the organization, people and situation are changes and vary over a time. The effectiveness of an organization are always been affect when some problem and conflict was occurred. Thus, contingency approach was the effectively approach as it can used to handle and solve the problem in the effective ways.
Referring to Alan (2011), the tenets of contingency theory has stated that configuration of an organization must be commensurate with its environment and the effective organisations must have effective sub-elements or system. Thus, an appropriate strategy will be selected on the various changes in an organization. Besides, contingency approach does not seek to produce the universal prescriptions or principles of behaviour but retain transform over the time to commensurate with the change and vary of the environment circumstances. In conclusion, contingency approach was the most effective management approach in an organization structure and relationship to produce higher productivity and efficiency as it may very over the time to suit for the situations.
ATTRIBUTE TO BE A GOOD LEADER
Leader was important in an organization as he play the role on leading the whole project team to achieve the goal and objective. A good leader must have clearly understand on all the management approach before applied into the project. To be a good leader, the capability to withstand the changes and pressure must be attained. He have to prepared some back up plan to bear with the risk of changes arise in the project.
As a good leader, he has to be humble as does not consider oneself was better than others yet is still confident and assertive. As Dan (2010) said, "A leader that is a servant at heart and a commander in practice." and "A leader that is able to turn words into action and inspire others to give their best every day. They know the strategy of the company and execute it daily." so a good leader must also have the ability to execute their task, listen to others and inspire their subordinates to perform their job. Besides, to be a good leader he must develop their team as teaches, coaches and share their wisdom and experience with their employees to help them to become a stronger leaders.
Good communication skill between internal and external organization was also one of the attribute to be a good leader. Moreover, a leader could be in authoritative styles which are strong character in giving instruction to achieve objective and in the other hand, it can be a democratic style who work and discuss together with the team member but are the decision makers in the team. Good leader would also a risk taker who is not afraid to try new strategies, adapt it and implement the ideas of their workers.
The conclusion was to be a good leader it should be rely on more than one leadership style and adopt more leader attribute to perform the various management approach in the different organisations project in order to bring it to the success and increase the productivity and efficiency.
In my opinion, by reviewing the various types of management approaches the contingency approach was the most effective management approach for an organization. The contingency approach can solve the various type of problem such as conflict and some problem arise on the lack of communication conducted during the project period with more easy ways. So the contingency approach could help to make sure the progress of the project to go smooth and achieve the goal and objective in a more effective manner. Furthermore, the attribute to be a good leader would also been discussed. In order to be a good leader, various attribute of leader should be adopt and the leader must have different style of leadership and with a good understanding of all the management approach in order to conduct and lead the organisation projects to be success in higher efficiency and productivity.