Principles and Practices of Management Behaviour
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An autocratic manager makes decisions without the consultation of others workers, rather serving as a dictator type in communicating orders because they like to be in control of situations.
This style of management guides to work getting done on time because there are less people implicate in the decision making process. The problem with this style is that the staffs are going to eventually lost motivation to work.
Paternalistic is a leadership style which is quite dictatorial, decisions are taken in the best interests of the workers. This style is known as consultative management.
This process can take a bit longer as there are more voices to be heard. The other side of this style of management and leadership is that workers may feel that you do not value their opinion or are too rigid if after all of the feedback is received you go off and make the decision in your own without incorporating of their feedback.
Democratic leadership implicates running a business on the basis on the majority of decisions.
A democratic manager is willing to share work with the staff by relegate it to get the job done. Staffs love this type of management style in business because they feel involved and part of the process. In democratic style the job performance is probably to be better than in an autocratic setting. This style has close links with McGregor's theory X and Y.
All this styles have advantages and disadvantages such as:
Autocratic styles advantages: quick decision making, effective when employing many low skilled workers; disadvantages: no two-way communication
Paternalistic styles advantages: more two-way communication so motivating, workers feel their social needs are being met; disadvantages: slow down decision making, still quite a dictatorial style.
Democratic style advantages: useful when complex decisions are required that needs specialist skills; disadvantages: mistakes or errors can be made if workers are not skilled enough.
According to Chemers M.(1997) in his book 'An integrative theory of leadership', 'Leadership has been described as a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common emerged.'
Leadership is composing a group of people to achieve common goals.
Leadership is important because help to maximise efficiently an organisation and also help the organisation to achieve the goals.
Leadership characteristics are:
- Proactive vs. reactive (a leader is always thinking three steps ahead).
- Flexible/Adaptable (a good leader will adapt to new surrounding and situations, doing his/her best to adjust).
- A good communicator
- Respectful (treating others with respect will ultimately earn respect).
- Quiet confidence
- Enthusiastic (when a leader is motivated and excited about the cause people will be more inclined to follow).
- Open-minded (a leader work to consider all options when making decisions).
- Resourceful (a leader must to create access to information).
- Rewarding (an exceptional leader will recognize the efforts of others and reinforce those actions).
- Well educated (knowledge is power).
- Open to change (a leader will take into account all points of view and will be willing to change a policy, program, cultural tradition).
- Interested in feedback (view feedback as a gift to improve)
- Evaluative (evaluation of events and programs is essential for n organisations to improve or progress).
A strong team
Theory X and Y was write by Douglas McGregor's
Theory X leaders believe that:
- People should be controlled and directed and punished, if necessary, to put them in a real effort at work
- the workers want to avoid responsibility and has little ambition
- most of the workers dislike work
Theory Y leaders believe that:
- working is as natural as play or rest for the average workers
- workers seek responsibility
- most of employees have creativity and imagination which may be helpful for organisations to achieve their goals
The Hertzberg hygiene factors are: supervision, company policy, relationship with supervisor, relationship with peers, and relationship with subordinates, personal life working conditions, status, and security.
Evaluate communication processes in selected businesses
Communication is the activity of transfer information through the exchange of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, visuals, signals, writing, or behaviour.
Communication is transmitting of information from one person to another. The importance of effective communication is immense in the world of business and in personal life. The communication process begins with the sender and ends with the receiver. The perfect guide toward achieving effective communication is the process of communication
Most of us spend about 75 per cent of our hours awake communicating our knowledge, thoughts, and ideas to others people.
Verbal communication refers to the use of sounds and language to relay a message. Effective verbal communication is dependent on number of factors and cannot be fully isolated from other important interpersonal skills such as non-verbal communication, listening skills and clarification.
Non-verbal communication includes facial expression, eye contact, tone of voice, body posture and motions, positioning within groups. It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep.
Porter's division of non-verbal communication:
- Physical (this is the personal type of communication);
- Aesthetic (this is the type of communication that takes place through creative expressions);
- Signs (this is the mechanical type of communication);
- Symbolic (type of communication that makes use of religious, status);
Static features of non-verbal communication
- Orientation (side to side, face to face)
- Posture (standing, seating, legs crossed)
- Physical contact (touching, holding and shaking hands)
- Dynamic features of non-verbal communication:
- Facial expressions (smile, raised eyebrow)
- Gestures (hand movement)
- Looking (eye contact)
Communication styles: rational, emotive and intuitive
Rational communication focuses on objective information data, encourages listening carefully to the ideas and focuses on facts and information, this communication is less comfortable with feeling discussions, in this types of communication prefers to take turns when talking, and there is less variation in tone or gestures.
Emotive communication focuses on feelings and tends to be more people oriented and passionate, wide variation in tone and gesture, this type of communication can be interrupt while others are speaking, the same there are feelings in voice and regardless of volume, the decisions are announced in terms of how they will affect people.
Intuitive communication is focuses on knowing that comes from experience, decisions are announced without justification, increased experience can lead to more rapid decision making.
Communication styles change, depending on the situation and our goals and each of the communication style is used at some point in our lives.
We can define top-down communication such as a method of issuing commands or orders within a business using a hierarchical structure.
Top-down communication affords a company's managerial structure to control the information and protect that each employment level has necessary information to get done the tasks. The disadvantage of this communication is the risk of orders getting lost in translation; this can cause trouble in a company's project development.
We can define bottom up communication such as trebuie sa caut informatie
Formal communication is used in professional setting, in this types of communication slang is not use, pronounce of words is correctly.
In informal communication we can use slang, can be used short version of words, this type of communication is used with friends and family.
Analyse organisational culture and change in selected businesses
Organisational culture mains the personality of the organisation, the way the things are done .Organisational culture refers to the fundamental values, beliefs and codes of practice that make a business. Culture according to Schein is 'A pattern of shared basic assumptions that a group learns as it solves problems'.
Culture organisation have an important role, the organisation that have strong cultures are capable of increasing revenue, profitability and shareholder value. The same organisation with strong culture finds it easy to change and adapt to market demands.
Organisational culture is a focus on culture and process with specific encouragement of collaboration between leaders and members. It is a focus on the human and social side of the origination.
Culture has three levels:
The artefacts (behaviour of group members)
Espoused values (how deal with issues and problems)
Basic underlying assumptions
Types of organisational culture are: power culture, role culture, task culture and person culture.
Power culture depends on central force and a beam of influence from the central figure throughout the organisation, small entrepreneurial organisations.
Role culture bureaucracy and works by logic and rationality, role is more important than individual, position is the main source of power. exemple tb sa caut
Task culture job and project oriented organisation
Personal culture, the individual is in the central focus, when a group of people decide that it is in their own interests to band together.
'For organisations that manage change effectively, change itself becomes the driving force that leads to future success and growth' (Hamlin, Keep and Mullins and Christy,2011).
Change is an inevitable and constant feature, an organisation can perform effectively only through interactions with the broader external environmental of which it is part.
Factors that influence change in culture are such as:
- Economic conditions
- Government interventions
- Political interests
- Development in technology
- Other forces of change could be:
- Demand for high quality goods
- Customer service
- Workforce changing nature
The main pressure of change is from external forces. Planned change represents an international attempt to improve of the organisation.
The objectives of change are:
Improving the ability of the organisation
Modifying the behavioural patterns of members of the organisationsa mai caut informative sau sa ma uit la handouts
Organisational structure is a framework of order and command through which the activities of the organisation can be planned, directed and controlled. The structure defines tasks and responsibilities. Structure is important to any kind of organisation.
The objectives of structure are: the economic and efficient performance, monitoring the activities, flexibility in order to respond to future demands.
There are three types of organisational structure:
Tall hierarchical( large organisation tend to have this type of structure, a tall structure have many different levels of employees all reporting at the top to team leaders and then up to operational management, also have a wide chain of command with narrow set of control.
Disadvantage of this type of organisational structure can often lead to slower communication channels and decision-making.
Flat hierarchical (is an organisational structure that has fewer layers of management and wider spans of control, this types of structure of organisation gives workers more responsibility for decision-making, and the also we have more motivated workforce. Advantage of this structure is that the business to change rapidly to respond to the market.)
Matrix (is the combination of the flat structure with tall structure for the business in order to meet its goals. Matrix structure often is used for specific project).
Change management is the set of tools, skills and the processes for managing the people leading to achieve the goals of organisation.
LO2 Be able to review own potential as a prospective manager
2.1 Assess own management skills performance
For managers to be effective, they must have good management skills. The management skills will ensure that he/she can effectively direct, guide, and delegate.
The management skills pyramid:
Level 1-this level is basic management skills and includes planning, organizing, directing and controlling.
Level 2-build on training and couching, motivational, and employee involvement skills.
Level 3-are more complex, developing management career and provides opportunities to advance.
Most important management skills are:
Project management skills (ability to plan, organize, budget and manage the resources);
Time management skills (control of most valuable resource, delegate tasks in minimal time, creating schedules for day/week/month, allocating time according to the task at hand);
Conflict management skills (skills to resolve the issue, negotiating and mediating);
Self-management skills (ability to make decisions as needed, goals setting, prioritize, self-evaluation, self-motivation, positive attitude);
Team management skills (delegate to your team, motivate your team, develop your team, communicate with team);
Stress management skills (monitoring performance and behaviour, incorporating effective time management to prevent stress, motivation);
People management skills (listening, be motivating and inspiring, handle conflict situations, ask questions that are insightful);
Office management skills (storage data, monitor and evaluate the work process, accounting and marketing, budget development);
Change management skills (talking to people, being real, be passionate, monitoring progress, critical thinking);
The guide line for an effective CV is:
Personal details: name, address, telephone number, email address, date of birth, nationality
Personal statement, a two-three sentence overview with exceptional qualities and future plans
Key skills and abilities
Work experience with reverse chronological order(date, organisation name, responsibilities, achievements)
Education with reverse chronological order( date, institution, achievements)
Hobbies and interests
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