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"Leadership is the exercise of power; it can be defined as the act of making something happen that would not otherwise occur" (Warner Burke, 2002)
This is easy to write the definition of leadership but it's quite hard to practice in real life. The behaviour does matter first in leadership and the skills are second. There is hell of difference between manager and a leader. The manager more likely depends on management skills, planning, organizational and communication skills but the leader does have the skills of a manager as well as some more qualities. Some people born with qualities of a good leaders and some people develop such qualities in their to be a good leader. There are many qualities which a leader must have like confidence, charisma and the qualities continue to grow in a leader with experience.
There are different styles of leadership. Some leaders have no style, which is right for some situation and wrong for some situations as well. Managers, Stake holders, staff, all people have different style of leadership according to different situation.
For leadership to work well, people (employees and interested outsiders) must be able to connect their expectations, aims and activities to a basic purpose or philosophy of the organization. This foundational philosophy should provide vital reference points for employees' decisions and actions
Defines the desired or intended future state of a specific organization or enterprise in terms of its fundamental objective and/or strategic direction. Vision is a long-term objective.
Defines the fundamental purpose of an organization or an enterprise, describing why it exists. Mission is a short-term objective.
Beliefs that are shared among the stakeholders of an organization. Values drive an organization's culture and priorities.
And every body like executives, managers, staff, customers, suppliers, stakeholders, etc, need solid philosophical principles in term of mission vision and values on which to base their expectations, decisions and actions.
Evens ,(1963)"similarity hypothesis"
"The more the similar parties the parties in dyad are ,the more likely a favourable outcome"
It means if every individual and and teams know their duties and if they match their goals with strategic direction of the organization than they would have the same thinking and they will work together on the same path which is the strategic direction of the organization to get better outcome .
Strategic direction of organization is very important on march 6,1990 west Germany Daimler Benz and Japan Mitsubishi group revealed that they had secret meeting in Singapore .to work on a intensive cooperate among their different projects and lines of business .because germens cooperate structure does not mash or fit with Mitsubishi group of management approach .
For this the organizational direction is being used was GSA(global strategic alliance ) which create new horizons in fact by this creates new products and ease the problem of worldwide excess productivity capacity & became the essential part of every organization's structure and brought different national origins together.
Leadership approaches and styles:
"Great Man" Theories:
This theory indicates about the leadership "that great leader is born, not made". This kind of theory represents the heroic personalities who were got the qualities of leadership when they were born. Great Man theories assumes that leadership is integral These theories often represent great leaders as heroic, fabulous, and destined to rise to leadership when needed. The term "Great Man" was used because, at the time, leadership was thought of primarily as a male quality, especially in terms of military leadership.
Similar in some ways to "Great Man" theories, trait theory focuses on the people receive assured qualities and characters that make them better matched to leadership. Trait theories repeatedly classify specific personality or communicative features shared by leaders. But this theory raises the question as if certain traits are key features of leadership, how do we clarify people who hold those qualities but are not leaders? This question is one of the problems in using trait theories to illuminate leadership.
This kind of leadership style emphasis on specific variables which are directly related to environment to have control on style of leadership which is best suited for the situation. According to this theory, the leadership style must be different in different situation. The leader can change their behaviours in different kind of situations. Contingency theory says that the success of a leader depends on the number of variables the leader use in different circumstances and the abilities of the admirers.
This kind of theory illustrates that leader choose the best action must be taken by the leader based upon the situational variable. Decision making in different type of situation does matter in this theory.
Behavioural thory believes that the great leaders can be made rather they born with qualities. This leadership theory focuses on the action of leaders rather the mental level, personality and internal qualities. Behavioural theory says people can learn to become great leader through getting knowledge, experience and observations.
The participative leadership theory illustrates that the leaders must take his/her followers into account. In this theory the followers take participate in decision making and the members feel more relevant and committed as well. The leader allows the members to participate in decision making process.
Management theories (also known as "Transactional theories") emphasis on the role of administration, association, and group performance. These theories base leadership on a structure of incentive and penalty. Managerial theories are frequently used in industry; when workforces are fruitful, they are satisfied; when they fail, they are reproached or penalized.
Relationship theories (also known as "Transformational theories") focus upon the networks formed between leaders and admirers. These leaders stimulate and inspire people by helping group members see the prominence and higher good of the job. Transformational leaders are absorbed on the presentation of group members, but also want each person to achieve his or her impending. These leaders frequently have high principled and moral standards.
Leadership could be described in different levels in organization as
Which is part to element leadership or direct line is in the organization were staff see their leader all the time .
They are the leaders on hundreds or some time on thousands of the staff but this is indirect leadership to help him there must be the staff at direct level to help the leader for decision making.
Strategic leaders are generally responsible for large organizations and may influence several thousand to hundreds of thousands of people. They establishÂ organizational structure, allocate resources, and communicate strategic vision.
Strategic leaders work in an uncertain environment on highly complex problems that affect and are affected by events and organizations outside their own.
Strategic leaders apply many of the same leadership skills and actions they mastered as direct and organizational leaders; however, strategic leadership requires others that are more complex and indirectly applied.
Strategic leaders, like direct and organizational leaders, process information quickly, assess alternatives based on incomplete data, make decisions, and generate support. However, strategic leaders' decisions affect more people, commit more resources, and have wider-ranging consequences in both space and time than do decisions of organizational and direct leaders.
Perhaps of paramount importance-because they exert influence primarily through subordinates-strategic leaders must develop strong skills in picking and developing good second-tier leaders
Strategic leadership skills and characteristics:
There are many leadership skills and characteristics a person should posses to become a quality manager and to succeed in the globalized world of business.These leaders have certain characteristics such as the leader should be employers brand
Should posses emotional intelligence,creativity, innovativeness, and flexibility, posses certain leadership characteristics as high ethical standards, energy, prioritization skills, commitment, dedication, goal orientation, empathetic, and extroverted. Leaders adapt leadership styles accordingly in order to better create and develop new ideas or reform existing ones. Some leaders may choose a certain leadership style based on the culture of their organization. A manager should provide leadership and direction to management levels according to the organization's goals, mission, and vision.
Leadership is about the influencing and motivating peoples these days and leader are not born and leader can be developing through organisation structure and development training as well. Among the two leadership styles discussed, there are some that have a better fit in different organizational models. In the non-profit sector, using a servant leadership style would be effective the majority of the time, yet the other two models can be used for specific purposes. The leadership styles are noted in all organizations. However, there is a primary style shared in the organizational culture. There are many other styles not examined in this analysis, which opens the opportunity for further research in this area. Further research can be conducted using other leadership models and other industries. Supplementary research can also be done within each industry subdividing it further. The decision of which style to use in each industry would depend on the leader, follower(s), and tasks. A leader should learn and practice those skills needed to be a successful leader. In conclusion, individual leaders who have the skills and qualities necessary to succeed are better equipped to execute the styles of leadership discussed. To become a successful leader one should utilize the best suiting style to everyone in every situation. The style of leadership used varies by organization and leader. While organizations may have a primary style of leadership, this is not the inclusive selection or style. The leadership technique and characteristic of the leader varies as the various experiences change. The leader must know to adapt and adjust their leadership style according to the current events of the organization. As the organization evolves through its growth stages, it calls for the use of different leadership styles.