The effectiveness of leadership in organisations

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Effective "SUCCESS, LEADERSHIP and COMMUNICATION" is essential for an organisation to function efficient and reach their target goals.Organistion is made up of many system that may affect and influence each other such as polices, individual actions, existing methods and external constraints Success in an organisation depends on individual and how members work in close coordination and harmony. So, in an organisation a clear success, leadership and communication strategies should be satisfying to enhance the participant's skill level, productivity, and time management. Leadership development for public sector managers has developed in the past two decades, across the united king and global organisation. (Pederson & Hartley, 2008). Manager's capability to influence organisation participant through leadership will assist to decide the extent both them as a whole achieve their goal (Hicks & gullet, 1981). The most important aspects of leadership are mission, passion, vision, leader, compassion, inspiration, motivation and commitment. A good leader in an organisation should know when a given function is necessary (Adair, 2009). Effective Communication helps to show performance feedback, influencing others, handle people's angry and to meet up with emotional undercurrents of conservations in an organisation. Communicating to an angry individual is major problem of firms and managers face in an organisation. (Gordon, 2004)

However, this critical review discussed the management of theories of success, leadership and communication in an organisation. Furthermore, illustrates the critical review of Alan Sugar's opinions of success, leadership, communication in an organisation. It also helps to illustrate better methods to handle success, leadership, and communication in an organisation and management aspect.


1: SUCCESS: From organisation point of view success can be analysis in four keys to success: Theory, Implementation, Evaluation, Resource/System support. These four keys of success can help give details why policies and programs may or may not accomplish the proposed results in an organisation.

Theory: This is essential in order to know how to handle problem in an organisation (Anderson, 2005).According to Anderson, A Theory of Change (TOC) is an instrument to enable develop solution to complex social problems in an organisation. The TOC give details how group of early and intermediate articulates system which will occur and identifies the ways connected to achieving the desired long-term change in organisation. Also "Theory of failure" arises when a program depend on an invalid theory of operation and when the strategy fail to meet up the organisation certain goal. (Wandersman et al., 2005)

IMPLEMENTATION: Accord to (Fixsen et al., 2005 P.5) is known as "specified set of designed to put into practice an activity or program of known dimensions". Through implementation system are purposeful and implemented activity helps self-governing team to detect its presence and strength in an organisation. The value of implementation is essential accomplishing good success result.(Durlak and Dupre 2008).Also "implementation failure of success" is due to lack of inadequate training, inexperienced personnel and lack of recourses.(Dalton et al., 2007)

EVALUATION: According to (Rossi et al 2004) describes evaluation as social science activity deals to interpreting, analyzing and communicating information with regards to workings and effectiveness programmes of success in organisation. Through evaluation decisions can carryout to enable continuity, expanding and improvement lead to success. Evaluation helps for effective management, administration and accountability in an organisation. Also "Evaluation failure of success" it is difficult to measure sensitive change and real effect due to poor designed and poor comparison group.(Wanderman et al., 2005).

RESOURCE/SYSTEM SUPPORT: Modernization in organisation involves system support. However, quality host is essential to implement programme and strategy. System support deals with technical assistance and training that lead to success in organisation. Resources deals with successfully implementation of technical resources, fiscal resources, and human resources.(Wanderman et al.,2000). Also, "System failure of success" is due to absence of institutional support for an involvement while resources failure is due to insufficient facilities, lack of fund and lack of human resources to implement quality policy in organisation.(Sarason, 1982)


Leadership is one the most essential aspect of management work and important for effective management in an organisation. Also leaders and managers helps people to reach their aims with the maximum application of its potential.(Dixon, 1991, p60-61) Leaders in an organisation are faced with certain challenges in leadership styles and managerial skills. Leadership is feature can be develop and practice. According to (Hicks & gullet 1981) all theory of leadership is not certainly as correct but it is obvious that contingency theories are the mainly capable. Leadership is about mission and vision of leaders. Different theories of leadership are:

GREAT MEN THEORY OF LEADERSHIP: This is the early stage theory of 19th century by Thomas Carlyle a Scottish. The theory is based on the legendary leaders have to born not made. The theory describes leaders as gallant and they were born with leadership qualities. Also the theory based that great leaders can arise when there is tremendous need. (Bolden et al., 2003).

CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP: Fiedler's Contingency model presumes that individual performance depends on the technique of leadership in terms of task motivation and relationship motivation. (Fiedler 1964).Among all the theories, contingency theory is the only theory that centred its concept on particular variable related to the environment and has significant meaning. Also the theory focuses on situational variables that forecast effective leadership style to fit special problem in an organisation. (Bolden et al., 2003).

DEMOCRATIC THEORY LEADERSHIP: This is the type of leadership that incorporate the members of the organisation in decision making and as well suggestion. This type leadership tend to encourage members' dedication to the decisions and enhance the quality of decision in an organisation (Hicks & gullet 1981)

TRANSFORMATIONAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP: This theory focuses on the relationship between the leader and followers and may also change leader in the moral agent. In this leadership style, the "follower" and the ''leader'' are changed for the better. This motivates and encourage individuals and help the group to perform accurate when is used by the leaders. Transformational leadership is not based simply on power or authority, ''even though disagreement and power has a role to play in the dynamics of leadership'' (Burns, 1978).

SITUATIONAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIP: This is system where management chose a particular leadership that match a particular situation in an organisation.(Hersey & Blanchard 1988)situational leadership recommend that leaders should change their styles of leadership based the maturity of the individual they are leading and aspects of task. The theory is more prescriptive and deals with intuitive appeal. (As cited by Shackleton, 1995)

COMMUNICATION THEORIES: Communication theory is sample process that should work easily and efficiently and required to formulate the message clearly; using correct medium that will provide easy feedback the information (chlson et al., 2005 p207).Communication is very essential element of management. Exclusive of communication managers possibly will not accomplish their various tasks in an organisation. Communication deals with an exchange of information system and ideas in an organisation with the environment. Successful communication inside firms is very necessary and helps to connect other parts of management process. Through communications managers can carry out their other roles of controlling, planning and organizing (Dixon, 1991p84-88). Anita cited (project management institute standards committee,1996 ,p103) stated that project communication management deals with the procedure to ensure timely, storage , collection, dissemination, and crucial deposition of project information. Under the theory of communication there is intrapersonal and interpersonal communication. According to (Dainton & Zelley, 2005) describes intrapersonal communication as communication within one's self, it deals with how individuals analyze others' attitudes, behaviour and messages to assign meaning to a given event. (Millar 1978) defined interpersonal communication, as communication between two individuals when they are close in proximity, able to achieve immediate feedback and utilize multiple senses cited by (Dainton & Zelley, 2005)

UNCERTAINTY REDUCTION THEORY OF COMMUNICATION: According to (Dainton & Zelley, 2005) cited Berger and Calabrese stated that uncertainty reduction theory explain and predict when, why and how individual use communication to minimize their doubts when interacting with one another. This is guided by three principles that states that (a) retain that the primary goal of communication is to minimize uncertainties that individuals have about the world and habitants (b) the suggest that individuals acknowledge uncertainty constantly and the acknowledge of uncertainty is an unpleasant one.(c) recommend communication as the primary medium for reducing uncertainty. This type of communication belongs to intrapersonal communication.

EXPECTANCY VIOLATION THEORY: According to (Dainton & Zelley, 2005) cited Burgoon stated that expectancy violation theory describes individuals attribute to the violation of personal space and also nonverbal of violations of physical space. Expectancy deals with people anticipation of what will happen on particular situation and based on idea of social norms. This type of communication theory belongs to intrapersonal communication.

POLITENESS THEORY OF COMMUNICATION: According to (Dainton & zelley, 2005) cited Brown and Levinson stated that politeness theory simplifies how we manage our own and other individuals' identities through interaction, by applying politeness strategies. This theory determines WHY, WHEN and how interpersonal interaction is constructed through or from absence of politeness. This type of communication belongs to interpersonal communication.

SOCIAL EXCHANGE THEORY OF COMMUNICATION: According to (Dainton & zelley, 2005) describes this theory as a broad approach used to explain and predict relationship maintenance in an organisation. This theory is invented by Thibaut & Kelly 1959.Social Exchange Theory simplifies when and why individuals constant develop some personal relationships while ending others. With regards to the name of theory suggests, an exchange approach to social relationships is much like an economy based on the comparison of costs and rewards. This theory belongs to interpersonal theory of communication.

SOCIAL PENETRATION THEORY OF COMMUNICATION: According to (Stolar, 2002) describes the theory as communication process of achieving greater degrees of closeness or intimacy with another individual. This theory increases understanding of why and how some relationships become close and other relationships do not. This theory was invented by Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor in 1973.This is very significance theory to research on because it gives details why people form the intimate relationships that the do and why and how this process occurs over time. This theory belongs to interpersonal communication theory.

RELATIONAL DIALECTICS THEORY OF COMMUNICATION: According to (Montgomery & Baxter 1996) describes relational dialectics theory as pattern of thinking about human relationships that is highly influenced by dialogic thinking. From the point of view of relational dialectics theory, a social life exists in and through people's communicative practices, by which individual gives voice to multiple opposing tendencies.(baxter & Montgomery 1996). This belongs to interpersonal communication theory.


From Sir Alan Sugar, "secrets of success" he reviews success as a keep on going process and the understanding towards your weaknesses and strengths, rather than being defensive about them. Also he said, the love of what you are doing is the key to success and recommends persistence in learning what you do, even when the going is tough. He acknowledged hard work and hunger as essential to success. Also focuses on flexibility and persistence as key to success. Finally, he mentioned willingness to learn, stamina, self-belief and enthusiasm as way of achieving his success in organisation. From my own point of view, in term of flexibility in business, during early days he engaged in many businesses such as making ginger beer, selling to neighbours and business of under developed camera films, selling to school friends. He was the chairman of the Computer Company and major in Tottenham Hotspur Football club. According to (Upton, 1994) flexibility is the capability to change or react with small penalty in time, performance or effort cost. Besides that, (Mensah, 1989) describes flexibility as capability to respond and adapt to changing business condition within and outside organisation. So Sir Alan sugar was the founder Amstrad that stand as Alan Michael trading and later grown to international consumer electronics, telecommunications and Computer Empire. He pointed out rigid approach as a problem to business and recommend flexibility as the best with regards to workplace success. Furthermore, hard work and hunger was the key to secrets of success of Sir Alan because he refuse to give up, no matter how hard things are. From my understanding, dedication and perseverance are very essential to organisation. Most the successful business men have internal locus of control and hard work and ideas. Then, he commented on willingness to learn, this deals with effort and desire toward your goal. Based on his view on enthusiasm, according to (Koch,1994) stated that the most successful individuals in business are not the most intelligent and success is all about determination, motivated and enthusiastic for cause. So enthusiasm is linked to his success. Finally, He also illustrated self -belief and stamina as essential to success.


This critical review shows Sir Alan Sugar ideology of leadership and shows the strengths and weaknesses. Sir Alan describes leader as they tend born not made up and also describes leadership as having personality and charisma qualities. Besides that, for effective leadership you need to be disciplined in self -management and you have to motivate others. However, the ability to delegation in workplace and have the qualities of inspiration. From my understanding, I disagree with Sir Alan and Thomas (founder of Great man theory of leadership) that said leaders are born not made. According to (Adair, 2009) quoted, Field Marshal Lord Slim 'There is no nobody who cannot improve their powers of leadership by a little thought and practice'. The effective level of functioning and stability can change individuals to be a leader. Also (Adair,2009) quoted, that 'Field Marshal Montgomery, the other ,great British 'born leader', was equally convinced that leadership could be developed. According to Adair, a young lieutenant said that, by training he increased his morale and powers to leader his platoon, and later his company. However, I believe that leadership can be developed by training and also some individual have instincts and qualities of leadership than others. From Sir Alan Sugar critical review he said, that he is great believer in making sure everyone knows what is going on and credit is given when it is due. Judging from above he applied democratic theory of leadership in his management where the employees are involves in decision making and as well suggestion. According to (Hicks & Gullet 1981) stated that democratic leadership tend to encourage members' dedication to the decisions and enhance the quality of decision in an organisation. (Wilcken, 2010) cited (stone &Patterson, 2005) transformational leadership theory deals with progress and development and suggest individual to work together to create greater development of the organisation. Furthermore, Sir Alan acknowledged delegation and motivation as essential to his leadership style. To be good a leader, is vital to delegate your plan properly and motivate your staffs. According to (Fiedler, 1964) Contingency theory presumes that individual performance depends on the technique of leadership in terms of task motivation and relationship motivation. Dixon (1993) cited Adair, stated that, there are variables in any work situation such as task needs, group needs and individual needs. Obviously Sir Alan Sugar exercises his task needs and group needs efficiently to achieve his business dream. According to (Dixon,1993) delegation is the heart of management process. During Sir Alan days in the company, transport section is taking most of his time; he decided to delegate it to another individual with regards to tackle most important elements. Finally, according to (Shackleton,1995) stated that charisma is essential but not sufficient component of transformational leadership. Most people like, movie stars are charismatic but have no to transformational effects on majority of follower


According to Sir Alan sugar point view on communication, he describes communication essential to good leader in a workplace. He further, describes communication to be concise, precise and to the point. Besides that, he focus on facial expression and body language when pass communication. He also commented on, feedback and negotiation skills during communication. Besides through the use of e-mails Sir Alan was able to communicate his staffs. Furthermore, observed persistence and self-belief and power of silence in negotiation during communication. According to Sir Alan Sugar, to communicate well is central well if you are to be a good leader and rise to the in the organisation. This means you must be able to communicate efficiently and quickly in an organisation. (Wilcken, 2010)cited David Collinson that stated relational dialectics theory of communication , "as dialectical perspective can facilitate new way of thinking about complex, shifting dynamics of leadership (p1422)".However, Sir Alan said ,message need to be concise , precise at the point and this applicable using e-mail to transmit information for businesses. Based on this point, according to (Green, 2006) recent public relations communication practice focuses solely information like features, facts, brief, details to the subject and information content in your message should play a supporting role in your message, and the sum of the message. From above, uncertainty reduction theory of communication deals with when, why, and how individual use communication to minimize their doubts when interacting with one another (Dainton & Zelley, 2005) cited Berger and Calabrese. According to Alan sugar, is essential to be watchful of your facial expression and body languages during getting the message across. However, the word communication from Latin point of view "communicare" means "to share together". So communication challenge begins with knowing your audience needs and also you need be receptive and sensitive to other individual's body language. Also you to be conscious of signals and actions during transmitting message to audience. According to (Green, 2006) as cited Albert mehrabian (1972) stated the 52 per cent of information about individual from body language, while 35 per cent from their tone of voice and only 7 per cent from the words they use. Beside, in term of feedback, communication transactions are between equals and non equals, so is necessary to take of relative status of partners in the relationship and impacts on the communication (Green, 2006).so, feedback played a good role to Sir Alan management system. Then, negotiation skill is necessary, through this method Sir Alan was able to overcome problems his company and everyday life.


However, good management depends upon good communication and leadership in an organisation. So, many barriers prevent good communication such as lack of clarity in message, the different background of people and lack of openness to information and suggestions. The communicator should be aware of all these barriers and implication of actions. According to (chelsom et al, 2005 p204) describes communication as critical interaction of individuals to group of people undertaking a variety of activities and most particularly to trying to coordinate their work towards a common objective. Besides, many the leadership theories concentrate almost exclusively upon the leader and follower relationship and give little attention to lateral and upward directed interaction. A quality leadership is one the most essential factors on determining the success and survival of groups and organisations. Leadership is about recognizing a goal and being to influence and motivate individual towards attaining it. Finally, to facilitate success in an organisation, there is need to select numbers potential early successes and work on them to determine the future success.


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