The organizational behavior is the analyzing the environment in different perspective to find the policies to make the firm convenient in its business. To frame different policies first the organization needs to analyze the factors that are affecting it, from inside as well as from the outside sources. The organization can be considered as the collection of individual or the collection of groups or it can also be considered as a whole thing as organization. So to find out the problems faced by the organization we need to find out the problems that an individual face in the organization as well as the problems faced by the groups in the organization. At last we need to find out the problems that are faced by the industry as the whole. Organization behavior can also be defined as the way in which the organization solves its problems from its environment.
Challenges for the organizational behavior and the management:
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The management is defined as the process of planning the ideas, organizing those ideas to make it applicable, leading the applying process with motivation and encouragement and controlling all the process.
There major challenge the organization face is the change in the market, and change in the environment in which the organization is residing on.
Lots of companies have been migrated from the traditional way of processing the information to digital way of processing the information with the high usage of the software. This software is used to manage all the content effectively and efficiently. The information technology provided new ways to make the communication within the people in the organization and to the flow of information across the firm. For the creativity the result of the analyzed information from the system is useful.
Ways to increase the performance:
Reengineering: it is the process of alteration of the existing flow of control in the process to create it as a new way of processing. It is used because it need not want us to create from the starting of the process. It is just the modification of the process it makes it more effective and efficient. It saves most of the resources.
Restructuring: it is the process of changing the structure of the firm. Like adding a needed new department or changing the department or removing the department to cut the cost of that unwanted department.
Outsourcing: providing works to the persons outside the organization. Those who take care of the other maintenance and supportive works for our mission.
2) Managing the human resource:
The human resources are considered to be the invaluable asset that is associated with the firm. So they have to be provided with all the necessary things in need. The policies and the code of conduct should be in favor of the people and it should also deal with the objectives of the firm.
3) Organizational ethics and well being:
The organization should confront to the unsaid rules, conducting codes and other features to keep the value of the individual, team and the organization high. The well being of the individuals and the organization is dependant on each other. Hence the doings of the people in the organization should reflect this idea in their mind. The value of organization also depends on the social responsibility the organization is showing. They should have the policies towards protecting the environment. They should have got it implemented in their companies.
Individual behavior and theories:
Some of the individuals are from the distinct location of the country in which there is no sign of the culture of the cities. But most of the organizations have its location and working place in the cities. For the person who is new to the culture and the professional environment will feel odd to fit into that situation. So the working culture should be in order to accept all the kinds of people from various location and various cultures. The co-workers and the managers have to be very friendly to that kind of person until they remove all sorts of shyness and hesitation to change to the current environment. But most of the people are not getting those kinds of things.
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Lack of training:
There occurs a huge gap between the way the education is and the real world industries are. For that the company should provide the appropriate training the individuals will be in need of.
Getting into the team:
Some of the teams in the corporate unwelcome the new members into the team. The individuals might feel difficult to exist with the team members. So the team members should be in an inviting manner. They have to provide all the supports to the individuals to adapt themselves to the new situation. Those people will also be in need of technical help sometimes that have to be provided to that people by the team members without the hesitation. Most of the new comers will have lots of flaws in their works. That has to be eliminated and should provide them with necessary details by the team members. The encouragement and the joy should also be provided by the team members as well as by the managers.
Personal goals and organizational goals:
Most of the individuals in the organization used to work towards their personal goals. Like for money and their career growth. Most of them failed to work towards the goal specified by the managers. Most of the people are having more care into their career than the path of the organization in which they will also go through.
Problems faced by the group or team:
Inter and intra team conflict:
There always occurs some problem within the team members either due to the personal problems or due to the official problems. None of them should be reflected in the business process. Inter and intra group competition arises some sort of problems within the people due to jealous and competition. The persons should not develop this kind of characters in this and they have to appreciate each other for their success and encourage them to do more.
Most of the people in the big organization will not be from same culture. Lots of normal living things even vary from person to person. So they have to adjust with all the mannerism of people. They should not relate people with the religion as a factor.
The internal characteristic of the manager and the persons vary normally. Suppose if the manager is a kind of person who is straight forward .then the employee will uncomfortable and threatened. Sometimes if the manager is too friendly then the employees will take advantage of it and loose their concentration in their work. Working with different people from different nations is really a big task.
For some of the MNCs the time variation that occurs around the world nations is a problem. They cannot finish the expected work on expected time. Due to the variation in the time the people in the western side will expect the persons working in the eastern part of the world as soon as possible or vice versa. Most of the outsourcing companies in the software industry are in the eastern side like the country India, china. Well, at some time it acts as the positive factor too. The persons in the company can work total 24 hours of a day. It will provide the opportunity for the software companies to split the work and make it around the world and recombine at a single workplace to make the full product. It is possible using this. Taking advantage of the time variation depends on the policies of the firm.
Customer service is one of the factors that will reduce the status of the company in the market. It is the company's responsibility to provide the best service to the company. The mangers have to take the responsibility to train the employees with all the things that is needed to service the customers well. The customer service should provide all the technical helps to the people to use our product fully.
The world has changed a lot after its appearance in the 19th century. At the end of the 19th the internet has its domination in all the ways into the human life. Also it took its way into the marketing and industrialization. Nowadays the internet marketing has become a new and efficient way of marketing in which we can get millions of customers. The companies as using the potential of the internet well. Likewise the internet provides the new way to communicate with the customers as well as the suppliers and stakeholders. But some of the company is still finding it difficult to manage the new era of internet.
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High stress for the employees:
Lack of management qualities will lead to the inefficient planning and so they have to split the work among the people in inappropriate manner leading to the problems in the employees. The employee would have received more workload in that kind of situations. Lack of planning will lead to these kinds of situation. Some of the persons would have received wrong works from the manager. So the employee will become more stress and they cannot use their natural potential to do the allocated works. So the people become more stressed and it will affect the total process of the product life cycle.
Some of the companies are not looking into the stress level that an employee can manage. They simply keep on feeding person with stress. Those kinds of policies of the company should be left out. The company should follow the necessary stress management policies to keep the employee healthy and fully potential all the time. It will provide the firm very high response it terms of the productivity.
Policies and code of conduct:
Some of the policies of the companies will be against some of the religious beliefs. It cannot be avoided. The firms should try to make the policies without conflicting with any other religious policies of the persons. Else they have to suffer from internal problems.
Most of politics in the world are corrupted. So the firms have to bribe to the government to make some favors to company. To avoid this kind of mistakes the company should use the required methods to follow all the laws and the conditions of the nations. They need to override the policies according to their need.
Some of the firms had huge loss in the implementation of same process in the different countries. The Walt Disney is one of the best examples for this. They didn't analyze the property and culture of the Europe when they had implemented the theme park in the Paris. They haven't analyzed the culture and mindset of people well there. They think that the successful implementation of the theme park in the United States and in Japan will helpful for them in implementing the same in Paris. Paris is the city that is easily accessible from all the part of the Europe. The Europeans don't have the habit of taking the breakfast as per the analysis of the Walt Disney company representatives. But what happened was there were a huge number of persons waiting in the hotels placed around the Walt Disney theme park for the breakfast. Their lunch time was assumed to be at 2 p.m in the afternoon. But opposing the idea of the Walt Disney representatives the people were waiting for the lunch by 12 noon itself. The theme park had lots of investment from the Walt Disney Company with the thought of characters of European people. But most of them didn't turn in. the European used to visit the theme park for one or two days. But the firm was expecting them to stay there for a week or more. Most of the visitors to the theme park were the Americans who were living in the European nations. Most of the expectation went wrong in this theme park implementation. Even the workers in the theme park left the theme park due to some factors. It leads to high loss to the firm. After some years they can manage all the problems in the France and come over the problems they have faced.
Theories based on the organizational behavior:
Classical theory is the combination of the scientific theory, bureaucratic theory and administrative theory. The classical theory was admired in the year of starting of the 19th century that is considered to be the period in which the industrial revolution taken place. Starting with the Taylors theory in which he gave more importance to the production that the rights of the people. Taylors approach was successful to some extent but it is not applicable to all the business at all the time. At the end, the Taylors theory was expanded to some extent in which the theory mainly focuses on the line of control and the authority. This theory was defined by the Weber called as the bureaucratic theory. It emphasizes the equal and right distribution of the power within the organization. The rules and regulation are made in this theory which defines the perfect line between the labor and the management. So the flow of the things will be perfect order. This kind of procedure in which there is set of rules occur can ease the things and there will be stability in the process of management. That is very much required for the modern management systems. The humans are considered to be the set of nodes in the networks of management. To connect them perfectly this set of rules are needed to make the perfection. After that in the year of 1930's there came the administrative theory in which the person formulated that theory tried to apply the same principles to all the organizations. That is the way in which they think to formulate this theory. Most of the classical theory aimed at motivating the people to increase the production with the economic rewards. The classical management theory seems to be very rigid. It is not acceptable to the modern industrial world.
The problems associated with the classical theory is it rigidity. Most of the principles of the classical theory are not giving importance to the value of the human. It doesn't look into the individual growth and benefits of the employees. To overcome this problem with the classical theories then arouse the neoclassical theory.
In the late year of the 1920 the theory of wart theory was introduced in which it states that any change that was made to the industry will have a positive impact to the company. There will be noticeable increase in the productivity of the firm. The approach to the employees should be in they way of friendly and not in the threatening way. So the employees will feel free to come up with their own ideas to increase the productivity.
Limited rationality theorem was proposed by the Simon in the year of 1945 stating that the workers could respond to the managerial act and decisions unpredictably. All the above said theories have tried to control the situation and the environment in which the workers and the firm were.
According to the theory of the contingency the situation which is tough should not be avoided rather it should be managed by the managers. The classical and the neoclassical theories see the conflicts and the problem that should be avoided. But the contingency sees it in the different view to overcome the problem by managing it and trying to convert the negative situations and environments into the positive one.
Chandler used major four organizations in the United States to see how those organizations are changing and handling to the new environments and the situations. Those organizations act mostly in the linear, rational, sequential way to adapt to the changing situations and the environments. This is one of the simple and easy ways to adapt to the changes as per the result of his analysis. The change in the market is the natural and the frequent thing that used to happen from day to day. So overcome all these problems the management should seek a way to manage those problems rather than avoiding those problems. Avoiding those problems will lead them to the situation in which sometime they cannot avoid as well as manage the things.
Lawrence and the losch decided from their analysis that the organization should provide all the necessary authorities to the managers in the all the department of the firm to take the necessary decisions from time to time. So that each individual manager can take their own decision at the right time and so they are not in the situation to wait till the decisions in the higher authority. This change will provide the ways to analyze the department individually and the performance of each of the mangers in the respective department. Likewise the potential of the managers could be used effectively and efficiently without the intervention of the higher officials and authorities.
Systems theory in the management was proposed by the scot and the ksat in the year of 1972. Most of the firms are not using their principles until recent days. According to this system the organization should be viewed as the system in which all the departments are interrelated to each other. So the impact that has been made in one department will automatically make some change in the other department as well. The firms are considered to be in the state of dynamic equilibrium they keep on changing to the changing environment. So it is better not to be stable in the way of having the firm without any change. The environment and the situation will make the firm to act according to its ways. So it is better to make the change without having any problem. The firm should be viewed as the open system.
Senge in the year of 1990 describe the system as the way to realize the effect of our implementation of process to the changes. Most of the connections in the firm are non linearly dependant on each other. Some of the changes in the one variable will cause less effect in another variable. Vice versa holds the truth. To see the affect of the changes made by us, we need a system to take care of it.
Case study of organizational behavior: Apple Inc
Apple in one of the computer manufacturing firm that is making lots of changes in its companies due to the effect of environment in its company products. The organizational behavior and the organizational culture in the apple have changed to noticeable level. The growth of the organization is tremendous and the managers found that the situation of apple Inc is out of their own control itself. So they took some measures to keep the organization within their control. To avoid the bankruptcy the apple has made few changes to the organizational behavior and the organizational structure. In order to stay competitive on the market in its operation and financial methods they are making a huge reconstruction in its organizational structure.
The decisions in the apple were made by the persons in the low level. The culture in the apple is that to start to new project or a new idea the employee need not wait for a long time they can move with their works by taking decision from themselves. The apple thinks that the employee need not have to force in all the small actions done by them. This is the policy made by the higher officials of the apple. The employees in the apple are free to move their ideas. Due to this the quick response the company can come up with the new ideas. This avoid the long waiting time for the employees to get the permissions from the higher officials and the processing time.
Organizational structure in apple:
The apple was the most respective and a company that feels more responsible to the changes occur in the market. Most of the decision is done by the people in the apple. The organizational structure of the apple is non existent. The decision making and the responsive of the whole company is on the basis of the decision making and the responsiveness. The things which stand as the positive sign for the growth of the apple has also took us to the downside of the hills. The apple was not able to control the spending and the purchasing of the things for which the decisions had been made by persons somewhere in the organization. Most of the decision is not from the higher positioned people. Any people can take the decisions appropriately. So there arouse the financial problem for the apple in the recent days. But which the apple could find out and make the policies to overcome that nightmares. It becomes difficult for the corporation to track the place from which the decision rose.
The personality of the person is defines as the way in which a person behaves in the public and as well within himself. Some of the persons are good to the public but still having some cruel characters inside. The best trait of the people is being quite, aggressive and with high attitude. Some of the personalities of tee people are not decided by any factor other than the environment. Most of the characters in a person have evolved by seeing the environment. So to have the best and pure character the firm should develop the needed environment for him. That is important most of the times. Most of the personal characters are to change the situation or the environment that is convenient and favorable for them. Some of the situation in the firm arises in which you cannot act according to your real character. If suppose you are a person in the firm and if you come across any confidential data that you are not supposed to know, then you cannot inform that to the higher official or use that data for your own purpose in both the cases. You will become a loser and untrustworthy person. If suppose if you handle this problem to the manager or any of your higher official then that person might think that you have done it intentionally to get good name from the higher official. In that kind of situations the personal character of a person is the thing that is going to decide how to react. Informing the situation happened is a convincing way and using the data for the own use or keeping that situation is about the nature of that person.
To the firm like the apple which is having a huge part in the day to day life of a human. Their products are in the hands of the most of the adults nowadays. So such an organization should very high organizational behavior and theories. Most of the theories in the olden days were imposing their ideas only in the way to increase the productivity of the firm. Later the organizations find the importance of people and their part in the growth of the firm. Later the motivation techniques and performance analysis techniques everything has its workload in the process of finding the potential of the people. With this plans the firm was able to find out the true potential of the people and provide them necessary benefits to keep them fit for their positions and to keep them in the company. Human resource is later discovered to be the most important part of the firm. And strategies and importance have been given to it in the modernized plans. The top down approach of the decision making powers is useful in some of the firm and decision making from the low level positioned people is also useful in some of the firm. There cannot be any of the general policies for all the organizations as the whole to define the organizations behavior.