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Harold (2008) opines that "the matrix organization is an attempt to combine the advantages of the pure functional structure and the product organizational structure. This form is identically suited for the companies such as construction companies that are project-driven". In the matrix organizations the structure is different in which the project manager directly reports to the vice president and the general manager.
The project manager is responsible for the whole process and decision making in the project and at the end or at any time the manager needs to report then the report goes directly towards the vice president and the general manager. In this model the decision making in the company is very fast and easy by the project manager. In this model each centre becomes the potential profit centre in which the project manger is the in-charge of the project and decision making.
Green (2007) states there are some merits and demerits of the matrix organization. The advantages of the matrix organizations are these. The cost of the project is minimised in the matrix organizations and also there are less chances of the conflicts between the employees. There is the ideal balance in the time, cost and performance. There is also the sharing of authority and responsibilities and al last the stress is divided in the team so no one is over stressed and given over burden to do something alone. So the matrix organizations are good in these aspects.
There are also some demerits of the matrix organizations like this model is not suitable for all the organizations specially the small organizations. The whole responsibility of the success or failure comes to the manager nor anyone else because of the decision making done by the manager not by others. The team which leads the project takes the whole credit which is against the common appraisals and equality in the organization.
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL:
Timothy (2000) opines that transformational leadership style is the ideal style of the leadership which motivates and uplifts the morale of the employees to work with the commitment and eagerness to promote the growth of the organization. If the people or employees are less effective and used to be controlled by someone who does not have the commitment within themselves, in this situation, the leader with the transforming skills can encourage the employees and change the behaviours of the employees to work effectively and become more productive and good for the organization.
This model helps to transform other in such a way that the organization gets the advantage from the employees in a maximum quantity. Transformational leadership is ideal but in the bureaucratic organizations which are according to Kehoe (2007) which states that the system is so long in the bureaucratic system that the information is sometimes distorted and employees blame the organization for any mishaps in the company and the unity is damaged all the time.
There are some aspects in the transformational and bureaucratic organization which are just the opposite, so the simple answer is this that the transformational is more effective as compared to the bureaucratic in decision making.
EVALUATE THE RELEVANCE OF MODELS OF STRATEGIC CHANGE TO ORGANIZATIONS IN THE CURRENT ECONOMY:
The models for the change which are discussed in the above paragraphs are very effective and important. Leban (2008) opines that the in the matrix organizations the structure is different in which the project manager directly reports to the vice president and the general manager. The project manager is responsible for the whole process and decision making in the project and at the end or at any time the manager needs to report then the report goes directly towards the vice president and the general manager.
In this model the decision making in the company is very fast and easy by the project manager. This model is good in terms of decision making because the project manager is the in-charge of the project and he is not asking anyone if the decision is urgent and for the betterment of the organization. In the matrix organizations the credit is all for the team leading the project. This is the demerit of the matrix organizational model.
In the transformational leadership model the model says the flexibility in the organization. There are no rigid rules and regulations like the bureaucratic organizations; the environment is very delightful and good because of the good leadership who cares for the employees. Kotter and Cohen (2002) states that the system is so long in the bureaucratic system that the information is sometimes distorted and employees blame the organization for any mishaps in the company and the unity is damaged all the time. There are so many delays are also there in this system so the transformational model is the best and the need on the companies.
ASSESS THE VALUE OF USING STRATEGIC INTERVENTION TECHNIQUES IN ORGANIZATIONS:
SITUATIONAL THEORY AND CONTINGENCY THEORY:
According to this theory, leaders everywhere behave in the certain manner and that manner always depends upon the situation of the time in the organization. Senior (2001) states there can be several situations in which there might be possible leadership behaviours but these behaviours depend on the situation of that particular time in the company in which the leader is working in.
In this theory, Timothy (2000) states leaders follow the climate in the organization and take decisions according to the situation and the situation can be either internal or external which affects the organization in different ways. This theory is very important in current leadership because in the time of recession, the decisions have to be with the situation and not the decisions which were taken in good time are good in this situation.
This is very close to the Contingency Theory which is the alternative of anything that comes against the productivity or the profit, the leadership takes contingency theory and work on this which is the option based theory as stated by James (2008) who opines that leadership must have the answer to every question arises in the growth and development of the organization.
Tesco Plc is also the well known and respected organization in which the leadership is going for meeting the targets and the decisions are taken according to the situation and this is the profitable strategy in the organization.
The participative theory is very common and significant in the current leadership of the organizations. James (2008) states that the participative leadership and management style are open and flexible manner of management where employees have the prominent decision making role in the organization and the participation of the employees is considered as the asset of the organization. So this is very important factor in decision making of the organizational setup.
This style is very much appreciated in progressing and growing organizations. Employees feel responsible and honoured by the leadership which boosts the morale of them in order to complete the tasks of the organization as Avolio (1999) described. This leadership style helps in the organization in decision making and when this style is applied, the team work and dignity of the employees come forth and they become more and more productive.
Tesco plc is the organization that promotes the participative leadership theory in all departments and each and every sector of the branches of this giant.
EXAMINE THE NEED FOR STRATEGIC CHANGE IN AN ORGANIZAITON:
As Klenke (2004) states that change is the demand of the organizations for growth. It is very simple to understand that the organizations do not remain the same in all the conditions and situations and there can be the need to change sometimes the few and often the many dimensions of the organizations. In Tesco PLC it is very important to give more and more satisfaction to our customers regarding some discount on some items but through the help of new advertisements and new aspects of the organization like clubcard and etc.
So now this card will help the customers to get the points on each purchase from our stores and after getting the specific points the customers will get the chance to have some sort of bonuses and rewards. For increasing our sales this system we are planning to implement as soon as possible. We had some sort of problems regarding the customer's interest towards our sale of the specific items and the customers were moving to another retailer companies which is going against the profitability of the organization. So we as the best one the Europe has launched the Tesco clubcard to demonstrate the valuable step towards the good will of the organization. This is the main reason for the change in our organization named Tesco PLC.
Secondly we want the best staff to deal with the customers for that we are planning to recruit new and fresh people to get inside the company according to the Harold (2008), theory y which says that this the people work with commitment and eagerness not just to earn money and kill the time, so we are doing our best to get those people in the company for good results and meet the objectives.
ASSESS THE FACTORS THAT ARE DRIVING THE NEED FOR STRATEGIC CHANGE IN AN ORGANIZAITON:
As the global recession is the worst and the whole world is suffering of this financial countdown everywhere. This factor drives the change in the organizations. The true management in terms of finance or economics is very necessary and there should not be any kind of weakness in the organization to deal with these matters. Otherwise, therefore there should be the perfect finance management and dealing with the economy to sustain in the today's economy.
Green (2007) opines the new markets and the production strategies are changing and advancing in terms of their struggle to overcome the recession time with great sustainability and profitability around the world. So new markets are the threats to the organizations and only the organizations which overcome and win the market would survive in this crucial time of history.
ASSESS THE RESOURCE IMPLICATIONS OF THE ORGANIZATION NOT RESPONDING TO STRATEGIC CHANGE:
As leadership and management deals with different issues in the companies, some of them are the most important because of their need and necessity in the organizations. Human resource is the vast department that organizes the major issues in the organizations.
The first activity of the human resource is the "Recruitment and Selection with their costs" in the companies. Leban (2008) opines that the in the recruitment the duty of the HRM is in various sectors. Firstly, it publishes or advertises the need of the organization or the companies as the vacancy comes in them. This is also the duty of the HRM to contact with the recruitment agencies for the better selection of the candidates in the companies.
After the ads the term comes when the candidates come to the recruitment section and the interviews take place, if somebody passes the interview then it is the chance for that candidate to go further and get the training to join the organization for the post he has applied or for the post the admin believes that the person can perform well according to the capability of the candidate.
This is the very important aspect of the companies. if the right people are not coming in the companies then it will be impossible to have more and more innovative ideas in the companies. From the very first stage to the ending stage the HR plays the significant role in bringing the right people in the companies. But by these processes the huge amount of time is wasted and the resources are also misused and the organization goes in the loss. This is one of the implications that do not respond to the change in the organizations.
The next category is the Cost for Training Management. James (2008) states the training management is the favourable environment of the organization in which the organization gives the opportunity to enhance the capabilities of the employees. So the training of the employees is the responsibility of the HRM in the companies. In the trainings the employees get the idea and knowledge to perform well in the organizations. Now trainings are very important but the costs that affect the financial structure of the organization is the one of the major problems in the organizations. So this is also the implication of the resource that do not respond to the change in the organization.
DEVELOP SYSTEMS TO INVOLVE STAKEHOLDERS IN THE PLANNING OF CHANGE:
SYSTEMS FOR CHNGE;
Chance (2002) states that the "team management system is recognised as the foremost integrated system of work-based, research-proven assessment and feedback instruments worldwide_ supporting individuals, teams and organizations to effect positive and lasting change and achieve higher performance in the workplace". Team management is the system to motivate the team to work hard and achieve the targets in a beautiful way.
Team management is the commitment based eagerness to get the works done in the particular time period. The leaders in the team management do their best to motivate all the employees and try their best to improve the effectiveness in the employees and also the productivity of the employees to promote the organization.
If the organization wants the employees to improve the skills for future then team development is the main factor that influences the skills of the employees to become more productive and effective for good results. Timothy (2000) opines that transformational leadership style is the ideal style of the leadership which motivates and uplifts the morale of the employees to work with the commitment and eagerness to promote the growth of the organization. If the people or employees are less effective and used to be controlled by someone who does not have the commitment within themselves, in this situation, the leader with the transforming skills can encourage the employees and change the behaviours of the employees to work effectively and become more productive and good for the organization.
Influencing skills are important in the development of the organizations and the leaders in the organization must have the influencing skills, organizations need the skill filled leaders to cope up with all the situations and tackle the problems. James (2008) opines that the influencing skills enable us to increase our credibility and helps to achieve and get more when working with other employees. As credibility is the key skill of the leaders which helps to achieve the goals and manage the task according to the preference of those.
Besides this, managing the people is also the credibility of the leaders in this the leader encourages the employees and give them chance to feel good while working in the organizations. There it is also required to promote the collaboration and cooperation between the employees. Managing yourself, the purpose of managing yourself is this that if the leader is trained and skilled and had the good credibility among the employees then the environment will be very nice and the productivity will be increased.
Timothy (2000) states there are many positive skills which influences the employees for more effective results. The leader should has the persuading qualities to convince the others for the good future goals and then to change the behaviour of the others so that they would love to work with you for the more productivity. There should be the agreeing targets, everyone in the organization should do good and there should be not any kind of conflict in the organization. The feedback must be given by the leaders to the employees so that they may learn how to accept the new things and become use to with the change.
Coaching people is also an influencing skill that helps to tell the employees that there is no problem if there is any weakness but the desire to learn more and more must overcome the problems. If there are different opinions then there should be the quality in the leader to make unity in the employees and there must be the acceptance towards the new and best opinions.
DEVELOP A CHANGE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY WITH STAKEHOLDERS:
TRAININIG AND COACHING:
The first learning style James (2008) states that the learning is the prominent and impressive way to develop from the trainings and the coaching. Training and coaching provide the scenario and the environment for the employees and the leaders to learn the desired skills and competencies. The companies that progress do arrange the trainings with the time to develop the skills in the employees.
In the coaching, the experts share their excellent experience to the juniors to inspire and encourage the others for the good results in the companies. Klenke (2004) states the mentoring is the effective and suitable method of learning in the organizations and firms. In mentoring, the specialists in the companies impart their knowledge and first hand information to the people who learn in the mentoring classes. Mentoring get the employees filled with the personal and professional skills.
EVALUATE THE SYSTEMS USED TO INVOLVE THE STAKEHOLDERS IN THE PLANNING OF CHANGE:
Kotter and Cohen (2002) opine that the Team Development is a reliable and durable system of change which determines the foremost integrated system of the workplace. Everywhere in the organizations, the teams work is encouraged and appreciated but there should be the spirit of the team in the organizations to get the targets done and met the goals. This is the duty of the leader to train and develop the employees so that they may grow and become effective and perform their duties for the good will of the organizations.
Green (2007) states "team management system is recognised as the foremost integrated system of work-based, research-proven assessment and feedback instruments worldwide_ supporting individuals, teams and organizations to effect positive and lasting change and achieve higher performance in the workplace". Now the there must be the unity in the team to work hard to do the tasks in the better and flexible way.
The leaders must promote and regulate the team development to meet the goals of the organization. Senior (2001) opines that the Influencing Skills enable us to increases our credibility and helps to achieve and get more when working with other employees. As credibility is the key skill of the leaders which helps to achieve the goals and manage the task according to the preference of those. Besides this, managing the people is also the credibility of the leaders in this the leader encourages the employees and give them chance to feel good while working in the organizations.
After the credibility, there are the skills which help you to influence others. There should be the agreeing targets, everyone in the organization should do good work and there should be not any kind of conflict in the organization. The feedback must be given by the leaders to the employees so that they may learn how to accept the new things and become use to with the change. Coaching people is also an influencing skill that helps to tell the employees that there is no problem if there is any weakness but the desire to learn more and more must overcome the problems. These skills and team development are necessary for the organizations and the management should work hard on promoting both of these.
CREATE A STRATEGY FOR MANAGING RESISTANCE TO CHANGE:
There can be several strategies to manage the resistance in the organizations during the implementation of the change. First of all this is very important to know what exactly the resistance is. James (2008) opines the resistance can be physical, emotional, official and ethical and even cultural and it just creates hurdles in bringing and practically implementing the change in the organizations. The most effective area that helps the management to deal with the problems relating to the resistance in the change is the training and the education.
The first learning style Klenke (2004) states that the learning is the prominent and impressive way to develop from the trainings and the coaching. Training and coaching provide the scenario and the environment for the employees and the leaders to learn the desired skills and competencies. The companies that progress do arrange the trainings with the time to develop the skills in the employees.
So this is very important for the organizations that they adapt this method to tackle this problem that comes in the way of implementing the change in the organizations.
DEVELOP APPROPRIATE MODELS FOR CHANGE:
KURT LEWIN'S CHANGE MANAGEMENT MODEL (UNFREEZE, TRANSITION AND REFREEZE):
James (2008) opines that Kurt Lewin gave the change model which has three effective and important stages. The first stage is called the Unfreeze, the second is Transition and then the last one is Refreeze. In the first stage, the author tells about getting ready for the change. This is half of the success in change because if the employees and stakeholders are happy and ready to receive and accept the change then the most of the times it does not take too long to implement the change. This stage makes the people ready and is very important in order to get the desired position.
The next stage is Transition which is actually the process and not just the event in the change. The transition is the inner movement of the theme of the change and the true introduction and implementation of the change. The second stage occurs when we make the changes that are needed in the organization to grow in all dimensions.
Then the third and the last stage which is Freezing and the meaning of this stage is the establishing stability once the changes are made and done according to the change. In this stage the change are accepted and implemented and the new relationship develops among the leadership and the stakeholders.
ACTION RESEARCH (PRIMARY SOURCE)
The research can be taken in different ways but some specific terms are used in the research to make it more authentic and reliable. Research itself is power packed formula for the companies to be taken into consideration and the other things are just the secondary. Two techniques are very common in terms of taking the effective research in the organizations.
The first one is known as the Primary research technique which is very important in the process of the research. Chance (2002) states that the primary research technique is the one in which the data is taken directly from the customers or the market. The market is surveyed and then it comes to the authorities that something is not there then they try to make the things good and then satisfy the market with good results and products and customer services. Now there are different factors that are involved in this primary research technique. The primary research can be taken by the research in the field with the strong responsibility and honesty because this is very sensitive matter for the organizations, if the companies fail to do the proper research the it can be taken into consideration that the company or more are more sincere with their business and then satisfaction is not the main purpose for that particular organizations.
But the real purpose of the organizations to undertake the research in the companies is the more and more satisfaction of the customers and the best to put in the services so that the companies get the maximum results in the return. In the field research, some research takes in the interviews and some on the phones but both of these methods are reliable and authentic. Sometimes there are surveys which are taken online or by the physical appearance.
ACTION RESEARCH (SECONDRY SOURCE)
The one another research technique is the Secondary Research technique. This is also very reliable but not like the primary. Harold (2008) states that the secondary research method is the one in which the data is not taken directly from the market but the companies take the help from other scholars' books and other materials to gather the related information required for the research in the plan for the better results. These kinds of results are very reliable and trusted. But the only thing to be considered is the fact and figures based on the reality.
The research must be done transparently and very authentically. In the secondary research few factors are very important. The published texts and books, magazines related with the research are very common in the secondary research technique. Then media is also the very reliable resource of information while making the plan and doing the research in the organizations. From media there are different program in which the information is given but the authenticity depends upon the institute which is giving the data to the viewers. Then the data can be taken from different research institutes that help the organizations to deal information and then make collective efforts to come to the conclusion and do the tasks within the time period and then come to the place where they can make solid rules and regulations for the success of the companies. Now the secondary research methods are very important in the process of the research program for the organizations.
PLAN TO IMPLEMENT A MODEL FOR CHANGE:
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP MODEL:
In the transformational leadership model the model says the flexibility in the organization. There are no rigid rules and regulations like the bureaucratic organizations; the environment is very delightful and good because of the good leadership who cares for the employees. Kehoe (2007) states that the system is so long in the bureaucratic system that the information is sometimes distorted and employees blame the organization for any mishaps in the company and the unity is damaged all the time. There are so many delays are also there in this system so the transformational model is the best and the need on the companies.
Tesco PLC is focused on giving quality services to the customers and the proof is the great response from the market in every branch or store or this mighty giant and the third largest food retailer in the world. Transformational model is the need and very important for the constant success in the companies in order to grow in all dimensions.
TEXT BOOKS REFERENCES:
Chance, P. (2002). Educational Leadership and Organizational Behaviour, 1st Edition. NY. Eye on Education INC.
Green, M. (2007). Change Management Masterclass. London. Kogan Page.
Harold, D. (2008). Change the Way You Lead. 2nd Edition. Stanford. Stanford Business Books.
James, G. (2008). Business Research Leadership. 1st Edition. Virginia. Darden Graduate School of business Administration.
Kehoe, D. (2007). Leading and Managing Change. 4th Edition. London. McGraw Hill.
Klenke, K. (2004). Women and Leadership. A Contextual Perspective, 1st Edition, NY, Springer Publishing Company Inc
Kotter, J. and Cohen, D. S. (2002). The Heart of Change, London. Harvard Business School Press.
Leban, B. (2008). Managing Organizational Change. London. John Wiley and Son.
Senior, B. (2001). Organizational Change. Oxford. FT Prentice Hall.
Timothy, A. (2000). Journal of Applied Psychology. vol. 85. USA. McGraw Hill.