Structure and culture of various organisations
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In this report organisation structure and culture was analysed and also three organisations was looked into by comparing the relationship between the structure and culture. How business performance affects the structure and culture of the organisation was also analysed. Lastly the personality and attitude of staff in an organisation was examined, the impact on the organisation was looked into in the report.
In the beginning of this report I chose three different organisations from different sector. Organisational and I critically look into the organisation structure and culture of each organisation because it is known that different organisation has different structure and culture or belief in which they operate.
Structure and culture of the three organisations are given with examples and how they all differ from one another which show that organisations is made up different structure and culture which made it clear that the way an organisation operate differ from one another. The purpose of establishing an organisation also determines the structures and cultures, some organisation are establish for profit making while some are for charity. The three organisations that I have chosen in this report are established for the purpose of making profit. The organisations that I looked into is also a public Limited Liability Company whereby the ownership of share is determine by the amount of money individual invested into the company and the share can be sell at the stock exchange market. Organisations are made up of different departments or units which perform different functions which are supervise by a manager who takes the responsibilities of all the activities within their departments.
Organisation can be defined as the act of organizing a business or activities that are related to a business with the purpose of achieving common goals.
Organisation structure is defined as the way in which an organisation is operate and its performance. While organisation culture is how the organisation organise its self.
Three different organisations are:
Coca cola UK.
Tarmac Limited is a large company which is made of three businesses:
Tarmac Quarry Materials.
Tarmac Building Product.
British Airways provides airlines services for all its customers throughout the world.
Coca Cola is a world leading manufacturer and marketer of non alcoholic beverages which is present in all most part of the world with almost 400 brands.
ORGANISATIONS STRUTURE AND CULTURE:
Every organisational has its structure and culture. Tarmac Limited has an organisational structure that provides a clear control in responsibility and communication with the organisation which allow resources and people to be arranged in various ways within the organisation. The structure of Tarmac is complex which enables all its stakeholders to understand the roles and responsibility of Tarmac. The organisational charts show the ways in which a Tarmac Limited structures its organisation. The below is the organisation structure of Tarmac Limited which is illustrated by the chart below:
MANAGERS: They are in charge of planning of the entire department within the organisation. They work in partnership with other managers within the organisation. They liaise with each head of department and they carry out the responsibility as the manager by making sure that there is improvement in the quality of services that the organisation render to all its customers.
They make sure that work are done at the right time and ensure that the workers under them work efficiently so that they can be productive and meet the requirement of standard that is expected of them during their duty. Tarmac Limited has various forms of manager in each department who are responsible for decision making and also pass vital information to staff in their department for example distribution manager who is responsible for goods that are been distributed to customers in and out of the construction site, production manager who is in charge of manpower to meet the demand and need of all their customers and finally sales manager who monitor the sales and ensure that customers needs are satisfied.
SUPERVISOR: They are appointed by the organisation to work hand in hand with the managers, they carry out instructions given to them by their managers and they ensure that they act on the instruction given to them by the managers. They make sure that workers under them work according to the job schedule and they add value added service to the business.
OPERATIONS: They play a very vital role in the organisation. They are responsible for the running of all the activities within the organisation. In Tarmac Limited, operations have four other departments which are under them which are made up of Finance, Human Resource (HR), Marketing and Information Technology. They are also responsible for the activities of its entire customers and employee's wages.
FINANCE: They are in charge of the money that is flowing within the organisation. They also prepare the budget, income and purchase of material which the company incurred during it operations which is supervise by the finance manager. They make decision concerning the financial performance of the company.
HUMAN RESOURCES. They are responsible for recruitment and selection of candidate that applied for employment in the organisation. They are also responsible for all the planning of all activities in the organisation and their major concern is the development of staff Tarmac Limited since they are the one that are in charge of staff welfare.
MARKETING: They make sure they provide Tarmac customers needs and provide business strategy for the company in order to meet its obligation. They ensure that they promote Tarmac image and brand to all its entire customers. They marketing department are also in charge of market survey and marketing planning.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY: They provide effective communication within the organisation and they make sure that the database of the organisation is well maintain and update to meet the demand of the employees, customers and various stakeholders to be able to have access to its website and make use of the information supplied to its customers and employees on its website.
TARMAC LIMITED ORAGNISATION CULTURE:
It is generally belief that different organisation has its own culture, Tarmac Limited has build up its own culture and which give the organisation its own identity which makes them unique and different from other organisation because of the belief and culture of the organisation.
Culture gives a clear picture about the organisation which shows what the organisation stands for and what they represent. Tarmac Limited has its own belief and culture which they are noted for, which they have developed over a long period of time since its establishment. In Tarmac Limited there are the decision makers and they making sure those things are done properly and according to the rules and regulation of the company. They are usually found in a big organisation like Tarmac Limited. Individual perform a specific role of job that has been specifies to him or her according to the job description and they must follow the rules and ready to operate in a device ways. This occur when a set of team or group are appointed by the manager to perform a specific tasks under its department.
Tarmac Limited makes it a mandatory to give a particular task to some specific team and they must complete the task at a stipulated date that will be given to the team to carry out the task in order to meet the set target. Tarmac work as a cooperate organisation, they work with other members of the company as a team, they do not allows individual in the organisation to take decision on their own, there are various department in the organisation which is supervise by group manager which individual work under them as a cooperate organisation.
BRISTISH AIRWAYS ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE:
British Airways organisational structure is base on the leadership of the board of directors who monitor the affairs of the organisation. They take decision and pass the information to various departments within the organisation for implementation. The above charts represent the organisational structure of British Airways.
CHAIRMAN: This is appointed by the board of directors to oversee all the activities of the company, he take responsibilities for all the affairs of the company and all others decision concerning the company. The other members of the board of directors report to the chairman and they deliberate on any issue relating to the success of the company they discuss the sensitive matter at the board meetings and look for how to resolve any matter relating to the company.
CHIEF EXECUTIVE: The chief executive is next to the chairman of the company all other manager or directors report to the chief executive who at times relate their information to the chairman. The chief executive is always ready to liaise with other members of the board because the chief executive is like the intermediary between the chairman and the other members of the board.
CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER: This is the person who is in charge of the finance and other related issue concerning money in the organisation. The chief financial officer is in charge of salaries and wages and he prepared the financial statement and cash flow of the organisation for the potential investor to know if the company is worthy to be investing in or not.
NON EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS: This is made of up several directors who are in charge of each department, they represent each department and they work with other members in their team for the success of the organisation. They are chosen to the position based on their experience and qualification. They take decision on behalf of the organisation and they represent the organisation in various ways. They work together with various stakeholders and they act on behalf of the board of directors to others stakeholders.
COMPANY SECRETARY: The company secretary represents the company in various places especially on issues concerning legal aspect of the organisation. The company secretary prepared act on behalf of the organisation to deal with court cases involving the organisation and report the outcome to the board of directors and who will now pass the information to the shareholders to know what the outcome of the case they the organisation might have involved when they represent the organisation.
CULTURE OF BRITISH AIRWAYS: The culture of British Airways is to work with all employees from different background and ethnicity and treat them equality without discrimination and to give its customers maximum satisfaction at all time. The British Airways is creating a conducive environment to all its customers and they are ready to give them maximum security at all time when they board their plane. They also ensure that they give their customers maximum satisfaction when by protecting their property and ensure they treat all its customers well all time. The health and safety of customers of British Airways is very important to them that is why is it their custom to provide an enabling and a conducive environment to all its customers and ensure their safety at all time.
COCA COLA ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE: Coca Cola operate a global product structure. The organisational structure of Coca Cola Great Britain is based on centralisation and decentralisation and also Coca Cola can be described as a multidivisional structure which is base on geography. This is because some activities of the company are run in one place while some other activities are run in other region and decisions are taken by the managers.
The Coca Cola Great Britain has its own strategy and marketing structure which is quite different from other Coca Cola region. The activity of Coca Cola Great Britain is run by region and they are responsible for all the activities within Great Britain alone. The activities of the business in the Great Britain might be different from other region in the world. Coca Cola Great Britain make decision on their own regarding implementation and decision making since the decision making is from the region its makes things faster and quicker because they do not have to wait to hear from other region before they can make their own decision. The directors in each department report to the general manger. The advantages of Coca Cola Great Britain are that the structure has fundamental advantages and divisional structure.
DIVISON OF LABOUR: The employees' works in various department or units which enable them to specialise in their various department.
CORDINATION: The employees are being coordinated by the manager in various departments which enable work to be done in time because they are monitor by the manager who takes responsibilities of all the activities going on within the department.
The centralisation of Coca Cola Great Britain brings about the following:
Low crises within organisation.
CULTURE COCA COLA GREAT BRITAIN: Coca Cola values their customers all over the world which make their products is available to all its customers at all time. Coca Cola is using marketing strategy to promote its product and also to make the product available to all its customers in the Great Britain.
They have varieties of brand which makes it possible for its customers to have choice of choosing from numerous brands that they have as their product. Coca Cola has 400 brands of non alcoholic drinks and they are present in 200 countries. Also Coca cola give enabling environment to all its employees, the watch word of Coca Cola is diversity, they give their employees training and make life easy for them by providing a conducive and safe environment for them to work. The general belief of Coca Cola is honesty and integrity; they ensure that employees show honesty and integrity at all time.
EXAMPLE FROM THE THREE ORGANISATIONS, DESCRIBING THE STURCTURE AND CULTURE AND HOW IT IS RUN BASED ON STRUCTURE IN PLACE:
TARMAC LIMITED: The structure and culture of Tarmac Limited is based on resources and people who have come together to work as a team. The company engaged in multiple projects which are run at different part of the United Kingdom. The company has project managers or engineers who coordinate the activities of all the workers in their various sites and give reports to their senior project supervisor, who coordinate the overall activities and inspect if work is done properly or not.
Tarmac Limited makes sure work is done accordingly and sure the health and safety of all its employees on site at all time. They create awareness on health and safety and they make sure that they provide enable environment for all its employees to work. They also carry out safety induction for new workers and they ensure that they comply with the rules and regulation on construction site. They design and create a safe working environment and they ensure that all work must be assessed, planned and controlled.
BRITISH AIRWAYS: The structure and culture of British Airways is based on hierarchy system whereby information is passed within the organisation from the board of directors to the executive managers who will then pass the information to various departments within the organisation for implementation. In each department there is a manager who is in charge of all activities of the department, he coordinate the department and give necessary information to all the employees under him and he takes responsibilities for all the events that is happening within the organisation.
The manager then passes the information to the executive directors who will now pass the information to the board of directors who will take decision on any issues concerning the information. The culture of British Airways is to carter an enabling environment for its employees and customers by proving the best for its customers in term of safety of aircraft and good customers' services to all its customers. They make sure they provide an airline that is safe and they give a thorough check on plane before they allow passenger boarding the plane so that they do not put the lives of their passenger at risk. They also make sure they purchase a modern aircraft in order to give their customers the best and provide them with modern facilities to meet their demand. British Airways is run to make profit and they make sure they give their customers the best throughout the world. Their standard is to make sure customers enjoy themselves while boarding their plane and they make sure they provide facilities to make their customers happy at all time.
COCA COLA GREAT BRITAIN: The organisation is operating on multidivisional structure which allows the company to function from different part of the world under the same brand name and same product throughout the world. In the Great Britain, Coca Cola is structure in a way that they management and staff communicate with one another and pass information from different department to another. The branch head are responsible to all the employees under their department and they make sure that production is going on at all time in order to meet the demand of all its customers in the Great Britain. Coca Cola product is available to all its customers in the United Kingdom and they have various brands in order to meet the demand of all its customers in the Great Britain.
They also provide good customers services and they make sure they supply all its products to all their potential customers in all the stores and shop throughout the Great Britain. The Culture of Coca Cola is to make its products available to all its customers in Great Britain at all time. They embark on promotional and marketing activities in order to make their products known and available at all time to all its customers. Their marketing strategy is so unique that their products is available anywhere in the Great Britain because they always do their visibility studies, effective and aggressive marketing to make their products known because of other competitors in the market.
Business performance is defined as the activities which organisations use as an interactive tool which helps the organisation to analyse the key area of business operation in order to improve its performance. The tool can be used by organisation to help them know how to adjust or overcome financial problems and operational problem that the organisation might be facing during business operation. An organisation can also use business performance to prepare the business that the organisation operates for future growth.
The business performance of the three organisations chosen in the report can be affected by their structure and culture which will lead to the following:
GROWTH: The structure and culture which an organisation adopt will lead to the organisation growth if the structure and culture is well lead down and planned very well by the organisation which will have effect on the organisation growth, for instance Tarmac Limited structure is to allow resource and people to be arrange in various ways within the organisation which can lead to organisation growth because resources will be well distributed within the organisation and people or employees will be well coordinated in their various department in order to achieve the aims and objectives of the organisation which will lead to growth and its business performance will also be improved since the structure in place is well planned.
The culture and belief of Tarmac Limited is that all its employees and management should work as a team which has a positive effect on the organisation because Tarmac Limited is able to grow and spread to other part of the world to carry out construction works and involved in big project as a result of business performance.
MARKET EXPANSION: Market expansion is as a result of growth in a business which makes the business to expand and improve in various ways as a result of the structure and culture of the organisation. Structure and culture that organisation develop and belief makes the organisation to grow and expand as a result of improvement in the business performance of the organisation.
Organisation structure and culture will help the business to perform better and increase its productivity as a result of various policies that the organisation embarks upon in order to increase its sale and increase its market target in an existing market. For instant an organisation like Coca Cola might want to increase its market sales by introducing promotional activities into the business in order to increase its sales and market because more people will be able to buy its products during the promotion as a result it will increase its sale and also make its product to be well know in the market.
Also structure and culture of an organisation like Coca Cola will allow information and services to increase its market. For instance if information are passed within the organisation accordingly it will allow development within the organisation and the management will work as a team and this can lead to market expansion will be have positive effect on the organisation. If the culture of Coca Cola Great Britain is to give maximum satisfaction to all its customers in Britain this can also have effect on the market expansion of the business because customers will have access to all its products which will have positive effect on the market that will lead to business performance of Coca Cola Great Britain.
CUSTOMERS SATISFACTION: In order to improve sales and have a good reputation in the market customers play very vital roles in a business and they determine the success of every business. In the three organisation that I have chosen in the report, Tarmac Limited, British Airways and Coca Cola Great British, they all value their customers and because without the customers the business performance of the organisation will be affected therefore the structure of the three organisation. For instance in Tarmac Limited, is set to demonstrate a good customers relationship by operating ethically and responsibly in given its customers good services which has improved the business performance of Tarmac Limited. The culture of Tarmac Limited is to serve different types of customers in all its activities.
Also in British Airways the structure is to centered within the organisation whereby information are passed within the organisation and they provide this information in order to give its customers throughout the world a safe flights to various destinations. They want to provide the best and conducive environment so that their customers can enjoy themselves whenever they board their plane from any part of the world. The culture of British Airways is to provide a good customers service in safety for its customers throughout the world by treating its good well whenever they board their plane anywhere in the world. They provide them will nice meal and drinks while on board and they treat its customers by given them discount in order to encourage them to make use of its facilities at all time.
Coca Cola Great Britain too values its customers which has made the company to increase in size and growth in terms of business performance because Coca Cola products can be found in almost every part of the world, the structure and culture is centered in around the customers by making sure that all its customers enjoy different kind of products and made them available to them at all time which has increase the business performance of Coca Cola Great Britain.
PROFITABILITY: Every business is created for profit making venture but the ways in which profit must be made must be ethical. In the three organisations that I have chosen in this report the motive behind the organisation is to make profit and huge turnover at the end of each financial year. Tarmac Limited, British Airways and Coca Cola Great Britain are all engaging in business activities and there structure and culture are quite different one another.
For example in Tarmac Limited there business performance in term of profitability has made the organisation to expand and they are able to spread to different part of the world engaging in multinational business activities and also engage in various business activities for profit making motive. British Airways engage in various activities which has increase the business performance of the organisation as a result of this it has increase the profit of the organisation because they give their customers maximum satisfaction at all time and this has led to increase in the numbers of customers and also increase in sales which result into increase in profit.
Coca Cola Great Britain is also engaging in business activities which has increase the business performance of the company because they manners in which the structure its organisation pave ways for the company to perform better and make more profit because of expansion and good marketing strategy that the company engaged into makes them to have more customers all over Great Britain which has increase their sales and as result lead to more profit for the organisation.
In any organisation, people have specific job roles to play depends on the skills, experience qualifications and they have which determines the job roles they perform in an organisation. In an organisation employees are expected to perform some certain roles and functions that are required of them in each department or unit within the organisation.
TARMAC LIMITED: The staff or employees of Tarmac Limited engaged in specific roles or function that are given to them by their site engineers, individual staff or workers perform certain roles, they are expected to carry out the roles, division of labour and specialisation are part of the specific job roles that individual staff engage in at the construction site.
Some staff specialised in some field and they are expected to carry out their duties and pass the job to another set of staff that will take the job to another level, for instance in road construction, the staff that will design and set out road map before the construction begins is different from the staff that will lay out the asphalt, mixed the concrete and cement, and also they are different from the staff that are in human resources (HR) who are in charge of recruitments and selection of new staff, likewise there are other staff in charge of marketing who strategies how the business will proceed and meet all its customers in the organisation . Therefore in an organisation like Tarmac limited individual staff has it specific job roles and are expected to perform this roles are to the job description given to them by their supervisor.
BRITISH AIRWAYS: In British Airways safety and security of passenger will be the most priority of the management and staff of the organisation. Therefore individual staff and stakeholders perform certain specific roles to ensure safety and security of lives of all the passengers at all time in the organisation. There are various departments within the British Airways:
TECHNICAL AND OPERATIONS.
SAFETY AND SECURITY
Individual in various department perform specific job roles and he or she is expected to perform his duties accordingly and they are supervise by the head of department or manager who take responsibilities for all what is done in various department. Those that are in commercial department are in charge of sales, marketing, etc.
The people that are in electronic business are in charge of information technology and electronic commerce that is selling of ticket online to passengers they make sure the website function very well because of passengers buy online ticket and passengers can also have access to their website from different part of the world. Also those in technical and operation perform certain job roles the engineers, airports operators, pilots they all have specific job roles that perform and they are supervise by the head of the units so that work and job are done properly within the department and organisation as a whole.
Lastly the corporate service have various unit under them too like legal units, finance etc. Staffs in various departments perform their roles and duties so that work can be done well in various units by each staff who are supervise by various manager in each units so that individual can perform its roles very well according to the job description and job analysis.
COCA COLA GREAT BRITAIN: The staffs of Coca Cola Great Britain perform their specific job roles which are given to them and they are been supervise by manager in various departments who monitor the job that are given to each staff in various department and units. There following are the department that can be found in Coca Cola Great Britain:
PUBLIC AFFAIRS AND COMMUNCATIONS.
The staff in each of the above departments perform specific job roles and duties given to them by the manager in their department, mostly when recruitment is carried out in an organisation, selection is done and most of the staff are sent on training by the organisation so that they can know their roles and what is expected of them to do in the job that they will be doing.
Those in brand marketing department, market their products and develop their marketing strategy and they ensure that their partnership with organisation like McDonald KFC are smooth, staff in this department ensure that they carry out their job roles, they liaise with their partners and sure that they have a smooth relationship with all their customers. They treat their customers with respect and dignity and they ensure they give them maximum satisfaction by making sure that its entire product is available to them at all time.
Individual behave in different ways to work because of the level of the organisational structure of the organisation. The structure which the organisation which the individual is working with will determine how they behave at work. Some organisation always make sure they select the best candidate during recruitments and selection and when the employed the staff, they make sure they send them on training so that they can know the ethic, culture and structure of the organisation which will allow them to perform to the standard in which the organisation has set for itself.
An individual that is coming from a different background is expected to be familiar with the new organisation policies so that he or she can know the ways in which things are done in the organisation. We all have individual differences, different perspectives, personality competency and ability to the ways we do things, therefore it will be very important organisation to train and send their staffs on training at all times in order to change their thinking and abilities to perform better in an organisation.
COMPETENCY AND ABILITY.
INDIVIDAUL DIFFERENCE: Individual difference is one of the factors why people behave differently in an organisation because they are all coming from different background, they have different opinion and thinking which will makes them think differently to the ways they see thing and they ways in which they conclude or reach a compromise.
DIFEFERENT PERPECTIVES: Since individual have different educational background and qualification they see thing in different perspectives and they ways in which they react and reach a logical conclusion will be different from one another.
PERSINALITY: We all have different personality and this has to do with attitude, staff in an organisation attitude is very important to its customers and because they are all coming from different ethics and have different attitude that why their personality is different and they behave differently at work to customers and even to one another at work.
COMPETENCY AND ABILITY: Individual also behaves in different ways at work because of the level of qualification and experience they most have acquired. Experience and qualification also matters, people without experience and qualification will behave differently to people that has the experience and qualification because they lack the experience and they do not have the qualification since they are not train to do the job, there will always be loop holes and they will not be able to meet up with the standard of the organisation since they do have the experience and qualification. Therefore individual behave differently at work because there level of education also determine how they reasons and think to solve problems and work as a team to achieve the aims and objectives of the organisation.
Individual behaviour at work will determine what the customers says about the organisation, because they are the first contact between the organisation and customers, their behaviour to customers will have effect on the organisation as a whole.
Individual that show attitudes to customers at work will not want the customers to call back again and what the customers feels about the organisation that want they will tell the whole world and this will have negative impact on the organisation, since customers is very important in a business and they determine the success of a business, therefore individual behaviour at work can have negative effect on the organisation. Sales will be reduced and when sales is reduce organisation business performance will also be affected as a result of individual behaviour. The following are the effects of individuals' behaviour at work and their impact on the organisations as a whole:
LOW CUSTOMERS: Individual behaviour at work can lead to low of customers who are do business with the organisation, the behaviour of the customers who are the representatives of the organisation can have effect on the business because of the attitude of the staff to customers especially when staff are not offering good customers services, this will not allow customers to patronise the organisation again since they are not enjoying good customers service. They will look for another better organisation that offers them good customer's service therefore good customer's relation is very important in all organisations.
INCLINE GROWTH: Individual behaviour will affect on the organisation growth since the organisation will lose most of its potential customers, the business will not be as usual again, most of its customer will have alternative will have affect on the growth of the organisation.
LOW PROFIT: The profit that the organisation normally makes will be reducing as a result of lost of its potential customers who normally do business with the organisation. The profit that they usually make will be reduce because most of the customers have looked a better alternative where they offer good customers service. Therefore as a result of the behaviour of individual in an organisation will reduce the turnover of the business which will have serious effect on the profit that the organisation normally declares at the end of financial year.
DECLINE MARKET EXPANSION: The market expansion of the organisation will be declined as a result of individual behaviour at work. The organisation will not be able to target its existing product into the market and also the organisation will be able to market its new product in a new market. This will have effect on the market expansion of the business.
I will conclude in this report that an organisation should have a structure and culture that shows that how information and how communication are passed within the hierarchy in an organisation. Also the general belief and culture of an organisation is very important, its shows how organisation value its customers. These are very important vital issue that an organisation should put in place before they commence.
Also in this report business performance should be critically examine, in any organisation, the business performance determine the success of any business, every business should check how the business can be profitable and hard values to the environment and how the business can expand and also business always aims its customers because they are part of the success of the business, therefore I will conclude that every business should give its customers maximum satisfactions at all time. Personality and attitudes of staff can affect the business, therefore I will suggest that every organisation must give its staff adequate training after they employed them and also send them on training to know about the ethics and behaviours in business this will be an advantage to all business when all staff know the ethics and job roles in a business, it will allow the business to grow and expand because they will give their best and work according to the job schedule and job description.
I will recommend that every organisation should put in place a well organise structure and culture that will tall with the mission and vision of the organisation in order for the business to be productive and be successful. Likewise I will recommend that organisation should have a good business performance which will go along with its structure and culture and finally organisation should employed experience and qualify staff and send them on training in order to let them know how to present themselves to customers and know there job description.