Recruitment and Selection Strategies in HRM
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Strategies are made according to objectives of an organization. These are set of activities towards objectives.
These are the statement of intent that basically provides a firm direction for the activities an organization performs in the pursuit of its mission. Usually in organizations there is confusion and overlapping between the terms, objectives and the company goals. This confusion is easy o solve only if the company tends to think of the objectives as a statement of intents and the goals as the quantifiable targets.
Sales strategy can be defined as the planned approach to the account management policy formation, prospect identification and qualification, sales presentation, and order generation aimed at achieving a firm's sales quotas or targets.
Following are sales strategy Objectives:
- Helps in improving client loyalty
- Increases the closeting ratio by knowing clients hot buttons
- Helps in shorting the sales cycle with outside recommendations.
- Proper sales strategy helps in offering best solutions to outsell the competitors
- Helps in targeting and penetrating the most promising and profitable sectors and markets
- Helps in refining and maximizing the competitive advantage and product differentiation to increase the market margin and share.
Helps in establishing a specific plan to strengthen and enhance the lead generation source: (Businessdictionary)
P-9: Devise appropriate recruitment and selection procedures.
It is the process of attracting, screening and selection qualified people for the Job.
Read all applications submitted. The selection of the top candidates for interviewing must be based on the Job Description and specifications. New criteria cannot be introduced to assess the candidates at this stage as it would be unfair. It is the responsibility of the persons conducting the interviews to complete the short-listing and to ensure the process remains free of unlawful discrimination. If a committee is used, the entire committee should agree on the short list. If a committee is not used, it is desirable that a second person also participate in the short-listing process. The criteria used to select the top candidates and all appropriate notes must be returned to Human Resources and Employee Development for filing and are retained for a period of 6 months. It is good practice that all employees that apply for a position within their department be interviewed.
Former employees who have been dismissed for misconduct cannot be considered for appointment. Former employees who have since retired must meet certain qualifications due to their retirement status. If there is a question about whether an applicant can or cannot be considered contact Human Resources and Employee Development.
Arranging the Interview
The persons responsible for the interviews is responsible for scheduling dates and times for interviews directly with the short listed candidates and notifying the candidates of any selection tests that will be used.
Federal law prohibits certain questions in an employment interview and the application for employment has been developed to comply with Federal guidelines. Examples of such illegal questions might refer to the applicant's age, disability, religion, ages of children, etc. Interviewing guidelines are provided to the employing department upon referral of applications. To assure consistent treatment of each applicant, a patterned interview might be developed by the department. Such might include specific questions of job related functions, skills required, and how the applicant's educational background, previous experience, etc. might be useful in the position if selected for employment.
The purpose of interviewing is to appoint the best person for the job based solely on merit and suitability. The Valdosta State University recruitment and selection process achieves this using methods that are systematic, thorough, fair, unbiased and based on rational, objective, job related criteria.
At the interview, each candidate should be treated consistently. To achieve this the panel should:
- Ask the same initial questions of each candidate
- Supplement their understanding of the candidate's responses by following up questions as appropriate
- Be consistent in allowing access to presentation material, notes and so on
- Not allow any discriminatory questions, harassment, or any other conduct which breaches the equal opportunities policy or code of conduct
Ensure that in the case of disabled candidates, the necessity for any 'reasonable adjustments' that would be required on the job are explored in a positive manner. Assessment of disabled candidates should be based on their expected performance in the job, given that any reasonable adjustment required was provided.
Keep in mind that information obtained throughout the selection process is treated as confidential and is known only to parties involved in the selection process
Keep records of interviews and the reasons for decisions - each question should receive a grade, and a grade for overall impression. The candidates will be ranked from highest to lowest based on the scores given and the position negotiated or offered to the highest ranking candidate. The scoring sheets and all documentation of the interviews must be given to Human Resources and Employee Development for filing
Panel members must be aware that it is their responsibility to ensure recruitment/interview documentation is stored securely and confidentially whilst in their possession.
Where selection tests are a valid method of assessing a candidate (i.e. effectively measures the job criteria, is relevant, reliable, fair and unbiased - also considering the predictive capacities of tests), they are an extremely useful tool and are recommended for use. Supervisors should seek advice from Human Resources and Employee Development on the use of such tests.
In selecting the successful candidate, the panel must make a decision based on the merit and eligibility of the candidates as judged by:
- Content of application and qualifications
- Performance at Interview
- Outcome of any selection tests
- Reference Checks
As part of assessing the merit of each candidate, persons selecting candidates must satisfy themselves that the information the candidate gives is authentic, consistent and honest. This includes being satisfied about information regarding the candidate's:
- application -- work history
- qualifications (where a qualification is a requirement, supporting evidence or certification must be obtained from the candidate and recorded)
- evidence presented at interview
Reference checks; references must be called and information recorded for the file
a) Identify yourself immediately, explain your position within the organization and tell the person why you are calling about the applicant.
b) Ensure confidentiality
c) Ask if he or she is free to discuss the situation
d) Try to establish rapport
e) Tell the person the position the candidate is being considered for
f) Let the person talk feely
g) Ask the references the same questions for each of your candidates
h) Always end the call with: would you rehire this person?"
Should any of these not meet the required standards, Human Resources and Employee Development must discuss the issue with the Supervisor/Director. Use the Employment Reference Check and Education Verification form located in Appendix 10 and Appendix 11.
Criminal Background Checks.
In an effort to provide a safe and secure workplace, to comply with Board of Regents Policy and to minimize the potential litigation associated with "negligent hiring processes," Valdosta State University will require background checks on the top two candidates for the position. Employment shall be conditioned upon the execution of a consent form for criminal record disclosure and upon consideration of one's criminal history. The Valdosta State University Police Department, upon receipt of the Consent to Criminal History Release Form, shall conduct the background check and report results to the Department of Human Resources.
The department will notify the applicants whose criminal history report prevents their employment. The applicant can be referred to Human Resources and Employee Development if they have questions on the process The applicant is allowed seven calendar days to initiate corrective action of any inaccurate report. Proof of an error in reporting shall not disqualify the applicant and the position will not be filled until this time period has expired.
If no action is initiated, and if the report is factual, the hiring department may resume the employment process.
P-10: Evaluate the role of motivation, remuneration and training in enhancing sales performance.
Role of Motivation in sales performance.
Whether you are a sales person or someone in a position who manages sales people, you need to know the importance of motivation. Although many it would be great to just hire self motivated people who don't need any help from you to take action and make sales, you need to realize that sales is a tough job and that there are people who can really become great at it with some encouragement. Being in sales can either pay you very well or can make you go broke. The better you are at sales, the more money you will make.
So where does motivation come into play? Well, the main reason that most people don't like sales is because of having to deal with rejection. No one likes to be rejected but if you're in a sale, that's all part of the game. The more rejections you get, the closer to a sale you will be. Now just because you expect your sales people or yourself to go out there and make those sales calls like a machine, it doesn't mean motivation should be neglected. If you are a sales person, take the time to read and listen to motivation material. By doing this, you will constantly be feeding your mind with positive and encouraging thoughts that will help you get through those days where everyone prospect seems to be in a bad mood.
For sales managers, providing your team with motivation is critical. Just look in the world of sports. Those athletes are the best in the world at what they do yet when they are losing and feeling discouraged, a simple pep talk from their coach can fire them up to the point to turn the game around. This same thing can be used on your sales people to help them see more of themselves instead of beating themselves up mentality for not making as many sales.
Motivation is important because it causes people to take action. Without action, nothing happens. The key to achieve any goal is to take action. The more action you take, the closer to your goals you will be. In order to continually take action, you will need to come up with ways to motivate yourself to do what you need to do everyday in order to reach those goals. So whether you need to motivate yourself or your team, motivation plays an extremely important role in building success.
Role of Remuneration in Sales Performance
Remuneration is wages or salary, typically money that is paid for services rendered as an employee. How do you decide what remuneration packages to adopt? How do you ensure that your Remuneration packages incentives and motivate the right people? How do you make sure that the amount of pay helps your staff with their lifestyle requirements?
These questions are vital ones to anybody trying to run a sales team or customer service team, when you have a look at how you can actually reward personal effort as well as maintain service. In looking at any remuneration package, it's worthwhile to consider a set of scales. In any job description, there is an opportunity to analyze the work required into service aspects whereby these things have to be done to maintain the client, or maintain the client relationship, such as receiving orders, implementing orders, handling queries, general items of customer service, and also perhaps even merchandising or helping with displays, as well as ensuring that stock levels are adequate, these can be called service areas or service responsibilities.
On the other hand, a sales person or customer service representative could influence the value of the sale through their personal sales skills, personality, and training, to either make the sale happen, add value to the sale, or sell some specific items that are on special or on bonus, at the point of communication, either by phone, by web, or face-to-face. This particular activity is known as personal contribution. A relatively easy formula to follow is by adopting the scales of remuneration, you can then analyze the input from the people involved. If there is high service requirements and service levels in the performance of the job, and little opportunity to add personal influence, then a wages or base salary system will be the most cost efficient to make the results work. If there is a high personal input, whereby the sales person can strongly influence the amount of the sale or the profitability of the sale, then you can reward that personal effort by special commissions, share of profits, special incentives, and special rewards, for the sales as they occur after the event, and lessen the base salary or wages that need to be paid by increasing the risk factor, which of course the personal touch will overcome.
Role of Training in Sales Performance
The term training refers to the acquisition of knowledge, skills, and competencies as a result of the teaching of vocational or practical skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. It forms the core of apprenticeships and provides the backbone of content at institutes of technology (also known as technical colleges or polytechnics). In addition to the basic training required for a trade, occupation or profession, observers of the labor-market recognize today [update] the need to continue training beyond initial qualifications: to maintain, upgrade and update skills throughout working life. People within many professions and occupations may refer to this sort of training as professional development.
P-11: Describe two techniques used to co-ordinate and control sales output.
Sales out put control
Outputs can be triggered manually or automatically in the sales document.
Automatic determination requires maintenance of output condition record.
Print programs and layout sets control content which Should be displayed in the output. controls output determination using condition
Output determination procedure is determined on the basis of sales document type (sales order type, delivery type, billing type).
Standard output determination procedure for sales order (OR), Delivery (LF) and Billing (F2) is V100000.
Output procedure contains output types, which can be processed when that sales document is created. One document can have Output types like Delivery note and Packing list in delivery.
Medium (Like Print, Fax, EDI)
Time of sending the output -e.g. immediately or in a batch
Which partner function of Business partner it can be sent
Criteria for which output condition record can be maintained for automatic output determination
It offers flexibility of changing the key controls in the Sales documents.
Example - If order confirmation for a customer is scheduled to be printed in a batch but the customer wants it immediately then time of dispatch control can be changed in the sales order.
P-12: Use given information to recommend appropriate organization structures and procedures.
One of the newest organizational structures developed in the 20th century is team. In small businesses, the team structure can define the entire organization. Teams can be both horizontal and vertical. While an organization is constituted as a set of people who synergize individual competencies to achieve newer dimensions, the quality of organizational structure revolves around the competencies of teams in totality. For example, every one of the Whole Foods Market stores, the largest natural-foods grocer in the US developing a focused strategy, is an autonomous profit centre composed of an average of 10 self-managed teams, while team leaders in each store and each region are also a team. Larger bureaucratic organizations can benefit from the flexibility of teams as well.
Employees within the functional divisions of an organization tend to perform a specialized set of tasks, for instance the engineering department would be staffed only with software engineers. This leads to operational efficiencies within that group. However it could also lead to a lack of communication between the functional groups within an organization, making the organization slow and inflexible.
As a whole, a functional organization is best suited as a producer of standardized goods and services at large volume and low cost. Coordination and specialization of tasks are centralized in a functional structure, which makes producing a limited amount of products or services efficient and predictable. Moreover, efficiencies can further be realized as functional organizations integrate their activities vertically so that products are sold and distributed quickly and at low cost .For instance, a small business could start making the components it requires for production of its products instead of procuring it from an external organization. But not only beneficial for organization but also for employees faiths.
P-13: Identify and give three examples of the differences in the nature of sales tasks and skills in a variety of context.
Ability to listen
Ask revelent questions
Self starter and self finisher
Positive self image.
Well mannered and courteous
Person of Integrity
Specified amount of sales that a management sets for achieving or exceeding within a specified timeframe, and allocates required resources. Sales targets are apportioned among different sales-units such as salespersons, franchisees, distributors, agents, etc.
Three Types of Sales Task
Personal Sales Task
A salesman of Jazz has to sell 100 connections/Sims per week
Team Sales Task
Peshawar region has to sellout 2000 connections in a month
Organizational Sales Task
Ufone has to cover 5 cities per year.
P-14: Explain the role of sales staff operating in an international environment.
International sales staff have very important role in an organization.
To improve firms image
To improve brand image
Bring International talent to domestic market
Bring new Ideas and knowledge
Create good relationship between nations
To integrate the different cultures
Brining International harmony while working with different people of the world
Bringing new skills and talents
With all above international sales staff is the sign of Globalization.
P-15: Explain the purpose of trade fairs and evaluate their contributions.
A trade fair (trade show or expo) is an exhibition organized so that companies in a specific industry can showcase and demonstrate their latest products, service, study activities of rivals and examine recent market trends and opportunities. In contrast to consumer fairs, only some trade fairs are open to the public, while others can only be attended by company representatives (members of the trade, e.g. professionals) and members of the press, therefore trade shows are classified as either "Public" or "Trade Only".
Purpose of Trade Fairs
Generating sales leads
Generating actual sales at the show
Enhancing your image and visibility
Reaching a specific audience
Establishing a presence in the marketplace
Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of your marketing efforts
Personally meeting your customers, competitors and suppliers
Prospecting for new customers
Introducing new products and services
Demonstrating your product in ways not possible using other marketing channels
Recruiting distributors or dealers
Educating your target audience.
Contribution of trade fairs to Firms
- Establish meaningful goals, masterfully plan your strategy, and measure your return on investment.
- Implement powerful marketing initiatives before, during, and after the event that engage potential buyers and generate sales.
- Choose the best exhibit display booth that meets your marketing needs and budgetary requirements. This includes evaluating different sizes, designs, and configurations of trade show displays.
- Identify the most effective graphic elements for your exhibit that portray your key messages and fulfill your brand communications needs. This includes establishing design parameters for banners, custom exhibition stands, brochures, and other materials.
- Learn about unique and appealing booth ideas that create buzz on the exhibition floor and attract visitors to your trade show display area.
- Effectively use exhibit accessories, signage and lighting techniques to heighten visibility. This includes selecting quality booth materials, high-impact portable display boards and booth fixtures that support your brand positioning.
- Select cost-effective giveaways and promotional products that have high-perceived value among your target prospects and complement your company image.
- Ensure team members who are staffing your booth project a professional appearance and are well-trained to represent your company, generate leads, and secure sales.
M-4: Evaluate the recruitment and selection procedure of the selected organization.
Recruitment at Ufone
Before recruiting a new employee, management checks whether there is a need to hire a new employee for that particular job or whether it can be incorporated into an existing employees job. Recruitment in Ufone may be of internal or external nature.
In the case of internal recruitment people from within the organization are promoted to fill the vacant vacancy. The HR department and the relevant department in which the vacancy exists, analyze whether there an employee within the organization exists, who most appropriately meets the requirements of the particular vacancy. If more then one employee is eligible for the vacancy; then that employee is chosen who has the most outstanding record. After the promotion the employee may be sent for further training. The effect of internal vacancy is that it motivates the employee to perform their best and produce maximum output. It also creates a healthy competition amongst the employees. The hiring from within may have a trickle down effect i.e. the opportunities spring not just from the first vacancy but from the vacancy created when a person in the company fills that vacancy.
If the organization feels that none of their current employees can fill out the new vacancy then they hire from external sources. In this case the human resource management considers other departments in the organization that might be interested in the appointment in order to make it a joint effort. They talk to relevant supervisors and especially to the people the new person will work with. A set of expert panelists is then selected from each relevant department to interview applicants
Ufone maintains a data base system i.e. HRMS (Human resource management system) for its internal employees as well as the employees which they will recruit in near future. In some case certain some people just drop their CV's at the head office. And whenever there is an opening or a vacancy occurs, the organization may call them for an interview.
By advertising a post internally Ufone gains an added benefit, which is; the current employees may pass the information on to any interested friends and relations. Word of mouth is also a valuable recruitment method for them and they draw on all appropriate contacts they have
Since most of the posts are of a specialist nature, they intend on advertising in the journals of professional bodies and the trade press. Their next step is to find out how much adverts cost for varying amount of space and decide what they can afford.
The HR management has hired the services of Interflow, an advertising agency, to propagate their service and company for them. They are also using the services of a web designer, Eveready media, to post the advertisement of the company on the Internet.
Private Employment Agency
The private Recruiting agencies collect information from unemployed as well as employed people about their skills and experiences. These agencies attempt to find some one suitable using its computerized inventory database of suitable individuals. These agencies charge Ufone for the referrals.
Through Vendors (Outsourcing)
Ufone also do outsourcing for the purpose of recruitment they hire firm, which will provide employee Ufone to work in the organization, but the employee will remain employee of that firm not Ufone, and this is the most common method followed by most of organization these days. Lower management at Ufone is comes through outsourcing.
The growth of information superhighway has opened up new vistas for organizations trying to recruit talent. Ufone is make full fledge use of this new technology, and it uses its own web page to advertise for new job openings.
Another aspect of the electronic recruiting is that individuals don't have to physically go to the head office to drop their CV's. They now can simply use the e-CV format provided by Ufone on its home page. The e-CV is then transferred to the relevant database or the HR department.
The HR management decides on the length of the short-list, which includes five or six people at the most. Following the advert they need help to sift through the applications. Everything is computerized and on-line which makes it easier to handle large numbers of replies. In case they run short of time, they get the help of other staff, supervisors and managers in the organization. Apart from the question of time, they do this to get second opinions. They look out for the following when reading an application:
How well-matched is the candidate to the requirements
Any unexplained employment gaps
The quality of presentation
How tailored the reply is to the particular job and Ufone as an organization.
Replying To Candidates
The candidates that do not match the job are contacted as quickly as possible and dealt with courteously since the HR management believes in the philosophy that these people, and their relatives and friends, may be future customers or acquaintances of potential, future applicants. Those that match the job are called over to undertake an on-line evaluation test.
The candidates that pass the on-line evaluation test are then called for interviews. A date and a time are arranged and the candidate appears for the interview. The questions of this interview are designed especially for gauging the personality and ability of the candidate.
The results are screened by a set of panelists in order to minimize chances of error in selecting the candidates. The HR management sometimes keeps a small number of candidates in reserve.
M-5 : Highlight the motivating factors being used by the selected organization also determine the remuneration and training programs used by the organization for enhancing sales performance.
Training at Ufone
Training & Development involves improving the knowledge, skills and abilities of the individuals. A continuous training is conducted inside Ufone to improve the performance of the employee. There are two types of trainings conducted at Ufone:
In-house training is customized training which is only for Ufone employees.
External training is carried out through trainers in training institutes.
Employees at Ufone are usually trained through Rameez Allahwalla (in Karachi), Possibilities and Intec (two well-known training institutes).
Before training "Training Need Analysis" (TNA) is conducted by the manager of the department. And after the training feedback from the employee is taken.
Motivating Factors at Ufone
A very effective way to retain an employee is to give him compensation &
Benefits and Motivating factors at Ufone which is mentioned below:
Medical Facility to employee and his/her parents
Promotion on Performance
Remuneration at Ufone
There are about 150 employees who are working in the Ufone Head Office and 1500 employees serving nationwide. All of them are very devoted as they are given a wonderful learning environment to work, pay offered to them is also very attractive and ample chance of progress motivates them to work more. The job analysis is done on targets assigned and daily routines.
The employees are indeed very satisfied and motivated.
Ufone is basically equal employment opportunity organization. Almost 70% of its employees are male and 30% are female. The job description of each and every employee is predefined. Performance appraisal is done on annual basis. Average age of Ufone employee is 32 years. This shows that they prefer young and energetic people for their middle and lower level management. High profile well experienced persons are considered for top level management. Average Salary is 12000 for a Ufone employee. Salaries are increased as the federal government of Pakistan announced the percentage.
M-7: Compare the sales tasks and skills being used by the two selected organization.
Ufone Sales Task & Skills:
Successful companies have long known that a well-trained, highly motivated and efficiently connected field force is critical to their continued growth and success. Ufone realized that to stay ahead of the competition, they must replace traditional paper based systems with mobile solutions that enable access to key information directly from the field.
Today, Ufone's sales team is armed with Psion Teklogix WORKABOUT PRO hand-held with GPRS and a software application built on the Microsoft CE Framework; the team retrieves data from the company's accounting stock system through an Oracle database and uploads new data in the same manner. Known internally as U SFA (Ufone Sales Force Automation), this application allows sales staff to create orders, add details, fill in electronic outlet cards, review daily activity, and synchronize for real time information on stock availability.
Sales Tasks at Ufone:
- Maximum sales.
- Brand Promotion.
- Customer Loyalty.
- Team Work.
- Achievement of Assigned sales task (e.g Sales of 10 Connections & 2000 recharge balance by single salesman).
- Proper Presentation.
- Complete Information about brand & Company.
- Taking Competitive advantage by Smooth distribution.
- Effective Communication.
- Public Relation.
Mobilink Sales Task & Skills:
Our objective is to describe the sales management of Mobilink. Personal selling constitutes a lot in companies' profit. But Mobilink is hardly impressed by the idea of personal selling. In cellular sector there is large scope of personal selling. Mobilink's management declares that its sales are well managed by regional and divisional service centers and franchises and outlets as can be seen by looking at market position of Mobilink and they have strong distribution channel serving them well. In this report we briefly look at the sales managed by Mobilink though sales centers and franchises.
Following are sales task at Mobilink:
Ensure effective sales activity.
Achievement through respective sales channels (franchises / National Distributor / Regional Distributors Retail Distribution Officers / Route Sales Officers) in the zone.
Oversee preparation and dissemination of daily sales reports.
Maintain and develop comfort level between respective franchises.
National Distributor / Regional Distributors and retailers through consistent visits.
M-8: Measure the differences between sale staff of the selected organization working in a domestic environment with that of operating internationally.
The sale staff of domestic and international environment has major difference. As local staff need command on local language while international while international staff need on international languages like English. Domestic staff needs local PR while international staff needs international exposure. Ufone is operating just nation wide so they need domestic exposure. But following are general differences of international & domestic sales staff.
In domestic market a non-educated person can also sale products. But in International market it is impossible to sale without proper education as we see ads in news paper driver cum sales man
Presentation & Skills
For International market you need to have standard presentation and communication skills while in domestic market you can sale with lower skills.
In domestic market you can sell or present in Urdu, Pashto etc but for International market sales man should have command on International languages like English, French etc.
There are differences in need of International staff and domestic staff in life style and facilities like clothes, foods etc.
Differences of Funds
International staff needs large funds while domestic need lesser.
Salary Package Differences
When International staff is well qualified and talented than the staff will demand high salaries according to International market. And domestic staff have less qualification, weak skills they will have less salary demand.
International staff have to travel through airplane, eat and stay in five star hotels while domestic staff mostly travel through roads and eat in lower middle place so hey have differences in different kind of allowances.
M-9: Measure the outputs of the selected organization generated by conducting trade fairs and how sales have improved by doing so.
Ufone has arranged different Business Shows, Trade Fairs and Participated in school, college, Universities and Educational Institutes Funfairs and other general Public Gathering as well as shopping exhibitions. This contributed a lot. It increased the sales. Advertised, promote the company brands and name. Where Ufone sales out GSM Connections and Recharge cards. Theses types of activities have contribution in sales about 31 percent. After these activities customer comes under the Ufone family which motivate other people to use Ufone. And they also need to recharge for balance which automatically increase sales. It also monitored that it is the most valuable way of marketing and advertisement.
D-5: Suggest the chosen organization about improvement of recruitment and selection procedure and making it more on merit based and unbiased.
As we know that Ufone has were clear & transparent merit base recruitment & Selection Procedure but there are some suggestion to Ufone HR department & High level Executives.
- Avoid recruitment on recruitment agencies.
- Improve HR Audit.
- Visit Universities and Invite Young Talent.
- Simplify selection process.
- Need transparency in internal promotion.
- Remove unnecessary promotions.
- Introduce national talent hunt program.
- Hire international qualified professional & Train local by them.
- Ensure the of recruitment & selection material (e.g. Application forms etc).
- Remove the influences on HR Department.
- Give Independence to HR Department regarding selection & recruitment.
- Hire right person at right place with revelent qualification.
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