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I) Three major model of change:
1) Lewin's Change Model
2) McKinsey 7-S Change Model
Let go through these each model in brief………
1) Lewin's change model: Kurt Lewin projected a three stage theory of change generally referred to as Unfreeze, Change, and Freeze.
Stage 1: The first stage of Lewin's change model is unfreeze, the stage is about being prepared for change, the model is trying to show that change is essential ,and we have to ready for change by putting all our present comfort and habits. This stage is about to make ready ourselves and other before the change.
By putting Unfreeze Lewin's want to say following things:
It's about to understand others that change is required and it's an essential process.
Change requires overcoming from failure and for achieving better things for organization.
Stage 2: The second stage is called as Change or Transition, in this stage people start to change they have many doubts and fear in their mind relating to change which is going to be occurring, at this stage they need all support, in the form of learning training guiding and support that mistake are the part and elements of this stage.
This stage is about:
To make change by putting out all traditional and odd things
To being prepare for change
Providing support in the form of training, guiding in the processes of change
Stage 3: The third stage is called as Refreeze:
At this stage people starts to use to with the changes which occurs in second stage, they start believing in change, refreezing may be a slow process as transition rarely stop cleanly, but go more in fits and starts with a long tail of bits and pieces. There are good and bad things about this.
The apparent signs of the refreeze are a steady organization chart, reliable job descriptions, and so on. The refreeze stage also wants to help people and the organization internalize or institutionalize the changes. This means making sure that the changes are used all the time; and that they are incorporated into everyday business. With a new logic of constancy, staff feel positive and happy with the fresh ways of working.
Advantages of Lewin's change model……….
It is a very simple and easy model to understand, by giving example of ice-cube Lewin;s very simply tried to understood this model. He puts three different stage to understand each stage like first stage unfreeze in which he try to understand about essentialness of changes, second stage changes in which people start to change towards new ideas, like policy procedure, rules and regulation, and third stage in which changes starts to give benefit.
ii) Process for implementing change…
The Kotter's introduce 8-steps process for implementing change
Step One: Create Urgency
For change to take place, it helps if the entire company really wants it. Develop a sense of urgency around the need for change. This may help you spark the initial motivation to get things moving.
This isn't merely a matter of showing people poor sales figures or talking about enlarged rivalry. Open an honest and credible dialogue about what's happening in the marketplace and with your competition. If many people start talking about the change you propose, the urgency can build and feed on itself.
What you can do:
Classify possible fear, and expand scenarios viewing what could occur in the future.
Look at opportunities that should be, or could be, oppressed.
Start straightforward debate, and give energetic and realistic reasons to get people talking and thinking.
Demand shore up from consumers, outside stakeholders and industry people to support your argument.
Step Two: Form a Powerful Coalition
Encourage people that change is essential. This may takes tough leadership and noticeable support from key people within your organization. Managing change isn't enough - you have to lead it.
In this step we can do following things
Recognize the real leader in our organization.
Work on team structure within your change coalition.
To get know the different areas in which the team is weak, to find out the strength and it's weakness..
Step Three: Create a Vision for Change
In this stage, it is very essential to create a strong vision for change, to let people know why change is necessary, this is the process to about know what the benefits of change are, this clear vision will encourage them to prepare themselves for change
In this step we have to do following things
To make a clear and easy vision, to understand people the purpose of change
To make a strategy for change.
Step Four: Communicate the Vision
One's vision has been created it's a essential to communicate that vision, means to watch out the plan, process and procedure properly working as per planning, things are going properly or not is the essential part of this process .
We can do the following things in this step:
Converse frequently about your change vision.
Honestly and sincerely speak to peoples' concerns and anxieties.
Apply your vision to all aspects of operations - from training to performance reviews. Tie everything back to the vision.
Step Five: Remove Obstacles.
In this step we have to identify the factors which are obstacles for change, to watch out all the activities in organization, to know whether things are going as plan or there is any barrier towards plan activity.
Identify and reward people for making change happen.
Recognize people who are resisting the change, and help them see what's needed.
Take action to quickly remove barriers.
Step Six: Create Short-term Wins
Success motivates everyone, to make winning habits in staff, to make short term goal and try to achieve them first along with direction for long term goals
To reward people for their achievement.
To appreciate work
To make weekly target instead of long term planning
Step Seven: Build on the Change
In this step we have to analyze the things, what went right and what went wrong in the process of change, to look after the area in which improvement is needed.
After every win, examine what went correct and what requirements needed to improve.
Set goals to continue construction on the impetus you've achieved.
Keep thoughts fresh by bringing in new change agents and leaders for your change combination.
Step Eight: Anchor the Changes in Corporate Culture
Make persist efforts to make sure that the change is seen in each and every part of your organization. This will help give that change a solid place in your organization's culture.
Consist of the change principles and ethics when hiring and training new staff.
Publicly recognize key members of your original change coalition, and make sure the rest of the staff - new and old - remembers their contributions.
Create plans to replace key leaders of change as they move on. This will help ensure that their legacy is not lost or forgotten.
iii) Why people resist change……
1) Fear: The most important factor for which people resist change is fear, fear of unknown they don't know about changes, that's why they started to fear, for example if the labor company announce changes that now they will take more use of computers to improve their techniques it certainly creates fear on present employees who don't know how to use it and they start to resist about the changes.
2) Comfort: This is also one of the reason for which people resist change, because they do not want to leave their present comfort, they think that if change occurs than they have to work more hard for getting things done..for example if company announce that marketing department now have to achieve weekly sales target than certainly the present employees have to work more hard and hence they might resist it.
3)Lack of trust: This is one the reason people resist change, if people haven't trust or faith on changes or idea than they start to resist changes, for example if the employees of the company do not have trust on their manager capability than they create doubts on employee mind and hence they do not trust him.
4) Don't know about changes: one of the reason people resists changes because people don't know about changes, they don't know about their importance, they don't know how they going to benefit them, they have not any kind of idea regarding to changes, for example ….if company announce incentive system for their employees instead of fixed salary than employee start to oppose it even they have a chances to get benefited by high incentive system, all these because of lack of knowledge.
5) Don't trust on their capabilities: This is one of the reason why people resist changes because they have doubts on their capabilities, they don't think that they will able to make adjustment.
I recommended Lewin's change model is best to use for a change management model because of its simple description, by giving example in three stages Lewin's very simply described about his three stage change model, the three stage process includes unfreeze, change, and refreeze.
Reason for recommendation of above model: As we can see in diagram the lewin's very simply gave example based on ice about three stage change….figure one described as a unfreeze in which there is a picture of large ice cube by which Lewin's try to say at first stage people are very use to their routine works and very happy to do work with their old and traditional techniques, even though if they know this techniques is not very useful or worthless for goodwill of the company, but as they very use to with that method of work they denied change, for example if a patient of village very use to with homeopathy and naturopathy treatment which is referred by doctor at old times than certainly that patient denied to do surgery and operation for his illness which was recommend by doctor at modern times so it's hard to convince them about the benefit of latest technology of health improvement same the case applies here, in this stage the task is to convince people of change them and to turn them to modern techniques which can be beneficial and useful to them.
The second figure show that the large ice-cube turns to round shaped ice-cube, which change its shape, by this Lewin's tried to say in this stage that this stage is about change, change from rigid structure towards the new one as we can see in the figure that ice-cube change its shape to round structure, so that people start to change themselves and have to come out with adapting new ideas, knowledge, and techniques which would be more beneficial and successful for both for organization and also for themselves. To start adopting new ideas ,and technology of work by coming out from old ones , like for example the company make change in their timing to start their work from 10 clock to early 8pm so that employee get more time to done their task and can achieve high incentive , which is profitable to both employees and the company as well but at a certain period of time employee also have to be aware of benefit from the situation otherwise it will create doubts on their mind regarding to changes like they have work more hard in lesser wages so might they don't prefer it, at this time they require more proper guidance, knowledge and training regarding to changes so this change can be worth full for the company, at this time people are learning new things and adapting new ways in their work so they require all the support , training from their supervisor.
The third figure shows the stability from the 3rd figure we can see the steady ice-triangle by which Lewin's try to show the refreeze model, means once the change has been made in second stage now the people accepted those changes as per their new routines and norm now they started to accept that changes as per their daily routine work for example they start to find them comfortable with the new timings , new incentive base system, new product and procedure of the company, things are going easily for them as they know what to do , so the task is to fellow this procedure and practice properly for easy going.
Advantages and disadvantages of this model………
Lewin's change model is very simple and easy to understand, it's shown in three simple stages, so the company till using this model.
In unfreeze process Lewin,s show that company needs changes, which can be done by
Motivating employee towards the change, which called sense of urgency towards change, it use
Role of leader in particular change model:
The leader must have to make afford to motivate his employee towards new changes
The leadership must adopt training and guiding process for employee in order to get them ready for change. They have to create an appropriate plan and to work upon that, like for example if they want to increase their sale than they have to work upon marketing and advertising skills so that they can achieve their sales target.
Once the change has been made leader has use his techniques and qualities like providing training and guiding to their employee, so they can work well.
Change strategies …….
The following steps are to be taken for change strategies
Recruitment on the basis of qualification, for example if someone need in marketing sector than the guys must be take on the qualification base on marketing, the person who has marketing subject or degree on it, if needs in administration than prefer more to MBA student so this can create specialization which is good for a company.
Use of the techniques which is essential for company , like if there is more administration work than there should more computer place in the company so that work flow can go easy and good
To develop training programs for their new employee, to know about the company well to be aware of all its process and procedure so when they start their real work they don't feel unnecessary burden on them.
Interview system, to modify it so that right people can select for right position, like for example if person have to select for account position than interview must conduct on accounting basis instead of testing his or her general knowledge.