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Organization is generally considered a grouping of activities in a coordinated way to obtain maximum benefits. Thus, the organization is the relationship between the various objectives and factors.
Culture is the way in overall life of the people. Culture includes the language, religion and ideas, clothing, customs, codes, institutions, government, law, work of art, morality, rituals, ceremonies & so on.
Organizational culture is a set of shared values and norms that govern the interactions between members of the organization among them and with suppliers, customers and people outside the organizations. The organizational culture of values means that attempts to create unity, coordination, cooperation between these so within the organization. It could be in the form of assumptions, company logo, etc through these organizational objectives or goals could be achieved by the company. An organizational structure is essentially hierarchical concept of subordination of entities that collaborate and help serve a common goal.
Examples: GlobalNokia, Pepsi, Coca-Colaetc.
Innovative & Risk Taking: The Degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative & take risks. Generates innovative solutions, assesses risks, makes decisions & accepts the consequences. Thus, innovation & risk taking is one of the main characteristics of organizational culture defining how much it is important to allowing a business innovation.
Attention to Details : means to give close attention to what you are doing. It means being careful or paying attention to what you are doing.
Outcome Orientation: The degree to which management will focus on results or other than the techniques & processes used to achieve those outcomes.
People Orientation: The Degree in which management decisions are taken into consideration.
Team Orientation: Means working collaboratively with others to achieve a common goal rather than working individually
Aggressive: Means trying to spread quickly
Stability: It is something when & organization activity emphasize maintenance will be in contract growth.
How Organization Culture is maintained use examples to illustrate how a new member is Introduced to the culture & how it affects the business performance?
Management of any organization has the responsibility of setting out the goals and objectives. It also watches out how employees are supposed to behave in various situations. As such, it outlines the overall organization culture. For culture to be effectively maintained in an organization, managers and leaders must act as followers and also leaders. Commitment and enthusiasm towards a person or an organization differentiate effective and ineffective followers as well as leaders. A healthy organizational culture is based on mutual understanding and cooperation between the employees and the management. For a healthy organizational culture to be maintained, leaders and managers learn role decision making and law of cash plays in an organization.
Normally, when a person is recruited & selected after a long procedure he will be taken around the organization and introduced to his colleagues, superiors & subordinates. He will be made familiar with firm norms, goals & his duties. This will be known as
Orientation & training. Through this the employee’s performance is increased and through the increment in his performance organizational performance is also increased.
Through orientation & training unity, cooperation, etc. will be increased. Through this employee’s performance will be increased and organization’s productivity will be increased. So, this is how organizational climate is maintained. In Pepsi co. organizational culture is maintained through unity.
Here leaders & employees get together and perform planning, decision making, controlling etc. which are managerial functions of a company. This is the secret of their firm’s growth & development. Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.
Induction training also helps an employee to maintain organization culture and increase his/her performance.
Selection is the process of identifying and choosing the best person out of a number of prospective candidates for a job. The candidates are required to take a series of employment tests and interviews. Each stage many are eliminated and some move on to the next stage.
THE PROCESS OF SELECTION:
This includes intelligence test, Aptitude test, Personality test, Trade test, Interest test.
Reference & Background Checks
Contract Of Employment
Top Management is a part of level of management. They consist of the senior-most executives of the organization by whatever name they are called. They are usually referred to as the chairman, chief operating officer, president, and vice president. Top management is a team consisting of managers from different functional levels. The basic task is to integrate diverse elements and coordinate the activities of different departments according to the overall objectives of organization. These top level managers are responsible for the welfare and survival of the organization. They analyze the business environment and its implications for the survival of the firm. They formulate overall organizational goals and strategies for their achievement. They are responsible for all the activities of the business and for its impact on society.
No matter how the organizations recruits & select, talented & qualified employees. If new employees are not fully indoctrinated in the organization’s culture. Because they are unfamiliar with the organization’s culture, new employees are potentially likely to
Disturb the beliefs & customs that are in place. The organization will, therefore, want to help new employees adapt to its culture. This adaptation process is called SOCIALIZATION.â€
What Is The Management’s Role In Developing An Organization’s Culture?
The manager’s role is to efficiently predict, explain and manage the behavior that occurs in organizations. Specifically, managers are interested in determining why people are a bit more motivated and satisfied. Managers must have an ability to observe and understand the behavior of individuals, groups and organizations to predict what the response will be determined by administrative measures and, finally, to use this understanding and predictions can be effectively managed employees. Behavior can be examined at three levels: individual, group, organization as a whole. Managers seek to learn more about the fact that people, individually or collectively, to behave as they do in organizational settings. What motivates people? This is not some managers and other employees? How people communicate and make decisions? How can organizations respond to changes in their external environment?
Management role in the development of organizational culture are developing and implementing management principles, the development of unity among the employees, maintenance-friendly environment with staff managers.
Example: Dialog’s director came up with latest principles when most of the customers and workers left and joined Airtel. Through his latest master blaster & MY10 packages his customers were held and through his vacation packages to employee’s coordination, unity, productivity & attachment with the firm strengthened.
Is It Possible To Change An Organization’s Culture & Structure ? If So How?
The organizational structure allows the distribution of responsibilities expressed for various functions and processes to different entities such as department, work group and individual. Yes, it is possible to change the culture of an organization. The individuals in an organizational structure are usually hired under employment contracts of limited duration or work orders, or contract of indefinite duration or commands of the program. You cannot change the organizational culture; not knowing where your organization wants to be or what elements of the current organizational culture needs to change. What are the cultural elements that support the success of your organization, or not? For example, your team decides that you spend too much time in agreement with each other rather than to challenge the assumptions and predictions of his team, who have generally been wrong.
It is harder to change the culture of an existing organization than to create a culture in a whole new organization. When a culture is already established, people need to unlearn the old values, assumptions and behaviors before they can learn the news. The two most important elements to create organizational cultural change are management support and training.
ADDITIONAL ways to change the organizational culture:
Practice effective communication-
Keeping all employees informed about the organizational culture change process ensures commitment and success. Telling employees what is expected of them is critical for effective organizational culture change.
Review organizational structure-
Changing the physical structure of the company to align it with the desired organizational culture may be necessary. These units are unlikely to align to support the overall success of the business.
Redesign your approach to rewards and recognition-
You will likely need to change the reward system to encourage the behaviors vital to the desired organizational culture
TASK – 2.1
Are Leadership & Management Different From One Another? If So How? Give Examples.
DEFINITION OF LEADERSHIP
Leadership is a process of getting things done through people. (“Causing others to want what you are doing to accomplish the work of the organization”. – Proactive leadership 21 st century)
Leadership is the art of getting others to do something you want done because they want to do it. – Abraham Zaleznik, Harvard Business Review
DEFINITION OF MANAGEMENT
Management is a very popular term and has been used extensively for all types of activities and mainly for taking charge of different activities in any enterprise. Management comprises of planning, organizing, staffing, decision making & controlling.
Management has also been defined as a process of getting things done with the aim of achieving goals effectively & efficiently.
Objectives of management:
Management helps in:
Achieving group goals
Creating a dynamic organization
Achieving personal objectives
Development of society
There are three levels of management. They are:
Top level management
Middle level management
Operational level management
Management has also been defined as a process of getting things done with the aim of achieving goals effectively & efficiently.
Leadership is a process of getting things done through people.
Management’s goal is to achieve their profit margin or to provide certain services.
Leadership doesn’t have certain goals to achieve unless & until the leader creates.
Managers to lead & workers to achieve the goals.
Leaders to lead & followers to follow their principles.
Management concept is complex & large concept.
Leadership concept is a part of management.
Rules / Principles
There are certain business laws & principles to be followed by the organization to achieve the goals. Here if the manager is wrong workers can pinpoint the manager’s wrongthness.
There are no rules to be followed. So if the leader is wrong then all followers follow the wrong path.
The concept of management is very much needed in the organization to achieve their goals.
Leadership concept is not required compulsorily in organization and it is only required among labors or labor union.
Coordination among worker depends on principles, managers, etc. Coordination in management is higher compared to leadership.
Coordination among followers are managed by leaders. Coordination in leadership is low compared to management.
Here communication sent can be reaching very slowly but it is very reliable.
Here communication sent can be reaching very quickly but it is not very reliable.
what is Charismatic Leadership & How Does It Work In An Organization? Illustrate With Examples
Charismatic leadership is leadership based on the leader’s ability to communicate and behave in ways that reach fans in a basic way, emotionally, to inspire and motivate.
A charismatic leader is one that provides an environment full of energy and positive reinforcement. If you are naturally charismatic, they are very lucky! This is a feature that is not as easy to learn.
Charismatic leaders inspire others and encourage them to be their best. Employees and members of the group want to impress a charismatic leader, so work hard and strive to succeed.
Charismatic leaders, which are building a group, whether it is a political party, a sect or a business team, often focus primarily on making the very clear and distinct group, which separates it from other groups. Then base the group’s image, particularly in the minds of his followers, is far superior to all others. Charismatic leaders use a wide range of methods to manage their image and, if they are not naturally charismatic, you can practice regularly to develop their skills. They can build confidence through self-sacrifice visible and take personal risks in the name of their beliefs. They show great confidence in his followers. They are very persuasive and make very effective use of body language and verbal language.
What is charismatic leadership? Description
Charismatic leadership is defined by Max Weber as “resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual, and the normative patterns or revealed or ordained by him.” He defines charisma as “a certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which differs from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. It is not accessible to the ordinary person but are considered of divine origin or as exemplary, and on the grounds that it treats the person as a leader in quality (…). How concerned ultimately, taking into account the factors ethical, aesthetic, or other point of view as it is, of course, charismatic people irrelevant to the definition. “Has a remarkable ability to distill complex ideas into simple messages (” I have a dream “) are communicated using symbols, analogies, metaphors and stories. He also enjoyed the risk and feels empty without him, are great optimists, who are rebels fighting against the convention, and that may seem idiosyncratic. Charismatic leaders are portrayed as heroes or magic organizational leaders have a base of social power to orchestrate turnarounds, launching new businesses, inspire organizational renewal, and get a special performance by members of the organization. These leaders inspire trust, faith and belief in them. Of course none of this is a guarantee that the mission will be correct, ethical, or successful.
Charismatic leadership model (History)
German sociologist Max Weber in the 1920 distinguished three ideal types of leadership, domination and authority:
1. charismatic domination (familial and religious)
2. Feudal / traditional domination (patriarchs, patrimonial, feudalism), and
3. Bureaucratic /Legal domination (law and modern state, bureaucracy).
Robert House (1977) used four sentences to define charismatic leadership:
2. Strong desire to influence others.
4. A strong sense of moral values them.
Conger and Kananga (1998) describe five behavioral attributes of charismatic leaders:
1. Vision and articulation.
2. The sensitivity to the environment.
3. The sensitivity to the needs of the member.
4. Personal risk taking.
5. The realization of unconventional behavior.
More recently, charisma is the state theater (Gardner & Alvolio, 1998):
Charismatic leadership is a management process enacted theatrically printing to processing, scripting, staging, and acting.
Using the charismatic leadership style Applications:
â€¢ In difficult times or circumstances, such as changing the organization of emergency.
â€¢ Note that, according to Weber, a charismatic leader does not have to be a positive force. Both Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler could be reasonably considered charismatic leaders.
â€¢ See groups of basic character of the theory of some of the mechanisms behind a charismatic leadership.
Steps in the Process charismatic leadership approach
Jay Conger (1989) proposes the following four-stage model of charismatic leadership:
1. Continuous assessment of the environment and the formulation of a vision.
2. Communication of vision, with arguments of motivation and persuasion.
3. Building trust and commitment. The subordinates must desire and support the goals of the leader and is likely to be achieved on coercion, but the leader to gain the confidence in the leader and the feasibility of the objectives; it is likely that this is done by taking personal risks unconventional experience, and sacrifice.
4. To achieve this goal by using role models, empowerment, and unusual tactics.
Strengths of the benefits charismatic leadership style
â€¢ the relatively strong levels of unquestioning obedience.
â€¢ It is useful in difficult times or circumstances, such as changing the organization of emergency.
â€¢ Cash. If the charismatic leader’s vision is correct, this style of leadership can be extremely effective.
â€¢ Rhetorical skill.
â€¢ Energy clarity, interior, visionary, unconventional, and exemplary.
Real Name: Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu
DATE OF BIRTH: August 27 Th, 1910
PLACE OF BIRTH: Yugoslavia
Mother Teresa decided to spend the rest of her life to help the poor and needies when she was twelve years old. When she thought that her vocation is to help the poor, decided to train for missionary work. At eighteen she joined the Irish nuns, the Sisters of Loreto. After training in Dublin for a few months she went to India. In 1928 she took initial vows as a nun.
1929-1948 she taught at St. Mary’s High School in Calcutta. Seeing the suffering outside the school created a big impression on her to leave school and help the poor in 1949.
She started a school outdoor homeless, without funds. Voluntary helpers soon joined her. She also received financial support. On October 7, 1950 received permission to start their own “Missionaries of Charity, who cared and loved the people that nobody else cared. Mother Teresa began fifty projects underway in India. Its projects include helping the people of the slums, children’s homes, homes for the dying, clinics and a leper colony. Her projects have been extended to other countries such as Africa, Asia, Latin America, Italy, Great Britain, Ireland and the United States.
For all the work that Mother Teresa has received the following awards: 1971 Pope John XXIII Peace Prize, 1972 Nehur Prize for International Peace and Understanding, and 1979 Balzan Prize for the Promotion of Peace and Brotherhood United Nations.
She’s a good charismatic leader. She did a wonderful job of saving those people who were like dying.
What are The Early Theories of Motivation, How Well Have They Been Supported by Research?
Motivation means incitement or inducement to act or move. In relevant to organization context, it means the process of making subordinates to act in a desired manner to achieve a certain goal. “Motivation distinguishes the sufficient reason of Becoming, of Knowledge, of being and of Action.”(From the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer)
Abraham Maslow’s “Need Hierarchy Theory”:
One of the most frequently mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forward by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and concluded that when a set of needs is satisfied, this needs no longer a motivator.
According to his theory, these needs are:
Physiological needs: These are important needs for sustaining human life. Food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine and education are basic physiological needs, which are included in the main list of needs satisfaction. Maslow was views that until these needs are met in a level to sustain life, no other motivating factor to work.
(Ii) Security or Safety needs: These are the needs to be free from physical danger and the fear of losing a job, goods, food or shelter. It also includes protection against any emotional harm.
(Iii) Social needs: Since people are social beings, need to belong and be accepted by others. People try to satisfy their need for affection, acceptance and friendship.
(Iv) Esteem needs: According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in high esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestige and self-confidence status. This includes both internal factors such as the self esteem, autonomy and achievement and external factors as the states of the esteem, recognition and attention.
(V) The need for self actualization: Maslow believes that this is the greatest need in their hierarchy. It is the desire to be what one is capable of becoming; it includes growth, achieving their potential and self-realization. Is to maximize their potential and to accomplish something. Motivation2
As each of these needs is substantially satisfied the next need becomes dominant. From the standpoint of motivation, the theory would say that although it is not necessary always fully satisfied, satisfied need no longer motivates substantially. So if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what is the level of the hierarchy of that person is on and focus on fulfilling the needs or the needs above that level.
Maslow’s need theory has received wide recognition, especially among practicing managers. This can be attributed to the intuitive logic of the theory and ease of understanding. However, research does not validate these theories. Maslow provided no empirical evidence and other studies attempting to validate the theory found no support.
OPINION: Such type of motivational technique helps the organization to fulfill the needs of employees and motivate them to work for their organization. Through this organizational goal as well as employee goals can be achieved.
“Theory X and Theory” by Douglas McGregor:
McGregor, in his book “The Human Side of Enterprise” provides that persons within the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, corresponding to the category X and the other is basically positive, corresponding to the category Y. After seeing the way the manager treated employees, McGregor concluded that a manager view of the nature of human beings is based on a particular group of cases and that he or she tends to shape their behavior toward subordinates According to these assumptions.
Under the assumptions of the theory X:
â€¢ Employees inherently dislike work and whenever possible, try to avoid it.
â€¢ Because employees dislike work, have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve the goals.
â€¢ Employees avoid responsibilities and works to fill official guidelines are issued.
â€¢ Most workers place greater emphasis on safety above all other factors and show little ambition.
In contrast to the assumptions of Theory Y:
â€¢ Physical and mental stress at work is as natural as rest or play.
â€¢ People will exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are committed to these goals.
â€¢ The average human being is willing to take responsibility and exercise the imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems.
â€¢ The way in which things are organized, the intelligence of the average human being is only partially.
In the analysis of the assumptions that can detect that the Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. An organization that runs on the Theory X lines tends to be authoritarian in nature, the word “authoritarian” suggests ideas like the “power to compel obedience” and “right to rule.” In contrast to Theory Y organizations can be described as “participatory, where the objectives of the organization and individuals that are integrated, people can achieve their own goals by directing their efforts towards the success of the organization.
However, this theory has been widely criticized for the widespread job and human behavior.
OPINION: According to McGregor, he says all drawbacks faced by employees. He creates a picture where employees are punished using negative motivational technique and where managers get full use out of employee without any fulfillment of employee needs. Such picture also shows that manager as devil for employees. Such practices are not prevailing very much in our society.
The theory of Frederick Herzberg’s motivation hygiene:
Federico has sought to modify the theory of Maslow need hierarchy. His theory is also known as the theory of two factors or hygiene theory. He stated that there are certain satisfactions and dissatisfaction of employees at work. In-intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. He devised his theory on the question: “What people want from their jobs?” He asked people to describe in detail, this type of situation when they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad. From the responses received, he concluded that the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. Feature extraction of unsatisfactory work, not necessarily do the job more satisfying. Affirms that the presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to motivation. However, their non-presence leads to demonization. Similarly, there are certain factors, without which causes dissatisfaction, but their presence has a motivational impact.
Examples of hygiene factors are:
Safety, status, relationship with subordinates, personal life, salary, working conditions, the relationship with the supervisor and company policy and administration.
Examples of motivating factors are:
Brochure promoting the growth of employment, responsibility, challenges, recognition and achievement.
OPINION: Here, he says that opposite to satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. He also says that an employee dislike to perform a particular job because he doesn’t get the likes through his job. This could be got through the motivations done by managers in form of recognition, achievement encouragement, etc.
Theory McClelland’s Needs:
David McClelland has developed a theory in three types of motivating needs:
1. Need for Power
2. Need for Affiliation
3. Need for achievement
Basically people need to be high lean toward influence and control. They like to be in the center and are good speakers. They are demanding in nature, forceful in the customs and ambitious in life. They may be motivated to perform if given key positions or positions of power.
In the second category are people who are social in nature. They try to join individuals and groups. They are driven by love and faith. They like to create a pleasant environment around them. Social recognition and affiliation with others provides motivation.
The people of the third area are governed by the challenge of success and fear of failure. Their need for achievement is moderate and they set moderately difficult tasks. They are analytical and take calculated risks. These people are motivated to perform when they see at least some chance of success.
McClelland noted that with the advancement in the hierarchy of the need for greater power and performance rather than affiliation. He also noted that people who were at the top, later ceased to be motivated by this unit.
OPINION: McClelland is almost similar to Hertzberg & Abraham Maslow. His idea is also given in the form of hierarchy mode. He presents those three levels from where employee needs are very much needed to be fulfilled to motivate them. Through this need are settled from higher to lower needs. According to him a person could be motivated by giving more power, through recognition of achievement, job security, autonomy, etc.
How Do The Contemporary Theories Of Work Motivation Complement One Another?
Definition of contemporary theories
A set of statements or principles set out to explain a set of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena that belong to the same age who live or occur in the same period.
According to equity theory by J. Stacey Adams, people are motivated by their beliefs about the structure of rewards to be fair or unfair, in relation to these entries. People have a tendency to follow a subjective criterion to balance the outcomes and inputs in relation to comparisons between different individuals. Therefore, if people feel they have the same reward that will reduce the quantity or quality of work or move to another organization. However, if people perceive that rewards are higher, may be motivated to work harder.
OPINION: Equity theory helps to ignore social problems between subordinates & supervisors in organization. This is because this principle clearly states that there is no different treatment within people working in an organization. Such type of principle should prevail in certain environment like political area. This principle helps another motivational principle known as “Goal setting theory”. If there is a goal to be achieved with the help of groups then employees in the group should maintain equality. Though they have more power compared to other group members they cannot punish them with stressed job. It will lead to slavery revolution resulting in close down o
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