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Questions on management leadership and motivation


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Organization is generally considered a grouping of activities in a coordinated way to obtain maximum benefits. Thus, the organization is the relationship between the various objectives and factors.

Culture is the way in overall life of the people. Culture includes the language, religion and ideas, clothing, customs, codes, institutions, government, law, work of art, morality, rituals, ceremonies & so on.

Organizational culture is a set of shared values and norms that govern the interactions between members of the organization among them and with suppliers, customers and people outside the organizations. The organizational culture of values means that attempts to create unity, coordination, cooperation between these so within the organization. It could be in the form of assumptions, company logo, etc through these organizational objectives or goals could be achieved by the company. An organizational structure is essentially hierarchical concept of subordination of entities that collaborate and help serve a common goal.

Examples: GlobalNokia, Pepsi, Coca-Colaetc.

Innovative & Risk Taking: The Degree to which employees are encouraged to be innovative & take risks. Generates innovative solutions, assesses risks, makes decisions & accepts the consequences. Thus, innovation & risk taking is one of the main characteristics of organizational culture defining how much it is important to allowing a business innovation.

Attention to Details : means to give close attention to what you are doing. It means being careful or paying attention to what you are doing.

Outcome Orientation: The degree to which management will focus on results or other than the techniques & processes used to achieve those outcomes.

People Orientation: The Degree in which management decisions are taken into consideration.

Team Orientation: Means working collaboratively with others to achieve a common goal rather than working individually

Aggressive: Means trying to spread quickly

Stability: It is something when & organization activity emphasize maintenance will be in contract growth.


How Organization Culture is maintained use examples to illustrate how a new member is Introduced to the culture & how it affects the business performance?

Management of any organization has the responsibility of setting out the goals and objectives. It also watches out how employees are supposed to behave in various situations. As such, it outlines the overall organization culture. For culture to be effectively maintained in an organization, managers and leaders must act as followers and also leaders. Commitment and enthusiasm towards a person or an organization differentiate effective and ineffective followers as well as leaders. A healthy organizational culture is based on mutual understanding and cooperation between the employees and the management. For a healthy organizational culture to be maintained, leaders and managers learn role decision making and law of cash plays in an organization.

Normally, when a person is recruited & selected after a long procedure he will be taken around the organization and introduced to his colleagues, superiors & subordinates. He will be made familiar with firm norms, goals & his duties. This will be known as

Orientation & training. Through this the employee's performance is increased and through the increment in his performance organizational performance is also increased.

Through orientation & training unity, cooperation, etc. will be increased. Through this employee's performance will be increased and organization's productivity will be increased. So, this is how organizational climate is maintained. In Pepsi co. organizational culture is maintained through unity.

Here leaders & employees get together and perform planning, decision making, controlling etc. which are managerial functions of a company. This is the secret of their firm's growth & development. Training and Development helps to develop and improve the organizational health culture and effectiveness. It helps in creating the learning culture within the organization.

Induction training also helps an employee to maintain organization culture and increase his/her performance.

Selection is the process of identifying and choosing the best person out of a number of prospective candidates for a job. The candidates are required to take a series of employment tests and interviews. Each stage many are eliminated and some move on to the next stage.


Preliminary Screening

Selection Tests-

This includes intelligence test, Aptitude test, Personality test, Trade test, Interest test.

Employment Interview

Reference & Background Checks

Selection Decision

Medical Examination

Job Offer

Contract Of Employment

Top Management is a part of level of management. They consist of the senior-most executives of the organization by whatever name they are called. They are usually referred to as the chairman, chief operating officer, president, and vice president. Top management is a team consisting of managers from different functional levels. The basic task is to integrate diverse elements and coordinate the activities of different departments according to the overall objectives of organization. These top level managers are responsible for the welfare and survival of the organization. They analyze the business environment and its implications for the survival of the firm. They formulate overall organizational goals and strategies for their achievement. They are responsible for all the activities of the business and for its impact on society.


No matter how the organizations recruits & select, talented & qualified employees. If new employees are not fully indoctrinated in the organization's culture. Because they are unfamiliar with the organization's culture, new employees are potentially likely to

Disturb the beliefs & customs that are in place. The organization will, therefore, want to help new employees adapt to its culture. This adaptation process is called SOCIALIZATION.‏


What Is The Management's Role In Developing An Organization's Culture?

The manager's role is to efficiently predict, explain and manage the behavior that occurs in organizations. Specifically, managers are interested in determining why people are a bit more motivated and satisfied. Managers must have an ability to observe and understand the behavior of individuals, groups and organizations to predict what the response will be determined by administrative measures and, finally, to use this understanding and predictions can be effectively managed employees. Behavior can be examined at three levels: individual, group, organization as a whole. Managers seek to learn more about the fact that people, individually or collectively, to behave as they do in organizational settings. What motivates people? This is not some managers and other employees? How people communicate and make decisions? How can organizations respond to changes in their external environment?

Management role in the development of organizational culture are developing and implementing management principles, the development of unity among the employees, maintenance-friendly environment with staff managers.

Example: Dialog's director came up with latest principles when most of the customers and workers left and joined Airtel. Through his latest master blaster & MY10 packages his customers were held and through his vacation packages to employee's coordination, unity, productivity & attachment with the firm strengthened.


Is It Possible To Change An Organization's Culture & Structure ? If So How?

The organizational structure allows the distribution of responsibilities expressed for various functions and processes to different entities such as department, work group and individual. Yes, it is possible to change the culture of an organization. The individuals in an organizational structure are usually hired under employment contracts of limited duration or work orders, or contract of indefinite duration or commands of the program. You cannot change the organizational culture; not knowing where your organization wants to be or what elements of the current organizational culture needs to change. What are the cultural elements that support the success of your organization, or not? For example, your team decides that you spend too much time in agreement with each other rather than to challenge the assumptions and predictions of his team, who have generally been wrong.

It is harder to change the culture of an existing organization than to create a culture in a whole new organization. When a culture is already established, people need to unlearn the old values, assumptions and behaviors before they can learn the news. The two most important elements to create organizational cultural change are management support and training.

ADDITIONAL ways to change the organizational culture:

Practice effective communication-

Keeping all employees informed about the organizational culture change process ensures commitment and success. Telling employees what is expected of them is critical for effective organizational culture change.

Review organizational structure-

Changing the physical structure of the company to align it with the desired organizational culture may be necessary. These units are unlikely to align to support the overall success of the business.

Redesign your approach to rewards and recognition-

You will likely need to change the reward system to encourage the behaviors vital to the desired organizational culture

TASK - 2.1

Are Leadership & Management Different From One Another? If So How? Give Examples.


Leadership is a process of getting things done through people. ("Causing others to want what you are doing to accomplish the work of the organization". - Proactive leadership 21 st century)

Leadership is the art of getting others to do something you want done because they want to do it. - Abraham Zaleznik, Harvard Business Review


Management is a very popular term and has been used extensively for all types of activities and mainly for taking charge of different activities in any enterprise. Management comprises of planning, organizing, staffing, decision making & controlling.

Management has also been defined as a process of getting things done with the aim of achieving goals effectively & efficiently.

Objectives of management:

Organizational objectives

Social objectives

Personal objectives

Management helps in:

Achieving group goals

Increase efficiency

Creating a dynamic organization

Achieving personal objectives

Development of society

There are three levels of management. They are:

Top level management

Middle level management

Operational level management





Management has also been defined as a process of getting things done with the aim of achieving goals effectively & efficiently.

Leadership is a process of getting things done through people.


Management's goal is to achieve their profit margin or to provide certain services.

Leadership doesn't have certain goals to achieve unless & until the leader creates.

Person Required

Managers to lead & workers to achieve the goals.

Leaders to lead & followers to follow their principles.


Management concept is complex & large concept.

Leadership concept is a part of management.

Rules / Principles

There are certain business laws & principles to be followed by the organization to achieve the goals. Here if the manager is wrong workers can pinpoint the manager's wrongthness.

There are no rules to be followed. So if the leader is wrong then all followers follow the wrong path.


The concept of management is very much needed in the organization to achieve their goals.

Leadership concept is not required compulsorily in organization and it is only required among labors or labor union.


Coordination among worker depends on principles, managers, etc. Coordination in management is higher compared to leadership.

Coordination among followers are managed by leaders. Coordination in leadership is low compared to management.


Here communication sent can be reaching very slowly but it is very reliable.

Here communication sent can be reaching very quickly but it is not very reliable.


what is Charismatic Leadership & How Does It Work In An Organization? Illustrate With Examples

Charismatic leadership is leadership based on the leader's ability to communicate and behave in ways that reach fans in a basic way, emotionally, to inspire and motivate.

A charismatic leader is one that provides an environment full of energy and positive reinforcement. If you are naturally charismatic, they are very lucky! This is a feature that is not as easy to learn.

Charismatic leaders inspire others and encourage them to be their best. Employees and members of the group want to impress a charismatic leader, so work hard and strive to succeed.

Charismatic leaders, which are building a group, whether it is a political party, a sect or a business team, often focus primarily on making the very clear and distinct group, which separates it from other groups. Then base the group's image, particularly in the minds of his followers, is far superior to all others. Charismatic leaders use a wide range of methods to manage their image and, if they are not naturally charismatic, you can practice regularly to develop their skills. They can build confidence through self-sacrifice visible and take personal risks in the name of their beliefs. They show great confidence in his followers. They are very persuasive and make very effective use of body language and verbal language.

What is charismatic leadership? Description

Charismatic leadership is defined by Max Weber as "resting on devotion to the exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual, and the normative patterns or revealed or ordained by him." He defines charisma as "a certain quality of an individual personality by virtue of which differs from ordinary men and treated as endowed with supernatural, superhuman, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. It is not accessible to the ordinary person but are considered of divine origin or as exemplary, and on the grounds that it treats the person as a leader in quality (...). How concerned ultimately, taking into account the factors ethical, aesthetic, or other point of view as it is, of course, charismatic people irrelevant to the definition. "Has a remarkable ability to distill complex ideas into simple messages (" I have a dream ") are communicated using symbols, analogies, metaphors and stories. He also enjoyed the risk and feels empty without him, are great optimists, who are rebels fighting against the convention, and that may seem idiosyncratic. Charismatic leaders are portrayed as heroes or magic organizational leaders have a base of social power to orchestrate turnarounds, launching new businesses, inspire organizational renewal, and get a special performance by members of the organization. These leaders inspire trust, faith and belief in them. Of course none of this is a guarantee that the mission will be correct, ethical, or successful.

Charismatic leadership model (History)

German sociologist Max Weber in the 1920 distinguished three ideal types of leadership, domination and authority:

1. charismatic domination (familial and religious)

2. Feudal / traditional domination (patriarchs, patrimonial, feudalism), and

3. Bureaucratic /Legal domination (law and modern state, bureaucracy).


Robert House (1977) used four sentences to define charismatic leadership:

1. Dominant.

2. Strong desire to influence others.

3. Self-confident.

4. A strong sense of moral values them.

Conger and Kananga (1998) describe five behavioral attributes of charismatic leaders:

1. Vision and articulation.

2. The sensitivity to the environment.

3. The sensitivity to the needs of the member.

4. Personal risk taking.

5. The realization of unconventional behavior.

More recently, charisma is the state theater (Gardner & Alvolio, 1998):

Charismatic leadership is a management process enacted theatrically printing to processing, scripting, staging, and acting.

Using the charismatic leadership style Applications:

• In difficult times or circumstances, such as changing the organization of emergency.

• Note that, according to Weber, a charismatic leader does not have to be a positive force. Both Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler could be reasonably considered charismatic leaders.

• See groups of basic character of the theory of some of the mechanisms behind a charismatic leadership.

Steps in the Process charismatic leadership approach

Jay Conger (1989) proposes the following four-stage model of charismatic leadership:

1. Continuous assessment of the environment and the formulation of a vision.

2. Communication of vision, with arguments of motivation and persuasion.

3. Building trust and commitment. The subordinates must desire and support the goals of the leader and is likely to be achieved on coercion, but the leader to gain the confidence in the leader and the feasibility of the objectives; it is likely that this is done by taking personal risks unconventional experience, and sacrifice.

4. To achieve this goal by using role models, empowerment, and unusual tactics.

Strengths of the benefits charismatic leadership style

• the relatively strong levels of unquestioning obedience.

• It is useful in difficult times or circumstances, such as changing the organization of emergency.

• Cash. If the charismatic leader's vision is correct, this style of leadership can be extremely effective.

• Rhetorical skill.

• Energy clarity, interior, visionary, unconventional, and exemplary.


Real Name: Agnes Gonxha Bojaxhiu

DATE OF BIRTH: August 27 Th, 1910

 PLACE OF BIRTH: Yugoslavia

Mother Teresa decided to spend the rest of her life to help the poor and needies when she was twelve years old. When she thought that her vocation is to help the poor, decided to train for missionary work. At eighteen she joined the Irish nuns, the Sisters of Loreto. After training in Dublin for a few months she went to India. In 1928 she took initial vows as a nun.

1929-1948 she taught at St. Mary's High School in Calcutta. Seeing the suffering outside the school created a big impression on her to leave school and help the poor in 1949.

She started a school outdoor homeless, without funds. Voluntary helpers soon joined her. She also received financial support. On October 7, 1950 received permission to start their own "Missionaries of Charity, who cared and loved the people that nobody else cared. Mother Teresa began fifty projects underway in India. Its projects include helping the people of the slums, children's homes, homes for the dying, clinics and a leper colony. Her projects have been extended to other countries such as Africa, Asia, Latin America, Italy, Great Britain, Ireland and the United States.

For all the work that Mother Teresa has received the following awards: 1971 Pope John XXIII Peace Prize, 1972 Nehur Prize for International Peace and Understanding, and 1979 Balzan Prize for the Promotion of Peace and Brotherhood United Nations.

She's a good charismatic leader. She did a wonderful job of saving those people who were like dying.



What are The Early Theories of Motivation, How Well Have They Been Supported by Research?


Motivation means incitement or inducement to act or move. In relevant to organization context, it means the process of making subordinates to act in a desired manner to achieve a certain goal. "Motivation distinguishes the sufficient reason of Becoming, of Knowledge, of being and of Action."(From the philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer)

Abraham Maslow's "Need Hierarchy Theory":

One of the most frequently mentioned theories of motivation is the hierarchy of needs theory put forward by psychologist Abraham Maslow. Maslow saw human needs in the form of a hierarchy, ascending from the lowest to the highest, and concluded that when a set of needs is satisfied, this needs no longer a motivator.

According to his theory, these needs are:

Physiological needs: These are important needs for sustaining human life. Food, water, warmth, shelter, sleep, medicine and education are basic physiological needs, which are included in the main list of needs satisfaction. Maslow was views that until these needs are met in a level to sustain life, no other motivating factor to work.

(Ii) Security or Safety needs: These are the needs to be free from physical danger and the fear of losing a job, goods, food or shelter. It also includes protection against any emotional harm.

(Iii) Social needs: Since people are social beings, need to belong and be accepted by others. People try to satisfy their need for affection, acceptance and friendship.

(Iv) Esteem needs: According to Maslow, once people begin to satisfy their need to belong, they tend to want to be held in high esteem both by themselves and by others. This kind of need produces such satisfaction as power, prestige and self-confidence status. This includes both internal factors such as the self esteem, autonomy and achievement and external factors as the states of the esteem, recognition and attention.

(V) The need for self actualization: Maslow believes that this is the greatest need in their hierarchy. It is the desire to be what one is capable of becoming; it includes growth, achieving their potential and self-realization. Is to maximize their potential and to accomplish something. Motivation2

As each of these needs is substantially satisfied the next need becomes dominant. From the standpoint of motivation, the theory would say that although it is not necessary always fully satisfied, satisfied need no longer motivates substantially. So if you want to motivate someone, you need to understand what is the level of the hierarchy of that person is on and focus on fulfilling the needs or the needs above that level.

Maslow's need theory has received wide recognition, especially among practicing managers. This can be attributed to the intuitive logic of the theory and ease of understanding. However, research does not validate these theories. Maslow provided no empirical evidence and other studies attempting to validate the theory found no support.

OPINION: Such type of motivational technique helps the organization to fulfill the needs of employees and motivate them to work for their organization. Through this organizational goal as well as employee goals can be achieved.

"Theory X and Theory" by Douglas McGregor:

McGregor, in his book "The Human Side of Enterprise" provides that persons within the organization can be managed in two ways. The first is basically negative, corresponding to the category X and the other is basically positive, corresponding to the category Y. After seeing the way the manager treated employees, McGregor concluded that a manager view of the nature of human beings is based on a particular group of cases and that he or she tends to shape their behavior toward subordinates According to these assumptions.

Under the assumptions of the theory X:

• Employees inherently dislike work and whenever possible, try to avoid it.

• Because employees dislike work, have to be forced, coerced or threatened with punishment to achieve the goals.

• Employees avoid responsibilities and works to fill official guidelines are issued.

• Most workers place greater emphasis on safety above all other factors and show little ambition.

In contrast to the assumptions of Theory Y:

• Physical and mental stress at work is as natural as rest or play.

• People will exercise self-control and self-direction and if they are committed to these goals.

• The average human being is willing to take responsibility and exercise the imagination, ingenuity and creativity in solving organizational problems.

• The way in which things are organized, the intelligence of the average human being is only partially.

In the analysis of the assumptions that can detect that the Theory X assumes that lower-order needs dominate individuals and Theory Y assumes that higher-order needs dominate individuals. An organization that runs on the Theory X lines tends to be authoritarian in nature, the word "authoritarian" suggests ideas like the "power to compel obedience" and "right to rule." In contrast to Theory Y organizations can be described as "participatory, where the objectives of the organization and individuals that are integrated, people can achieve their own goals by directing their efforts towards the success of the organization.

However, this theory has been widely criticized for the widespread job and human behavior.

OPINION: According to McGregor, he says all drawbacks faced by employees. He creates a picture where employees are punished using negative motivational technique and where managers get full use out of employee without any fulfillment of employee needs. Such picture also shows that manager as devil for employees. Such practices are not prevailing very much in our society.

The theory of Frederick Herzberg's motivation hygiene:

Federico has sought to modify the theory of Maslow need hierarchy. His theory is also known as the theory of two factors or hygiene theory. He stated that there are certain satisfactions and dissatisfaction of employees at work. In-intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. He devised his theory on the question: "What people want from their jobs?" He asked people to describe in detail, this type of situation when they felt exceptionally good or exceptionally bad. From the responses received, he concluded that the opposite of satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. Feature extraction of unsatisfactory work, not necessarily do the job more satisfying. Affirms that the presence of certain factors in the organization is natural and the presence of the same does not lead to motivation. However, their non-presence leads to demonization. Similarly, there are certain factors, without which causes dissatisfaction, but their presence has a motivational impact.

Examples of hygiene factors are:

Safety, status, relationship with subordinates, personal life, salary, working conditions, the relationship with the supervisor and company policy and administration.

Examples of motivating factors are:

Brochure promoting the growth of employment, responsibility, challenges, recognition and achievement.

OPINION: Here, he says that opposite to satisfaction is not dissatisfaction. He also says that an employee dislike to perform a particular job because he doesn't get the likes through his job. This could be got through the motivations done by managers in form of recognition, achievement encouragement, etc.

Theory McClelland's Needs:

David McClelland has developed a theory in three types of motivating needs:

1. Need for Power

2. Need for Affiliation

3. Need for achievement

Basically people need to be high lean toward influence and control. They like to be in the center and are good speakers. They are demanding in nature, forceful in the customs and ambitious in life. They may be motivated to perform if given key positions or positions of power.

In the second category are people who are social in nature. They try to join individuals and groups. They are driven by love and faith. They like to create a pleasant environment around them. Social recognition and affiliation with others provides motivation.

The people of the third area are governed by the challenge of success and fear of failure. Their need for achievement is moderate and they set moderately difficult tasks. They are analytical and take calculated risks. These people are motivated to perform when they see at least some chance of success.

McClelland noted that with the advancement in the hierarchy of the need for greater power and performance rather than affiliation. He also noted that people who were at the top, later ceased to be motivated by this unit.

OPINION: McClelland is almost similar to Hertzberg & Abraham Maslow. His idea is also given in the form of hierarchy mode. He presents those three levels from where employee needs are very much needed to be fulfilled to motivate them. Through this need are settled from higher to lower needs. According to him a person could be motivated by giving more power, through recognition of achievement, job security, autonomy, etc.


How Do The Contemporary Theories Of Work Motivation Complement One Another?

Definition of contemporary theories

A set of statements or principles set out to explain a set of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted and can be used to make predictions about natural phenomena that belong to the same age who live or occur in the same period.

Equity Theory:

According to equity theory by J. Stacey Adams, people are motivated by their beliefs about the structure of rewards to be fair or unfair, in relation to these entries. People have a tendency to follow a subjective criterion to balance the outcomes and inputs in relation to comparisons between different individuals. Therefore, if people feel they have the same reward that will reduce the quantity or quality of work or move to another organization. However, if people perceive that rewards are higher, may be motivated to work harder.

OPINION: Equity theory helps to ignore social problems between subordinates & supervisors in organization. This is because this principle clearly states that there is no different treatment within people working in an organization. Such type of principle should prevail in certain environment like political area. This principle helps another motivational principle known as "Goal setting theory". If there is a goal to be achieved with the help of groups then employees in the group should maintain equality. Though they have more power compared to other group members they cannot punish them with stressed job. It will lead to slavery revolution resulting in close down of firm.

Reinforcement theory:

BF Skinner, who proposed the reinforcement theory, argues that by designing the right environment, people can be motivated. Instead of considering internal factors such as impressions, feelings, attitudes and cognitive behavior, individuals are driven by what happens in the external environment for them. Skinner says that the working environment should be appropriate to the people and the punishment that actually leads to frustration and demotivation. Therefore, the only way to motivate is to continue making positive changes in the external environment of the organization.

OPINION: Skinner's way is not bad but at certain areas it cannot be possible. He is true at a particular time but it is not possible always. He should also know that at certain environments what he told demotivations can be worked out. And it allows getting work out of stubborn employees. He should also know that internal factors should be developed as well as external factors. This principle of motivation helps to clear out certain problems like poverty, status, job security, health insurance etc. this principle also helps to work out cognitive evaluation theory of motivation. Even cognitive theory can help to work this out. When the external factors doesn't get developed or doesn't help to motivate then cognitive evaluation theory helps to continue the motivation with available internal stimuli.

Goal Setting Theory of Edwin Locke:

Instead of giving vague tasks to specific objectives and very time contribute to achieving them faster. As clarity is high, a goal orientation also avoids any misunderstanding in the work of employees. The goal setting theory states that when setting goals to achieve a higher level where employees are motivated to do well and make a maximum effort. Belief that revolves around the concept of "self-efficacy" individual is, he or she is able to perform a hard task.

OPINION: This theory helps to achieve the goals without any status or demotivational problems within people in organization. This also specifies that if

Cognitive evaluation theory:

According to these theories a change of external rewards to internal rewards results in motivation. It is believed that even after the failure of external stimuli, internal stimuli survive. It refers to the salary structure of the organization. Instead of dealing with external factors such as remuneration, incentives, factors internal promotion, etc and the interests, units, etc responsibility, individually, should be treated as contemporary with one another. Knowledge is such that even when external motivators are not present internal motivation continues. However, virtually extrinsic rewards are given more weightage.

OPINION: According to this theory, if the external factors such as remuneration, incentives etc. doesn't help to motivate the workers this theory helps to convert external factor into internal factor and continue motivation with the internal stimuli. Through this workings of organization will not delay or get interrupted.

X Valence of Vroom Expectancy Theory:

The most widely accepted explanations of motivation have been proposed by Victor Vroom. His theory is known as the theory of expectations. The theory holds that the strength of a tendency to act a certain way depends on the strength of the expectation that the law will be followed by a specific outcome and the attractiveness of this result to the person to do this simple theory, said the hope that a worker can be motivated to perform better when there is a belief that better performance will allow the evaluation of good performance and this will lead to the achievement of personal goals as a reward.Therefore an employee is:

Motivation = expectancy x Valencia.

The theory focuses on three things:

• The efforts and performance relationship

• Performance and reward ratio

• Rewards and personal goal relationship

This leads to the conclusion that:


OPINION: According to Vroom, an employee doesn't contribute to his maximum potential because his needs are not fulfilled as the company promised. He also says that an employee will be motivated to work for full potential if the company fulfils their needs or through certain programmes such as achievement recognition, job promotion etc. through these programmes other employees also get motivated. This also allows measuring the motivational value and expenses incurred and the return awarded by workers because of the motivational technique used. This allows knowing to whether continue or change the motivational technique used. This helps to perform other contemporary theories of motivation. Through this principle equation manager can evaluate all theories of motivation and use the most appropriate and efficient & effective theory of motivation to motivate the people working within the organization.


Evaluate Different Motivation Theory Practices In Organization Illustrate With Examples.


X Valence of Vroom Expectancy Theory:

This theory helps the manager to oversee an employee's contribution, potential and requirements. This theory also helps to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of organization. This theory helps the organization to calculate daily wages and bonuses for daily basis workers.

EG: In garment factories this rule and equation is used to calculate daily wages for the weavers.

Goal Setting Theory of Edwin Locke

This theory helps the professionals to lead their subordinate that is the employees towards achieving the organizational goals with their individual goals. This leads the organization to achieve the goals as well as lead it towards the success. This is done by providing the employees with gifts, tour packages, holiday packages etc.

EG: This theory helps all types of organizational businesses. Because it's ultimate motive is to achieve the organizational goal by motivating the employees. In Airtel and dialog if the employees show up their excellence in work their photo is put up in the reception of headquarters. Through this other employees are motivated to contribute to the mark.

Equity Theory

This theory shows that there is no difference between the employees working within the organization regarding caste, religion, sex etc. because of this there is no internal problems and goals are achieved without any problems. In HSBC, there is a top decision making group which is a collision of males and females belonging to different castes, religion, nationalities.

EG: This theory is mostly influenced in MNC where there is no difference among employees regarding sex, religion, background, power, caste etc.

Theory McClelland's Needs

This theory points out the needs of the employees and through this the employees' needs are fulfilled. And the employees get motivated to contribute with full potential.

EG: This theory is mostly followed in factories, garments, government firms.

The theory of Frederick Herzberg's motivation hygiene

This theory is similar to Abraham Maslow's "Hierarchy of Needs" and Theory McClelland's Needs. So this is required in certain firms. It only points out two needs only.

"Theory X and Theory Y" by Douglas McGregor

This theory helps to motivate the employees in positive as well as negatively. But negatively means punishing, hitting etc. cannot be done in many countries. Those who do will be arrested under brutality act. But, still this also done in Zimbabwe which helps to get the work done.

Abraham Maslow's "Need Hierarchy Theory"

This theory out shows the five needs of employees from the highly important to lower important. Through this an individual needs as well as organizational need are fulfilled. This motivational technique prevails in all organization.

EG: This principle theory is needed in all types of business organizations. This is used in government, industrial firms. This is required even in small petty shop. In small petty shop the worker is fulfilled his / her basic needs through his/her salary.


Define Group And What Are The Five Stages Of Group Development?

Definition of Group

Collection of people who have regular contact and frequent interaction, mutual influence, common sense of camaraderie, and working together towards a common set of objectives.

Five Stages of Group Development

Bruce Tuckman (1965) developed a 4-stage model of group development.  He labelled the stages, Dr Suess-style:






Step 1: Forming

In the formative stage, personal relations are characterized by dependency. Team members rely on safe, patterned behavior and look for the group leader and management. Group members have a desire to take a group and need to know that this group is safe. They began gathering impressions and data about the similarities and differences between them and forming preferences for future sub grouping. Rules of behavior seem to simplicity and to avoid contradictions. Serious topics and feelings, which should be avoided.

Main functions of the problem and orientation. The members try to be task oriented and with each other. Discussion points defining the range of tasks, how to approach him, as well as with similar problems. To grow from this stage to another, each member must renounce comfort non-threatening topics and risk the possibility of conflict.

Step 2: Storming

The next stage, called the assault or storming, characterized by competition and conflict in the personal dimension of relations with the organization in the dimension of the problem functions. As members of the group attempt to organize for the task, conflict inevitably leads to their personal relationships. Individuals have to bend and shape their feelings, ideas, opinions and beliefs in the light of the organizational group. Because of "fear of exposure" or "fear of failure" will not be increased desire for structural clarification and commitment. Although conflicts may or may not surface clusters, they exist. Questions will arise about who will be responsible for that, which rules that the remuneration system is the fact that the evaluation criteria. They reflect conflict over leadership, structure, power and authority. There may be significant differences in the behavior of members based on the emerging issues of competition and hostilities. Because of the inconvenience generated at this stage, some members may remain completely silent while others attempt to dominate.

In order to proceed to the next stage, group members must move from the "testing and proving" mentality of problem-solving mentality. The most important trait in helping groups to move to the next stage seems to be listening.

Stage 3: Norming

In the Norming stage, interpersonal relations are characterized by cohesion. Group members participate in the active recognition of all membership dues, community building and maintenance, as well as issues. Members are willing to change their preconceived ideas and opinions on the facts presented in other members, and they actively ask questions to each other. Leadership is shared, and cliques dissolve. When the participants begin

know and identify with another level of confidence in their personal relations contributes to group cohesion. It is at this stage of development (assuming the group gets the time) that people begin to feel a sense of community and a sense of relief from the decision of interpersonal conflicts.

The main function of the problem of the third stage of data flow between group members: They share feelings and ideas, solicit and give feedback to each other, and explore actions related to this task. Creativity is high. If this stage of the data flow and cohesion is achieved by group members, their interaction is characterized by openness and sharing of information on both personal and work. They feel good about belonging to an effective group.

The main disadvantage of the normalization stage is that the participants can begin to fear imminent collapse of the group; he may resist change of any kind.

Step 4: Performing

Performing stage is not reached by all groups. If group members have the opportunity to develop in 4-th stage, their power, range and depth of personal relations expand to true interdependence. At this stage, people can work independently, in subgroups, or as a common unit with the same ease. Their functions and powers of the dynamically adapt to the changing needs of groups and individuals. Stage 4 is marked interdependence in personal relations, and problems in the settings of the taskbar. To date, the group should be the most productive. Individual members have become self-sufficient, and the need for approval by the group in the past. Members are both highly task oriented and highly people oriented. There is unity: group identity, the moral status of the group is high, and group loyalty is intense. The task function becomes genuine problem-solving optimal solutions and optimum development of the group. There is support for experimentation in solving problems, and emphasis on achievement. The overall goal is productivity through problem solving and work.

Step 5: Adjourning

The final stage, Adjourning, provides for the termination problem behavior and care relationships. Planned output usually includes recognition for participation and achievement and opportunities for members to say personal goodbyes. Concluding a group can create some apprehension - in effect, minor crisis. Termination of the movement of regressive abandonment of control is not included in this group. The most effective interventions at this stage are those that facilitate task termination and the disengagement process.


When is Work Performed by Individuals Preferred over Work performed by Teams?


A team is an organized group of people to work together interdependently and cooperate to address the needs of their customers by fulfilling a goal and objectives.

A distinguishable set of two or more individuals who interact dynamically, interdependently and adaptively to achieve specified, shared and valued objectives. - (Retrieved by- Bowers, Clint A., Salas, Eduardo, Weaver, Jeanne L., Et Al)

Reasons for preferring work performed by individuals over work performed by teams:

Teams are more successful in implementing complex plans.

Teams develop creative solutions & policies to take care of difficult problems.

Teams build dedication and support for new ideas among staff and community members.

Teams are part of the learning process of professionals in schools.

A team also helps in making decisions.

Teams help in coordinating & controlling.

Teams are important in staffing and organizing process.

The problems can be solved quickly

You get many ideas as the solution of the problem

There are many possible solutions from which the greatest can be selected. Etc

(Note: strengths of team and team work.)

Reasons for not preferring work performed by teams:

Time consuming

Disagreements may delay decisions and cause hard feelings

One or two group members may dominate discussion

Many ideas may be forgotten if no note taking.

Conflict of ideas leading to disagreement

The frequent lack of concentration because of chat.

Task- 4.3

How Does Technology Facilitates Teams Achieve Goals? Give Examples

Definition of Technology

Targeted use of information in the design, manufacture and use of goods and services, as well as the organization of human activity. Technology is usually divided into five categories

Tangible: blueprints, models, operating manuals, prototypes.

(2) Intangible: consultancy, problem solving, and training methods

(3) High: completely or almost completely automated and 'intelligent' technology that manipulates matter ever finer and ever powerful forces.

(4) Intermediate: partly intelligent semi-automated "refined technology that manipulates matter and force-level secondary education.

(5) Low: intensive 'working dumb' technology that manipulates matter just stupid or gross and weak forces.



The improvement in technology has helped people & business organization in many ways. With the help of technology people has done many wonders. Technology also helps to earn a large sum of revenue in businesses.

Technology helps to find out thieveries being happened in organizations by the help of CCTV.

It also helps to do activities and events effectively. For example, a message could be mailed through email or sms and the message is received in a minute or so instead of posting it and receiving it in another two days.

Technology also helps to do activities efficiently. For example, the activities are done in machines or robots then wages produced for unprofessional workers are not required to be produced, so firms net profits increases.

Technology also helps to recruit professional employees by the organization to fill vacancies. For example, most of the organizations use job finding websites to recruit employees effectively and efficiently.

It also helps the organization and people in orientation and introducing programmes.

It also helps in training & developmental programmes.

It also helps the individuals in job orientation and promotional programmes.


Positive impacts:

It helps to present the ideas in terms of presentation, project etc.

It helps to create models in teamwork.

It helps to share ideas from a member in one part of the world to another one from other part of the world. For example, if a member is on holiday in Canada then he could finish his work and send it to team leader at correct time through mails and social networks.

It helps to finish the team work efficiently and effectively.

It helps to understand whether the teamwork is up to the standard and not copied from another team.

It helps to keep up the team spirit and coordination.

Negative impact

The software problems can lead to delay of presenting the projects & presentation of ideas.

Sometimes it may lead to inefficiency & ineffectiveness.

The communication of information is not reliable.

The way of communication of teamwork may show the information is not upto standard.

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