0115 966 7955 Today's Opening Times 10:00 - 20:00 (BST)
Banner ad for Viper plagiarism checker

Qualitative Research Methods - Strategies and Analysis

Published: Last Edited:

Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. You can view samples of our professional work here.

Any opinions, findings, conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of UK Essays.

The aim of this report was to apply qualitative analysis methods to an interview transcript. We were given three questions to discuss, so we could see how to lead a subjective investigation. Firstly, question 1 of the report talks about the role of research design and the elements of qualitative information. It likewise talks about the qualities and impediments of this type of research and the significance of research design. Secondly, question 2 includes a thematic investigation on the provided interview transcript. The examination incorporates each phase of the thematic and coding procedure to locate the suitable themes. It likewise incorporates the development of thematic map. Finally, question 3 incorporates the key discoveries and fundamentally talk about these in relations with important literature. This discussion depends on the created themes mentioned in question 2. 

2.1 Qualitative Research

Qualitative research is a type of social request that concentrates on the way individuals decipher and comprehend their encounters and the world in which they live in. It is an 'umbrella term' and has a wide range of methods that exists inside the extensive structure of this kind of research (Atkinson et al., 2001:7).

According to Denzin and Lincoln (2011:6), qualitative research is hard to characterise. It has no hypothesis or worldview that is particularly its own. Neither does it have an unmistakable series of strategies or practices that are totally its own. This shows that it is an exceptionally expansive church and incorporates a broad variety of methods and procedures found inside various research instructions. Nonetheless, regardless of this difference and the clashing way of basic suppositions about its inalienable qualities, a few scholars have tried to characterize the attributes of qualitative research. As Miles, Huberman and Saldana (2013) shows, that most qualitative research includes a couple of attributes: It is directed through extraordinary contact inside a "field" or genuine setting; the examiner's part is to pick up a "comprehensive" or incorporated outline of the review, including the view of members; themes that may arise from the data are regularly assessed with sources for confirmation ; the key focus of the research is to comprehend the ways in which individuals act and account for their activities. According to Patton (2002), legitimacy and dependability are two variables which any qualitative specialist ought to be worried about while outlining a review, breaking down outcomes and judging the nature of the review.

Qualitative data appear from a wide range of sources. The most well-known is field studies where the investigators enters a setting to accumulate information, frequently using observations or interviews. While observations are prone to inspire qualitative information, for example, field notes and examination, interviews might be utilized to gather both subjective and quantitative data. Correspondingly, contextual investigations may include the utilization of research instruments, for example, surveys, interview timetables and perceptions, all of which may yield information that is subjective in nature (Gray, 2014).

2.2 Strengths and Limitations of Qualitative Research

Qualitative researchers have been scrutinised for overdoing interviews and focus groups at the detriment of different techniques, for example, ethnography, observation, narrative examination, case studies and conversational evaluation. Qualitative research has various strengths when appropriately directed. A strength is that the information depends on human experience that is acquired, is influential and at times more convincing than quantitative information. However, research quality is intensely reliant on the individual's abilities of the analyst and is more effortlessly affected by the analyst individual inclinations and eccentricities. Another strength is that interviews are not confined to inquiries and can be directed by the analyst continuously. Nonetheless, qualitative research is frequently not appreciated and acknowledged as quantitative research inside scientific community (Anderson, 2010).

2.3 The Importance of Research Design

According to Zikmund et al (2013), a research design is a ground-breaking strategy that indicates the strategies and practices for gathering and investigating the required data. It gives a structure or plan of action for the research. Research design has a vital impact on the unwavering quality of the outcomes achieved. Therefore, it gives a strong base to the entire research. It is required since it considers the smooth working of many research operations (Universalteacher.com, 2017).

Braun and Clarke (2006:78) refers to Thematic Analysis as a "foundational method for qualitative analysis". The fundamental motivation behind this approach is to look for themes or examples, that happens over an informational index. Thematic analysis offers a deliberate yet adaptable and available way to examine qualitative information. It is methodical as it gives a deliberate and coherent approach to examine the information given. There are stages that give an arrangement of rules to attempt Thematic analysis. These techniques include becoming familiar with your data; producing initial codes; searching for themes and perceiving connections; refining themes and testing suggestions.

3.1 Familiarisation of the data collected

For thematic analysis, it is key to be profoundly acquainted with the information before officially beginning the analysis. Since the transcript was already provided, this can be done by completely perusing the transcripts before starting the examination (Caulfield and Hill, 2014). This stage includes searching for implications, repeating themes and examples in the data (see appendix 1). Without recognition, the specialist will not have the capacity to take part in the diagnostic methods that follows. Familiarisation of the data is vital in dissecting information (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2015).

3.2 Generating Initial Codes

This stage starts after acclimating yourself with the transcript given, and have created a rundown of thoughts regarding what is in the data and what is fascinating about them. This stage then involves the creation of initial codes from the data by highlighting the interview (see appendix 1). Codes recognise an element of information that seems intriguing to the researcher, and "the most basic segment, or element, of the raw data or information that can be assessed in a meaningful way regarding the phenomenon" (Boyatzis, 1998: 63). The process of coding as a piece of investigation (Miles & Huberman, 1994), as the researcher is the one sorting out the information into important categories (Tuckett, 2005). In any case, the coded information varies from units of themes which are more extensive. The themes, which is created in the following stage, are where the interpretative investigation of the information happens, and in connection to which contentions about the event being inspected are made (Boyatzis, 1998). This stage is shown in appendix 2.

3.3 Searching for themes

This stage is when the investigator classifies the codes into possible themes, assembling all information pertinent to every theme. It is regularly valuable to make visual portrayals of the themes by using thematic maps. Consequently, a few codes may frame fundamental topics, while others comprise as sub-headings. There might be few topics that do not at first fit into the thematic guide and be transitory names as 'incidental' (Gray, 2014). A thematic map of this early stage can be seen in appendix 3.

This stage closes with an accumulation of themes, and sub-themes, and all excerpts of information that have been coded in connection to them. At this point, there will be a feeling of the important singular themes. Nonetheless, none will be deserted at this phrase as without taking a gander at every extract in detail, it is dubious whether the topic hold as they may be, or whether they can be joined, refined and isolated or disposed (Braun and Clarke, 2006).

3.4 Reviewing themes

This starts when there is a concocted set of competitor subjects, and it includes the improvement of those topics. Amid this stage, it will become more clear that some competitor subjects are not themes, while others may crumple into each other. Different themes should be separated into discrete topics. Information within themes ought to conform together definitively where there ought to be well-defined and recognisable enhancement between them (Braun and Clarke, 2006). This includes two levels of reviewing and altering the topics that was delivered in Figure 2. The first level is considering the level of coded information. Re-read every one of the information that correspond with each topic to guarantee that every one of the information shapes a lucid example. The following level is surveying at the level of the themes (Sites.google.com, 2017). This stage is shown in appendix 4.

3.5 Defining and naming themes

This is the last stage and begins after there is an acceptable thematic map of the information - see appendix 5 for the last alterations. After that, the examiner then characterizes and further refines the themes that will be available in the investigation, and analyse the information inside them. By 'characterize and refine' that implies recognizing the 'substance' of what the theme is about, and figuring out what part of the information each topic catches. This should be possible by reviewing the previously gathered information for each topic, and sorting them onto reasonable and internally consistent with cohesive account ­accompany narrative (Braun and Clarke, 2006).

 Themes that were evident in the transcript were strategy, development, environment employability, risk.   

4.1 Strategy

In the interview, it was exhibited that a vital objective for any association is to learn, extend, and guarantee maintainability later. Nonetheless, it should be done in a more convincing point of view for the association to extend and develop. This is shown in the following quote: "Organisations aren't static; they are continually developing and evolving".

4.2 Development

The second theme that was found while doing a thematic examination was development. Each association must expand to manage proceeded development and conquer slight financial changes. A business should be adaptable and can adjust to inside and outer components that may influence the operational administration. The quote from the transcript that backs up this theme is "continually developing, expanding and growing".

4.3 Environment

Thirdly, it is expressed in the transcript that UWS are conscious that they as an association need to think about the natural effect they have. Thinking green and manageability are critical issues to any business: "Whether that is recycling, reducing our power consumption or moving to more sustainable form of energy. We need to take a more complex view of the influence that we and organisations have".

4.4 Employability

Fourthly, employability was a critical topic that was rehashed all through the transcript. Appeared in the meeting is how UWS are preparing and setting up their understudies for the future out with training. At UWS employability aptitudes are at a centre of any module: "We take the issue of employability very seriously in our teaching and learning of business and operations at UWS". The applicable literature that supports this theme is by Wye (2009). This author expresses that the students from the college are all very able in demonstrating all the individual qualities recorded. Such qualities as versatility, aggressive, vivacious, and eagerness mean the most abnormal amount of competency of the students in meeting with businesses' desire. These individual qualities are of significance inferable from the way that it takes a person's desire, vitality, and eagerness to exceed expectations in his or her vocation. Versatile nature is expected to fit into unforeseeable changes, be it inside the set of working responsibilities, or inside the hierarchical structure.

4.5 Risk

Finally, it is essential for companies to focus on how they manage risk. Risk Management is an imperative piece of a fruitful operational administration and technique. The future and improvement of an association is can be categorised into interior and outside risk. Associations need to comprehend this and afterward react to it viably: "Risk is about future happenings and it extends across an organisation". As indicated by Stulz (1996), by disposing downside hazard and diminishing and lessening the normal expenses of monetary inconvenience, risk management can likewise help an organization to accomplish both its ideal capital structure and its ideal proprietorship structure.

References   

Anderson, C. (2010). Presenting and Evaluating Qualitative Research. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, [online] 74(8), p.141. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2987281/pdf/ajpe141.pdf [Accessed 11 Mar. 2017].

Atkinson, P., Coffey, A. and Delamont, S. (2001). A debate about our canon. Qualitative Research, 1(1), pp.5-21.

Boyatzis, R. (1998). Transforming qualitative information. 1st ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, [online] 3(2), pp.77-101. Available at: http://eprints.uwe.ac.uk/11735/2/thematic_analysis_revised... [Accessed 5 Mar. 2017].

Caulfield, L. and Hill, J. (2014). Criminological research for beginners. 1st ed. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, pp.179-194.

Denzin, N. and Lincoln, Y. (2011). The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, Cal: SAGE Publications, Inc., p.6.

Gray, D. (2014). Doing research in the real world. 1st ed. Los Angeles, CA: Sage Publications, Inc

Miles, M. and Huberman, A. (1994). Qualitative data analysis an expanded sourcebook. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publication, Inc.

Miles, M., Huberman, M. and Saldaña, J. (2014). Qualitative data analysis. 1st ed. Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publication, Inc.

Patton, M. (2002). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.

Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thorhill, A. (2015). Research Methods for Business Students. 7th ed. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited.

Sites.google.com. (2017). How to Use Thematic Analysis. [online] Available at: https://sites.google.com/site/howtousethematicanalysis/home [Accessed 10 Mar. 2017].

Stulz, R. (1996). RETHINKING RISK MANAGEMENT. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, [online] 9(3), pp.8-25. Available at: https://u.osu.edu/stulz.1/files/2016/05/Rethinking-Risk-Management-1cnhar7.pdf [Accessed 11 Mar. 2017].

Tuckett, A. (2005). Applying thematic analysis theory to practice: A researcher's experience. Contemporary Nurse, [online] 19(1-2), pp.75-87. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.5172/conu.19.1-2.75?needAccess=true&instName=University+of+the+West+of+Scotland+%28UWS%29 [Accessed 9 Mar. 2017].

Universalteacher.com. (2017). Importance of Research Design. [online] Available at: http://universalteacher.com/1/importance-of-research-design/ [Accessed 12 Mar. 2017].

Wye, C. and Lim, Y. (2009). Perception Differential between Employers and Undergraduates on the Importance of Employability Skills. International Education Studies, [online] 2(1). Available at: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ies/article/view/312/370 [Accessed 14 Mar. 2017].

Zikmund, W., Babin, B., Carr, J. and Griffin, M. (2013). Business Research Methods. 9th ed. Mason, Ohio: Cengage Learning US, p.64.

 

Appendix 1

Interview Transcript - Interview with a UWS Academic

As part of a larger research project related to future business developments, a researcher (interviewer SI) has conducted an interview with an academic (AL) within the UWS School of Business and Enterprise.

Research aim:

Explore the current thinking and future trends within the area of business and operations management.

Interview conducted: January 2015

Location: UWS School of Business and Enterprise, Paisley Campus Interview

SI: Good morning. Hope all is well with you? I was hoping we would be able to discuss any areas that you believe are important or will be important in the future.

AL: Morning. I'm well thanks. That would be great. The area of business and management in general has really gone through a lot of developments and changes. And as a result, a huge variety of disciplines and subject areas have emerged. I'm more than happy to discuss these with you.

SI: Has the way we look at organisations changed?

AL: It has and it continues to. That's the really exciting thing. Organisations aren't static; they are continually developing and evolving. And so is our understanding of them. If you look at the environment in which organisations operates - the business environment, market or sector - these are also continually developing and changing.

Fundamentally, the underlying objective of an organisation is to learn, expand and ensure sustainability of business practices. Instead of viewing an organisation as a mechanical machine designed to deliver profits, a more compelling perspective it to view organisations as a system. Continually developing, expanding and growing.

There are many different types of organisations which are all set up to serve a number of different purposes and fulfil a number of different roles or activities. For example you have private enterprises or public sector organisations. Then there are also non-profit companies. Organisations come in all shapes and sizes. Across these organisations there are also different cultures and different ways of doing things. If we expand this globally, that just grows and grows. But if we look at organisations in general, we see three things. Firstly we see people. If we look a little closer, we then see the objectives or goals of the organisation. What they are trying to achieve or build. And then we see the structure of the organisation. And all of these elements influence the way in which the organisation operates. There is interaction between the people within the organisation towards achieving their organisational goals. And then you have a structure which sits over or around that to ensure that people's efforts are channelled towards effectively achieving and hopefully exceeding those goals.

Central within any organisation are the people. The human resource provides an organisation with the ability, the know-how, the ideas that it needs. They create the momentum within organisation. Within that, the effective management of people is critical to any organisations success. Human Resource management involves or influences every aspect of an organisation. HR involves all the decisions and practices that influence the people that work for an organisation. So we need to understand the role of a person, what they will be doing in their job, their role, and also recognise their needs. So providing good working conditions, developing their skills, and proving benefits and opportunities goes hand in hand with that.

There are also multiple different groups interested or invested in the success of an organisation. Looking at the organisational stakeholders gives us an insight into which individuals or groups have an interest in an organisation and also who is affected by the goals, operations, behaviour of that organisation. Stakeholders have a wide variety of interests, employees, consumers, communities, the environment, governments or even other organisations and businesses, could all be influenced by a particular company. So understanding the way in which organisations operate is really important.

SI: Why is understanding the way organisations function important?

If we can understand the way in which organisations work, or any system really, if we can understand the way things operate we can then look for ways to improve it, development it and design it.

For example, we can look at organisations and the resources that they have, and this can provide several insights into organisations and the way they operate. Within this resource based view, organisations are viewed as a collection of resources. So this allows us to look at organisations as a collection and grouping of several different components or elements. It is this collection of resources that enables an organisation to achieve a competitive advantage. This extends to not only an organisation's resources but all across the organisation and the world that it operates in.

We can look at organisational resources as the available and useful elements that enable an organisation to detect and respond to market opportunities and threats. An organisation's resources can then be thought of as an asset or input into things like production, marketing or whatever, while an organisations capability refers to the ability to perform a coordinated set of activities and utilise any resources it has to achieve the desired results. This could be things like meeting objectives, growing market share or expanding into new areas. An important element of an organisation's ability to achieve its goals, its performance, is its environment. Without that understanding, the organisation will struggle.

SI: Why do you think ideas like that are so important?

AL: Organisations must strive and continually adapt in order to sustain competitiveness and remain successful. Particularly within uncertain environments. Through turbulent economic, social and environmental periods; organisations will experience disruptions and maybe even crises. These disruptions can pose several threats to the performance of an organisation. Subsequently, understanding the features that allow for successful adaption is essential within the challenging business environment in which modern organisations operate.

The structure, management and performance of an organisation is not only determined by internal elements and structures, but organisations are also influenced by a range of external factors.

There has been a growing amount of evidence from several large scale incidents over the past decade that have highlighted the need to develop organisational systems capable of adapting and overcoming complex issues. Risk for organisations, or for anything really, can take many forms and this can be seen in many recent publicised events like the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, the Haiti and Chile Earthquakes, the recent global financial crisis. Even in Europe there have been things like the 2010 eruption of Icelandic volcano. Natural disasters, pandemic disease, terrorist attacks, economic recession, equipment failure and human error can all pose both a potentially unpredictable and severe threat to the functioning of an organisation.

SL: Are organisations more conscious of this?

AL: They are and they're beginning to focus more on things like risk; and looking at the way organisations deal with risk has become increasing important.

SL: Why has it become more important?

AL: Risk within a system can take many forms. Risk is about future happenings and it extends across an organisation. If we think of an organisation as a huge system, that risk could spread and affect several different elements. As a result of this, risk management is an integral component of successful organisational strategy and operation. There is always uncertainty about the future and it is this uncertainty that brings risk.

This means that organisations are subjected to a broad range of risk factors and an uncertain future. This future and the development and evolution of an organisation is subsequently characterised by both internal and external risks. Organisations need to understand this and then respond to it effectively. Now that could mean looking at risk management, but also looking at resources and capabilities.

SL: Does that extend to other areas?

AL: It does. Over the past few years, another thing that has become increasingly important is the environment and the role that businesses play in influencing and affecting that environment. Environmental concerns are becoming central in the way in which organisations think. Thinking green and sustainability are really important issues. And when we look at this we start to see different areas emerge, we have the economic factors, social elements and then we have the environment. The world outside our windows. Understanding the impact that we have in the world around us is central within the way we live. Whether that is recycling, reducing our power consumption or moving to more sustainable forms of energy. We need to take a more complete view of the influence that we and organisations have.

SI: What role do Universities play in influencing these issues and this type of thinking?

AL: I think Universities, like UWS, are responsible for developing graduates that understand these types of issues. Going into the workplace and being aware and understanding these issues is important for our students.

SI: What are the key criteria central to recruiting business students in your University?

AL: As you may probably be aware, Business and Operations subject fields are applicable to all aspects of human activities. Whatever you are, whether you are a Scientist, an engineer, a Technology expert or a Social Scientist, you will have to engage in activities of managing your resources in your business operations, whether commercial or governmental. It therefore explains the reason we make it essential that our business students must have skills in literacy and numeracy. These core skills are expected to be achieved in their School Certificate level examination results, as they form an important part of the criterial for measuring their ability at recruitment.

SI: Talking about employability, how well are your students competitive in the job market?

AL: We take the issue of employability very seriously in our teaching and learning of business and operations at UWS. It is the trend in colleges and universities all over Scotland and the rest of the United Kingdom. At UWS we deliver total learning experience and prepare our students for the future after graduation.

Employability skills are fully embedded in our Business and Operations modules and programmes. This philosophy is in line with the current trends and that has put our students in a position of strength against competition in the industry and the feedback from our monitoring department has been excellent.

 

Appendix 2

Data Extracts

Codes

"Organisations aren't static. They are continually developing and expanding"

developing and expanding

"Instead of viewing an organisation as a mechanical machine designed to deliver profits, a more compelling perspective it to view organisations as a system"

system

"Organisations come in all shapes and sizes."

all shapes and sizes

"So understanding the way in which organisations operate is really important.

understanding the way

"If we can understand the way things operate we can then look for ways to improve it, development it and design it"

look for ways

"Organisations must strive and continually adapt in order to sustain competitiveness and remain successful"

ability to adapt

"Particularly within uncertain environments"

uncertain environment

"organisations will experience disruptions and maybe even crises. These disruptions can pose several threats to the performance of an organisation"

disruptions/crises

"capable of adapting and overcoming complex issues"

ability to adapt

"all pose both a potentially unpredictable and severe threat to the functioning of an organisation."

unpredictable

"They are and they're beginning to focus more on things like risk; and looking at the way organisations deal with risk has become increasing important."

Risk

"There is always uncertainty about the future and it is this uncertainty that brings risk."

uncertainty

"become increasingly important is the environment and the role that businesses play in influencing and affecting that environment."

Environment

"strength against competition" "sustain competitiveness"

competition

"We take the issue of employability very seriously in our teaching and learning of business and operations at UWS" "At UWS we deliver total learning experience and prepare our students for the future after graduation. Employability skills are fully embedded in our Business and Operations modules and programmes"

Employability

Appendix 3

 

Appendix 4


Appendix 5

Employability

Strategy

Development Risk

 


To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.
Reference Copied to Clipboard.

Request Removal

If you are the original writer of this essay and no longer wish to have the essay published on the UK Essays website then please click on the link below to request removal:


More from UK Essays

We can help with your essay
Find out more