Organizational Behavior in Health Care: Case Study


Preparing Staff for Transition

According to Borkowski in her book on Organizational Behavior in health care, she depicts the numerous changes that individuals are anticipated to portray in cases of a changes in an entity. The area that the book has concentrated on more specifically is on the health organizations. Through the first three subtopic namely, diversity in health care, attitudes and perceptions in addition to workplace communication, she has focused her attention to providing the readers with concise and clear overview from a health care manager's point of view. This particular knowledge will be helpful in outlining the crucial areas concerned in preparing staff transition when merging Springdale health organization with St Mary's HMO.

Among the number of aspects that an organizational behavior especially in a health setting looks into include diversity, motivation, stress, power, leadership, management, group dynamics and ways of approaching management changes (Borkowski, 2010). Borkowski has expounded adequately on each factor and how it can be approached and addressed. At the same time the author has presented, learning objectives, a number of activities like evaluations and self assessment exercises and case studies in each chapter to increase the readers' comprehension on the different ideas that have been tackled in the chapter.

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To say that this text is not helpful to learners is an infringement; the text is arranged in a way that helps bring out the ideas and facts in an arranged organized manner that helps increase the comprehension of the readers. Both practical encounters and the theoretical parts of the book help bring out the rigor making it very applicable and appropriate to students both at the undergraduate and post graduate levels of education (Borkowski, 2010).

Apart from the students, health care mangers are provided with a critical insight on comprehending the dynamics and problems that are deemed to be encountered at the work place. The book thus provides a solution into how different ideas should be approached in order to increase an organizations probability of achieving set targets and goals. Through this understanding, workers morale is improved and this leads to an increase in productivity. The book also provides practices and theories essential for health organizations. It is thus undisputable to say that the ideas brought forward by this text in regard to meeting and satisfying constant organizational behaviors that are challenging modern organizations. The text presents us with a myriad that confronts modern health organizations and how to successfully approach such instances.

Diversities in workplaces

Diversity in work places is one of the issues that the organizations should take into considerations if their organizations have to perform optimally. Diversity in work places involves the differences that are exhibited by the employees of the company. The differences as portrayed by the employees of the organizations are according to the race affiliations of the employees, the gender, religious faith professed, disabilities, sexual orientation, physical appearance and the nationality. The diversity in the places of work can be used as strength to the organization since people would come with the ideas that are meant to improve the performance of the organization and thus enable the organization to meet its goals and objectives. On the other hand diversity can be a source of failure to the organization especially where the management does not work to acknowledge different ideologies brought to the organizations. The management of the organization should come with ways to prevent possible conflicts in the organization as a result of the diversities exhibited by it employees (Borkowski, 2010, pp.15).

In many organizations today they acknowledge that the diversity in the organization is the source of success to the organization. It would be absurd for the organization to hire people who thing alike because the generations of ideas would be limited and thus dismal performance of the company would be recorded. In order for the organization to tap the benefits brought by the diversity of their workforce, the organization should be geared towards forming diverse-work-relationship which is important to ensure the success of the organization.

For the transition program to be successful, both Springdale health organization and St Mary's HMO ought to come with the programs that are meant to reward diversities in work places for instance organize cultural fairs to acknowledge people of different cultures that are present in the organization, have maternal leaves in order to enable women in the organization have time to nurse their children and also have a way of rewarding skills and special talents possessed by the organization for instance through job promotions, monetary reward and recognition of the individual as having played an important role in the success of the company (Mathis, 2007).

Workplace communication

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Effective communication is important in the organization just like in any relationship. In an organization the takes place every other time in form of issuing order to the employees of the company by the management or through the communication of the report or findings of a give assignment to the management by the employees of the company. Thus for the business organizations to ensure it successes in the industry, it should be in a position to ensure accurate, relevant and timely information is passed to the intended parties for decision making.

In the organization the communications is made to different stakeholders constantly. Importantly the business is in communication with its employees. Communications can either be from the management giving policies to be implemented by the employees. On the other hand communication can be from the employees of the organizations communicating the findings of the assignment given by the management of the organization. Lack of the effective communications between the management the employees can lead to the frustrations and killing morale and thus dismal performance of the organization. The business is in communications with its customers when it wants to communicate on the delivery of goods to the customers, for instance. Like the customers of the organization communicate with the organization when they are placing orders, want to make payments for the goods supplied and when they want to lodge complains to the company. The organization is also in communication with its suppliers of the raw materials to the company. When the company devises effective communications with all the stakeholders, it ensures success in the organizations; the effective communication is paramount in ensuring the company meets its goals (Borkowski, 2010, pp.72).

There are many sources of lack of communications or presence of poor communication in the organization. In the organizations nowadays, lack of clear instructions from the management to the employees on the accomplishment of the tasks remains to be the major source of problem in the organization. It is pathetic to note that employees of the company lack the information they need to carry out a given task in this era where information is flooded in the society. When the instructions are not clear, the employees fail to perform that task and hence the organization fails to meet its goals and objectives. Effective communication in the organization is hindered by among other issues by the management creating a conducive environment where the information can be shared freely. Employees fear that when their share information in the organization would be reprimanded or intimidated and thus opt to keep quit rather than go through a humiliating ordeal. The management should come with the rewarding systems that encourage the employees of the company to share their ideas and thus leading to improvement in working conditions and thus success of the organization. Another source of poor communication in the organization is the conflicts among employees themselves. Employees of the company may not be in good terms with other employees and thus inhibit sharing of the ideas. It is therefore the sole obligation of Springdale health organization and St Mary's HMO organization to come up with systems that ensure the employees share information they have among each other and also avoid instances that would lead to conflicts for instance defining roles of every employee as defined in performance contract and also in organizational structure.

Leadership Styles

Kippenberger, (2002) says leadership deals with how much a person can influence and motivate people. Some have considered leadership to be innate, this implies that leaders are born; others have disputed this fact and have termed it to a blatant lie saying that leaders are made. Despite all this contradictions, they all agree that leaders are people who have the ability to guide and influence people towards achieving stipulated goals with the most effective means. How one becomes a successful leader is not defined by oneself or those above you, the people who define successful leaders are those under you. The degree of influence you inculcate in them towards a given direction is what will define how successful you are as a leader (pp.110).

A number of leadership styles have been forwarded. A leadership style deals with the approach and manner of approaching, implementing and influencing a given group f people. The different leadership styles are applicable to different organizations and groups of people. This therefore means that, a style that is very fruitful in one organization may or may not be applicable to another organization or a given group of individuals. The different styles thus are applied to different entities and situations. Three types of leadership styles have been established and can be used by leaders depending on the situation at hand (Kippenberger, 2002, pp.110). Most leaders although, operate with one dominant leadership style with the others coming handy depending on the need.

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Paton & McCalman (2008) considers autocratic leadership style to be used in giving directions and ultimatums. Leaders often employ such a style when they are directing their employees on what they want them to do and the way it should be done. This style is very appropriate in cases when there is an emergency and the leader wants to solve a given problems, when one is short of time and in instances when the leaders have managed to motivate their employees well. In some situations, a number of individuals have considered this leadership style as a yelling vehicle, where the leader is to use very demeaning words and language to employees and even abuse of power. This in regard to business can not be termed to as the authoritarian type of leadership but an unprofessional style that has no place in the leadership repertoire (pp.119).

The other leadership style is referred to as the democratic leadership. This leadership style is involves the employees being included in the decision making processes because all the processes made in an entity will affect the people in one way or the other. The style allows the employees to identify what they will do and how. Despite the employees being allowed to bring their opinions and suggestions in to the decision making process, the leader is the one with the final say and maintains the final authority regarding all the decisions. When such a style is applied, many have considered it a weakness, rather it is a strength where the leader has the confidence the employees will be able to respect the democratic process and the decision arrived at. The democratic leadership style is applicable in cases where both parties have information i.e. the leader has some pieces while the other pieces are held with the employees (Kippenberger, 2002, pp.114). Employers do not have to know everything, and this is the reason as to why employers employ people who are knowledgeable and skilled. It is also applicable in makes the employees fell part and parcel of all the undertakings in the firm and thus they watch their entire single moves.

Lastly, the third leadership style is the free reign or the delegative leadership style. The employees in this leadership style are allowed to make and arrive at their own decisions. Despite this, the leader is still in charge of everything and he makes the final call on decisions made. The style is applicable in cases where the employees have the competencies to analyze a situation and come up appropriate decisions and what to be done. It involves delegation of duties since you can not be able to do every thing.

Groups and Teams

In addition, both Springdale health organization and St Mary's HMO, should strive to manage both the teams and the work groups. It should be acknowledged that all teams are a form of work group but not all work groups are teams. There are three types of work groups namely; dependent work groups, independent work group and interdependent work group. Dependent work group are under the control of the supervisors who control the whole group. Independent work groups are also under the control of the supervisor but the supervisor is the boss as it is the case in dependent work group. In interdependent work group, the members of the group rely on one another to have a certain task accomplished. The organization should ensure that the members of the work force work as a group in order to realize full potential of all workers in the organization. In this era where the organizations emphasize on the division of labor and specialization, an employee to perform in the are where they are best talented in, the organization should ensure that that every employee carry out a specific task in the group in order to have the maximum benefits for the entire organizations.

Attitudes and Perceptions

Though change is very inevitable, workers reacts to the idea with very mixed reactions. This is because change in any institution or condition will have to alter a thing or two. Especially with the current business environment, entities are geared towards attaining global standards for their survival. With the change taking place in organizations, there is a reflection on the emotions and psychological reactions of the labor force as they try to come up with resistance measures of the phenomenon. This means that if not well approached, a lot resistance shall be exhibited by the labor force. A very significant point regarding change is that it can not be forced down the people's throats (Borkowski, 2010, pp.41). Change is accompanied by a number of ideas. There are those who may risk loosing their jobs, there may be the restructuring of the entire organization leading to being transferred to other departments and there may be complete new leaders who may come into the entity. Change in organizations has entirely been identified as the cause for depressions and stress among the workers in an entity.

Borkowski (2010) asserts that the risks that accompany change are very fatal than any other business undertaking. Change the norms of an entity and trying to follow an unknown direction. This thus requires a lot of faith and having the trust that something better will take place. Workers believe that with change, they will loose their total control over the things they used to do in an entity. Taking a faithful leap among the employees is not an easy thing and most do not have the courage to take such risks, so the best they can do is try to resist the changes (pp.42).

Motivational strategies

The employees of the company should be well motivated in order to improve their performance in order for the realization of the goals of the organization. The employee should be appreciated and thus feel to be part and parcel of the organization; employees are one of the most valuable asset in the organizations and they should be handled well to ensure that the organization attains its goals. There are motivational strategies that have being identified that management of the organization could use to ensure that the employees are well motivated. One of the motivational strategies is team work; the management should form work group with the hope that the peer pressure among the employees would improve the performance of the organization.

Team work as a motivation strategy has worked effectively since every employee would want to work hard to meet the expectations of other members of his group rather than the expectations of their supervisors. The second motivational strategy available to the organization is the personal involvement; the management of the organization should allow the employees to be involved in placing their standards. The employees should be allowed to make commitment of what they intend to achieve in the organization, this would give the employees the zeal to attain the goals they have set for themselves. Work enhancement is another motivational strategy; the work is structures in the organization in such a way that it has fulfillment to the employees. Management can motivate workers by issuing to them rewards either in form of monetary things or non monetary goods; this would make the employees to work hard in order to recoup the prizes offered by the management. The management also request for the mutual exchanges as a way of motivation; the management may do some favor to the employee for the return of a given level of performance. The management can also place a competitive reward for the employees in form of a prize; the employees would work hard in order to receive the prize. And lastly the management can punish or inflict fear to the employees to ensure performance; the employee who does not performance is suspended of sacked and thus the employees would work hard to avoid such punishment (Brehm, 2004, pp.119).

Resistance to Change

There are a number of reasons that may make people to resist change. Some of the reasons are associated with the normal norms of the old firm and the people who would like to be identified by the old ways of the firm (Tobin, 2009, pp.30). People are identified as social beings, through this, we would like to remain attached and connected to some things and people especially those whom we know, those who we have learnt from and those that we are familiar with. It is this kind of royalty that helped our ancestors to defend themselves ands hunt (Kippenberger, 2002, pp.224). And to show its effect, we are much glued to those whom we know and resist any form of change that may seem to compromise these situations.

Secondly, there may be resistance to change amongst the people of a given organization due to lacking role models in the new assignments that one is expected to take up. Through observation, one earns a lot and knowing that you will never have this learning opportunity compromises an individual making him resist changes.

Tobin (2009) views lack of competence in new tasks to also lead to change resistance. New tasks may require new ideas, skills and knowledge and this may make people not to allow change to take place in an entity. This is especially if they perceive the changes as a danger to their existence and job security. For instance, in the merging in the case study above, it is clearly put that some employees will have to loose their jobs while others will be incorporated to other departments. This is a clear indication that change can never be welcomed into an organization if the employee considers the risks unbearable (pp.30).


In conclusion, the management of Springdale health organization and St Mary's HMO should handle their employees well to ensure that the organization has met its goals and objectives. It should be noted that the employees of the company are the most important assets of any organization and that they should be managed effectively to ensure that the organizations perform optimally. The management of the organization should recognize that the diversity among the employees is the strength that should be exploited for the benefit of the organization. The management should ensure effective communication in the organization, sharing of relevant, timely and accurate information to all stakeholders in the organizations should be ensured for decisions making. The management should ensure that the employees of the organization are well motivated and thus ensure performance.