Organization culture and behavior opito oil and gas

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Organization behavior is study to find that how individuals behave within organizations and how organizations respond to that behavior of the individual.  For human resource personnel, the challenge then becomes finding and retaining individuals whose behavior suits the atmosphere of the company.  While it can be effectively argued that organizations are ultimately responsible for the whole success of their employees, it can also be point out that individuals possess intrinsic character and person traits that determine whether or not they will be successful within an organization.  It is the responsibility of the human resource manager to find out these inherent characteristics, and foster their position so that an organization can eventually make sure an "ideal employee."

In behavior we study the mind of the employees and motivate them to maximize the profit and employee feel satisfaction in all respect...

"A field of study that find out the impact that individuals, groups, And structure have on behavior of the employees within organizations, for the Purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an Organization's effectiveness.

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Organization behavior studies three main things/elements of behavior in organizations:

Individuals, groups, and structure. In addition, organizational behavior applies the Knowledge which have got about individuals, groups, and the effect of Structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more efficiently Effectively" (Stephen P. Robbins)

Organization behavior is study to find that how individuals behave within organizations and how organizations respond to that behavior of the individual.  For human resource personnel, the challenge then becomes finding and retaining individuals whose behavior suits the atmosphere of the company.  While it can be effectively argued that organizations are ultimately responsible for the whole success of their employees, it can also be point out that individuals possess intrinsic character and person traits that determine whether or not they will be successful within an organization.  It is the responsibility of the human resource manager to find out these inherent characteristics, and foster their position so that an organization can eventually make sure an "ideal employee."

Organization culture:

To explaining the culture of organization or corporate culture we can define this the collection/ combination of relatively uniform , beliefes,customs,values traditions and practice which are shared by an organization members and which are transmitted from one generation of employees to the others "(Buchanan p.512)

Values: anything which have some worth and value, these are childhood learning, moral/ethics and social percepts of the individual who bearing it.

Organization believes: organization believe may be define as it is the acceptance of the situation and organization with in it, to understanding the whole situation of the organization and behave like that situation.

The concept of the organization culture rise by many social scholar, but the main contribution which is given to two main publication in 1980 namely by tom petr and Robert waterman in 1982. in their book. After that credit goes to Terrence deal and Allan Kennedy they wrote the book the corporate culture and they clearly explain the concept of culture on their book.

After that the concept and idea which is clearly explain by Edgar schein, his big contribution towards organization behavior.

Organization culture is an idea in the field of organization study and behavior which concern the, attitudes psychology, experiences and values, beliefs (personal and cultural values) of an organization. It has been defined as "the specific combination of values and norms that are shared by people/employees and groups in an organization and that control the way in which people or employees interact with each other and with outside the organization.

We can diagramically explain this as following

DIAGRAM A

If we see to the above diagram that how various activities are combine to formed an culture so culture is the combination of organization customs, values, and traditions to form an organization now the question is that how is will be best manage by the human resource personnel its totally upon his ability that how he are much competent to manage the organization activities and culture because its have great affect the working condition of the employees and their working condition it must be develop in such a way to have a role model for future

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We can also define the organization culture as the culture which shows in its self-picture, inner workings, interactions with the outside environment, It is based on shared attitudes, beliefs, customs, express, and written and unwritten rules that the organization develops with the passage of time and that have worked well enough to be considered validity is also called corporate culture , it shows that 1) the ways the organization operates its business, treats the employees, customers, and the community, 2) the extent to which the freedom of decision is allowed in decision making, developing new ideas, and thoughts and personal expression, 3) how power and information flow through its hierarchy, and 4) the strength of employee commitment towards collective objectives. It is termed 'strong' or 'weak' to the extent it is diffused through the organization. It affects the organization's productivity and performance and also efficiency , and provides guidelines on customer care and service; product quality and safety; attendance and punctuality; and concern for the environment. It improve also to production-methods, marketing and advertising practices and polices, and to new product creation. Expressed commonly as "It's how we do things here," it is different for every organization and one of the hardest things to change. But the main thing that culture is the combination of different things which greatly effect the overall activates of the organization care should be taken to have a good understanding and formation of the organization culture to have good understanding with people in and outside the organization.

But there are several factors which affect the culture as well as the behavior of the employees in the organization they are as under:

Factors which influence the behavior of employees may be external and internal factors

Internal factors include the leadership style, culture of the orgtanzation, and organizational structure. A Whle external factor includes the social and family life of the individual and other social dominant factors such as other businesses etc.

The factor which influence the culture of the organization includes the following

a) Changing in the management activities may greatly influence the corporate culture

b) Employees play vital role in the development of the organization it they also disturb or made change in the existing level of the employees these may also suffer and influence the organization culture.

c) Different type strategies may also affect the culture of the company

d) Geographical location may also affect the culture of the organization.

OPITO THE OIL AND GAS COMPANY

Now we can see from case study that the oil and gas academy how they treat the behavior and culture of the company:

The major thing or we may say the major benefits of the opito is to form a supply chain from that supply chain they are able to understand the behavior of the employees and the working condition of the employees, as the behavior and culture play very important role for achieving the overall objectives, so the opito starts their work form universities and colleges to attract new talented entrants into the organization. The opito learning supply chain has change the behavior and culture of the organization and now they are seeking the objective to achieve.

Company leadership approach to management and its human resource policies:

Leadership: different authors have defined the world leadership in different ways, but in simple words the term leadership means" is nothing but to encourage people to do work, with not only willingness, but willingness to do work with zeal and confidence. The main functions of the manager or leaders are Planning: to decide in advance about the things or consider the future as present. Organizing: to provide the framework for achieving the planed objectives and goals, organization is the combination of various activities which get together to achieve the desire objective. Directing; giving instruction and orders to correct the activities of the workers

Controlling; monitoring and evaluation the activities of the workers to sure the performance and target task.

Leader must be able to evaluate the human and organizational context and be able to decide what behavior will best fit the situation there are several theories about the leadership behavior

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contingency theory or approach:

path goal approach

situational leadership approach

1) Contingency theory or approach: the theory or approach presented by Fred E fiedler ,this approach states, that leader must adjust his or her style according to the nature of the organization context, such as the nature of task, and according to the attribute of the employees who carrying out the work..

2) Path goal approach: according to this approach a leader is to clarify and set goals with subordinates, help them to find the best path for achieving the goals and remove the obstacles.

This theory presents four leadership behavior and style

supportive leadership

participative leadership

directive leadership

Achievement oriented leadership.

Situational leadership approach: this theory/approach is also known as managerial grid. This theory can be best understood from the following figure.

Concern for people

↓High

Style 3

Style 2

Style 4

Style 1

↕ Low → task behavior ← high

Concern for task

Style 1: here the leader has high amount of task behavior, telling to subordinate what to do, how to do, when to do, and so on. But low amount of relationship.

Style 2: here leader has both high amount of task behavior and high amount of relationship. Style 3: here leader has high amount of relationship behavior and support for subordinate but little task or direction behavior. Style 4: here leader has low task behavior as will as low relationship behavior. Style of leadership

Authoritarian style of leadership

Democratic style of leadership

Free hand style of leadership : Any of the above style may adopt by the leaders depending the situation of the organization and employees behavior, this is totally depend on leaders that how best they can mange the organization by adopting any one of the leadership style.

Six traits of leader:

Drive ------------ desire to lead----------integrity---------self confidence--------intelligence-------- job relevant knowledge

We can easily understand the concept of leadership from the above diagram also.sumup the discussion it is very important that leaders are the only element in organization who can best mange the activities and also mange the workers by giving direction and instruction and also monitor the employees for the future course of action.

Policies of the human resource

HR policies vary considerably from one organization to another, depending on the type and age of the organization, its size, the nature environment and of the workforce the behavior of the employees and the position regarding union, but the main policies are:

Principles: This is a statement about the general view by the management of employment in the organization. It is likely about teamwork, fairness, innovation and opportunity, but may also include a written statement about the degree and method of employee involvement and the security of employment in different areas of the workforce.

Selection, recruitment and development: this is the second policy of the human resource manager to wards the how the various people with in organization hire develop and trained the right person for right job only be done through the consideration of the human resource personnel, the most appropriate people, providing the opportunities for career growth and ensuring that employees develop their skills and capacities in line with the development of the business. The main features of this policy are how vacancies will be found, where applicants will be sought and how decisions will be made in selection and recruitment. There will be further sections on how promotions policies are made, also for training opportunities and requirements, as well as the use of performance appraisal and assessment centers.

relations of Employee: Policies in the area of employee relations will depend on the union recognition situation and also environment of the organization , it may be depend on arrangements about recognition, bargaining units and union membership agreements, agreements relating to negotiation, consultation, , membership of joint committees, safety matters and points of reference, employees relation with leaders may also affect the activities of the business but this is the responsibility of the manger to form such type of policies which give advantage to both employees and business as well.

Mutual control: Several features of policy and related method deal with the working condition and relationship between the organization and the employees. These policies basically concern with the approach to matters of grievance and discipline.

Terms and conditions: different other policies regarding the term and condition of the employees may be made in such a way which give some clear aspect about to determining differentials in payment, levels of sick pay, pension provision, holidays, study leave and hours of work etc .

Opportunity Equality of: A different type of HR policy which is relating to equality of opportunity. Theoretically, equalizing opportunity should be apply in all the other areas, but legislation and pressure groups have tended to identify this as an area needing separate treatment.

DEVISING POLICIES

HR specialists may use the following points to devise policies:

Identify the topic: 2) Determine the key features: 3) Agree the details

Organization culture is basically the norms and value and belief of an organization in every organization it is necessary to have some understanding on the attitude and perception of the individual, without proper understanding of all these things one can not best control the organization culture, as we can see from the case study of the opito they properly designed a separate system for each employees learning centre from which they are in a position to understand the behavior and attitude of the employees so it is very easily than to shape organization culture on such way.

Culture:

To explaining the culture of organization or corporate culture we can define this the collection of relatively uniform values, beliefes,customs, traditions and practice which are shared by an organization members and which are transmitted from one generation of employees to the next"(Buchanan p.512)

Perception: is the dynamic psychological process responsible for attending to the situation, organizing and interpreting sensory data. Perception can be very useful in a variety of organization settings, for example with the design of aircraft instrumentation and displays for pilots and in the conduct of selection interviews for new employees.

Organization attitude: is a tendency to respond in certain way favorably or unfavorably to objects persons or situations.attittude of the employees toward the work may also affect the working condition of the organization but it is the responsibility of the manger to have a good understanding on the behavior of the employees to have effective work coordination.

Organization norms: are derived, expected modes of behavior. They are based on an organization values and beliefs, and they provide guidelines for individual and group behavior. These in turn produce outcome that reinforce shared values and beliefs.

Shard values

Reinforcing outcomes Shared beliefs

Norms

Individual group behavior

It is clear form the above figure that how different things combine to form organization culture, but here the question arise again that person attitudes.,perception,behavior, is very necessary to form organization culture as we have seen from the case study of oil and gas company opito. How they have combined their workforce team to done work and how they are using different management techniques to solve the problems.

The culture is not a biological phenomenon but is learned by the member's society or organization to follow a given way of life. It is the matter of adaptation in environment by people which paves their way of life in society.

The development of culture may be take place of the following reason and way.

Language and culture

Society and culture

Sub-culture

Age and sex categories and culture roles etc

Every organization has its own different culture. It is a combination of the founders, past leadership, current leadership, crises, events, history, and size (Newstrom, Davis, 1993). This result in rites: the routines, rituals, and the "way we do things." These rites impact individual and group l behavior on what it takes to be in good standing (the norm) and direct the appropriate behavior for each circumstance in the organization.

The climate is the feel of the organization, the individual and shared perceptions and attitudes of the organization's members how the members behave in such culture (Ivancevich, Konopaske, Matteson, 2007). In other side the culture is the deeply rooted nature of the organization that is a result of long-held formal and informal systems, rules, traditions, and customs; climate is a short-term phenomenon created by the present leadership. Climate of the organization shows the beliefs about the "feel of the organization" by its members. This individual perception of the "feel of the organization" comes from what the people believe about the activities that occur in the organization environment. These activities influence both individual and group motivation and satisfaction. Organizational climate is directly related to the leadership and management style of the leader, what type of style if they adopted affect by this climate, it is based on the values, attributes, skills, and actions, as well as the priorities of the leader. Compare this to "ethical climate" - the feel of the organization about the activities that have ethical content of the work environment that develop ethical behavior. The ethical climate is the feel or thinking about whether we do things right or wrong t; or the feel of whether we behave the way we ought to behave. The behavior (character) of the leader is the most important factor that impacts the climate.

  It is useful for managers to have an awareness of how values and attitudes develop in individual and how these may relate to the organisation.  Also, managers may need to change attitudes in an organisation if faced with change situation or if they are seeking to change the corporate culture.  From your understanding of organisations behaviour, critically examine the extent to which this statement is true.

All attitudes ultimately develop from human needs and the values people place upon objects that satisfy those perceived needs. A value is a belief, a mission, or a philosophy that is meaningful. Whether we are consciously aware of them or not, every individual has a core set of personal values. Values can range from the commonplace, such as the belief in hard work and punctuality, to the more psychological, such as self-reliance, concern for others, and harmony of purpose.

this statement is true because it is very important for manger to have a complete awareness about the individual behavior and attitudes, because if no manager not no the perception and attitudes of the employees so he can not manage his business or organization successfully, as we have seen from case study that how opito are knowing the attitudes and behavior of the employees they form a separate supply chain through that they are able to best manage the employees.