Organization and management


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All of us knows that government ministries, oil companies, universities, supermarkets, transport systems and etc, these are all organizations. Now we live in an organization world, some of these organizations are part from our community and serve a lot of important needs. We work for the organizations we use their product. Once we look and explore at the organization especially the most famous we will see that they are very permanent and continues solid. Organizing is a continues process of arranging collective efforts so that it achieves an outcome potentially superior of people acting or working alone, it is always contribute some division of work, with different individuals and groups all the activities of work should be achieved in a successful outcome. Also the organization needs a control and monitoring process to have a clear understanding of the work and to make a proper decision all the time. Any organization should be consist of a clear structure for the employees and the customer which is distribute the responsibilities of work between the individuals and a group and team and the purpose of that is to implement the activities in a successful result, basic structure contains organization charts, hierarchy, roles, committee, a clear job description for all the employees and activities. In addition to that co ordinations and relationship between the employees and the managers is vital for the smooth running of the service in the organization, a reward system is to be clear to all the employees. The term organization can be used to cover any recognizable structure or system that exits to help or to maintain individuals ability to achieve the activities. The definition of the organization can be found that refer to people working together in a coordinated and structured fashion to achieve one or more goals'(Barney and Griffin, 1992), or social arrangements for the controlled performance of collective goals' (Huczynski and Buchanan, 1991) or consciously created arrangements to achieve means' (Thompson and McHugh, 1995). Organization is a word used by individuals loosely, some will say it is a general system of social and culture relationship and some would say it is involves with the attitude and behavior of individuals and some would say it implies of a formulized structure of regulations and roles. There are two types of organizations, the formal organization and informal organization, formal organization is planned structure of regulations and roles, the structure should have an environment in which people can perform the activities and achieve the goals, as well the formal organization should concerned with the co ordination of activities and have a clear hierarchically structured. While the informal organization integrated of personal and social relationship that arise without a prior planning of individuals co operate and co ordinate with other in the work, the informal organization can make the formal organization more effective by supporting the management and utilize the communication channels.


Management is the process of formulating and maintaining an environment in which peoples, working together in groups, achieve selected goals, management includes coordinating and monitoring the work activities of other employers so that their activities are completed efficiently by "doing things right" by getting the most outcome from low waste of input, and effectively which means "doing the right things" which will lead the organization to achieve the goals,. Managing is the most vital human activities, a lot of managers and educated people have found that the investigation of management is facilitated by a useful and clear organization of knowledge. Manager is a person who coordinates and monitors the work of other employees so that organizational goals can be achieve, manager job is to help the other workers to do their work through participating the work of departmental group, or monitoring the employers. Therefore organizations divided the managers in to different levels, top managers.......

Management functions are planning, organizing, leading and controlling, planning which mean the managers should formulate and design the goals and to create and to implements the strategies and coordinate the activities, organizing by structuring the work and to make a clear job description for the workers to achieve the organization goals, leading through participating and effective communication channels and by promoting and motivate them, and controlling where the managers must monitor and evaluate the work and the plan of the organizations. Some researchers has organized managerial behavior and knowledge for example Henry Mintzberg identifies managerial role in to: interpersonal roles, which include people and other duties that are formal in nature, informational roles through collecting coordinate them to the employees and outside the organization, and decision roles through rotate for making choices and decisions. Managers should have a lot of skills to do their work and activities, Robert L Katz identifies three types of skills for the managers: technical skills means to understand the knowledge of activities includes, process, procedure and techniques needs to perform the duties, human skills through providing a good environmental work and how to communicate with the individuals and groups and to work as a team work, and conceptual skills through the ability to create and think about relationships among the main component.

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