Mcdonalds Structure And Culture Business Essay


McDonalds organisation structure is similar to those of other companies. Structures can be defined as the way things are set out in an organisation to it consist of groups and individuals working together to achieve a common objective for the organisation.

Organisations structures is in the form of written documentation e.g. .Memorandum and articles of associations constitutions, by laws etc. the broad goals and purpose of the organisation, It reflects the interest, membership clientele and core values

The Five general types of organisational decisions are defined by structure are policy, management, structural. For example policy matters are decided by the board of directors. Formal office positions are also defined in the structure.

The franchisee determines how he or she runs his or her business. The Chief Executive officer/director (CEO) makes the strategic decision for each of his outlets. Usually bases each of his outlet on hierarchy and below him are his/her subordinates. The restaurant organisation structure is usually as depicted below. This represents the organisational structure prevalent in all franchisee of McDonald's.

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The corporation is based on matrix type of organisational structure with the CEO responsible for operation all over the world. The structure is based on regional, operational and functional.

McDonald's culture

Organisation cultures are set of customs, ways of working together and shared beliefs to achieve a common goal. This is unwritten. They generally evolve through conversation and they are an influx, constantly changing organisational culture. It interpret the meaning of things, Organisation cultures tells whether an action is bad or good, they give indications of how things are to be done when there are no formal procedures or policy.

In large organisations culture may dictate the objectives of the company.

McDonalds operates according to four values; quality, service, convenience and value. Part of their organisational culture is the delivery of uniform quality of food and service wherever the branch is located. 

The cultures associated with McDonalds its System, striving continually to improve products and services, grow business profitably, give back to the community and operate business ethically It places the customer experience is at the foundation of what it does.

Comparing organisation structure and culture

The features of the structure of organisations are formal lines of authority and responsibility; It assists in defining the formal rights, the rewards and punishments on individual behaviour or groups. The structure is accepted on the basis of rules and procedure. It defines how the organisation works and its inflexible.

Organisational culture is the informal way an organisation behaves this arises as a long lived concept often passed down by word of mouth it's an ideology centred, and defines the good and bad, the winning and losing. It defines the people, events and circumstances, processes information and objects that are important for organisational decision and progress.



Structural Features Cultural Features









Impact MacDonald's of organisation structure and culture business on its business performance

It is obvious based on McDonalds missions that to gain more customers it needed to hire more staff hence more franchise given out hence more employee. This will affect structure.

McDonalds mission affect its culture by serving quality food to customers and to be social responsible. McDonalds gives back to the community e.g. through Ronald McDonalds House charity.

McDonald's carefully considers its investment to its shareholders this is reflected in its culture that indicate McDonalds are committed to shareholders.

McDonald aims to provide quality and healthy food. This value reflects McDonald of profitability.

Factors which influence individual behaviour at work

People behave differently where they work for so many reasons and their behaviour is likely to be different from whom they are at home.

According to Michael Mattson and John Ivancevich established that behavioural factors that affect people at work are abilities and skills, demographic factors, attitudes, perception and personality.

1. Abilities and Skills

The experience qualification and physical ability will affect how a person behaves at work this will also depend on the nature of work being carried out. The managers play an important role in matching these to job requirement.

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2. Demographic Factors

The nationality, socio economic background, age, race, education etc. will have a considerable impact on how a person behave at work

3. Attitude

Psychologists, attitude can be defined attitude as tendency to respond favourably or unfavourably to a particular situation, individual or circumstances.

4. Perception

Perception is the cognitive process to interpret an environmental stimulus. Ability of a person to interpret a situation will affects how the person behaves at work.

5. Personality: Personality

The distinctive traits of a person will affect how he works with other or how he behaves in a working environment.

Other factors can be motivation, delegation of authorities and responsibilities, structure and culture of the organisation.

Different approaches to management and leadership

There different styles of management

There are different styles of management, namely

Transformational leadership

Transactional Leadership

Autocratic Leadership

Bureaucratic Leadership

Charismatic Leadership

Democratic/Participative Leadership

Laissez-Faire Leadership

Task-Oriented Leadership

People-Oriented/Relations-Oriented Leadership

The Effectiveness of Different Leadership Styles In Different Organisation

Types of Leadership






This is particular to consultant. It is applicable in the process of transforming an old system of operation to a new system

These leaders look are concerned about initiatives that will add new value,


This leader passes e

nthusiasm i onto the team, he or she can need to be supported by "detail people."



This leadership style starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader when they accept a job. The "transaction" usually involves the organization paying team members in return for their effort and compliance.

this leadership style clarifies everyone's roles and responsibilities. Another benefit is that, because transactional leadership judges team members on performance, people who are ambitious or who are motivated by external rewards

. It can feel stifling, and it can lead to high staff turnover.

It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work. However, it can be effective in other situations.

Types of Leadership






Leaders work "by the book." They follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their people follow procedures precisely.

This is an appropriate leadership style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances, or at dangerous heights) or where large sums of money are involved. Bureaucratic leadership is also useful in organizations where employees do routine tasks (as in manufacturing).

Bureaucratic leaders achieve their position because of their ability to conform to and uphold rules, not because of their qualifications or expertise. This can cause resentment when team members don't value their expertise or advice.

it's ineffective in teams and organizations that rely on flexibility, creativity, or innovation


These leaders inspire enthusiasm in their teams and are energetic in motivating others to move forward.

This excitement and commitment from teams is an enormous benefit.

That they can believe more in themselves than in their teams. This can create the risk that a project or even an entire organization might collapse if the leader leaves

Directly connected to the presence of the charismatic leader. Leadership carries great responsibility, and it needs a long-term commitment from the leader.

How organizational theory underpins principles and practices

classical and scientific management theorist

Organisation came up with different ways by which organisation could be well manage classical and scientific management theorist concern their self with clear division of labour and formulisation, hierarchy and managerial authority, standardisation and the best way of management. Among these theorist are Smith (1776), Marx (1867), Fayol (1919/ 1949), and weber (1924/1947) ( Cunnliffe, 2008).

Fayol defined management as the organising, planning, coordination control and commanding. Taylor focused on the most efficient way to manage an organisation. He believes management should aim to secure prosperity for both employer and employee.

He propounded scientific theories for management stating that work need to be analysed by selecting training and developing workers for each job( A. Cunnliffe, 2008).

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These early theorist focused on the organisation and its structure these theory underpins the practise of today i.e. organisation structure, delegation functional responsibility etc.

System and contingency theorist (modernism

System and contingency theorist (modernism) some of which are Parsons (1951), Gouldner (1954), March and Simon (1958) focus on organisation as a complex system with inter related parts. They utilised an input and output model. They stated there is no one best way to achieving a purpose and that organisational practise will depend on the characteristic of each situation. They believed that all parts needs to fit to optimise efficiency. They believe system has to adapt to the changing environment. This theory situations in practise today as every organisation adapts to changing

The characteristics defined by them as stable or unstable environment, mechanistic/organic culture, control, commitment technology and routine complex are main principles of the system and contingency theorist. Most organisation are based on this principle and most organisation are based on the input and output concept.

Social construction theory

Social construction theorist are Berger and Luckmann ( 1966), Goffman (1959), Boyn (1991) their principles are based on enactment, sense making, organising as communities, technology as processes of social construction. Realities are constructed on social interaction through shared meanings.


Postmordernisation Theorist are Foucault (1973), Lyohard (1984), Harvey (1990), Copper and Burnel (1988), Hassard and Parker (1993), The main principles of postmordernisation are that they see organisation as systems of power, and as relationship where some group are oppressed by others, They see organisation as arenas of disorder, conflicts and contradictions. They question the main stream ideas of organisation, their purpose, there form and how they operate. They undercover the assumption of was is acceptable and right to expose the oppressions and inequalities. These are predominant in most organisations today. We see management conflict, relation between employers, employees and the trade union (A. Cunnliffe, 2008).

Conclusively all the theorist concept are obvious in any firms day to day operations.

E Different approaches to leadership and management

D. Goleman in his book the 'Primal leadership' analyses six different leadership styles .they are Affiliative., Visionary, Pacesetting, Coaching, Democratic, and Commanding.

He said the most effective leaders can move among these styles by adopting the one that best meets their needs and that its comes parts of the leaders reportoire


This style of management is suitable for managers that manages people that works as a group or team. It increases team harmony, increases morale improves communication this style also repairs trust in an organisation. This style also has its downside in that since its allows group praise it can lead allow poor performance of individuals and its best used with other management styles


This management style is best for firms the likes of Googles, Apples and technology firms or firms that need new directions.


High standards for performance are set and the leader. is "obsessive about doing things better and faster, and asks the same of everyone. The downside of this stle accoeding to Goleman is that this style can undercut morale and make people feel as if they are failing and that it. should be used sparingly.


It is a suitable style for with employees who show initiative and want more professional development. It's a one on one management style its helps in improving individual performance and helping them achieving their goals


 This style creates a group commitment by drawing on people's knowledge and skill.,. Where organisation direction is unclears and requires collective decision making by a building a consensus agreement. It can be disastrous in times of crisis, when urgent events demand quick decisions.


The "military" style leadership its one of the least effective as it hardly praise and its mostly criticises it lowers morale and undercut job satisfaction

Ways of using motivational theories in organisation

Theories attempt to explain how motivation works in management circles, the most popular explanations of motivation are based on human needs.

The basic needs model, referred to as content theory of motivation, highlights the specific factors that motivate an individual

People have needs that they want satisfied. Some are primary needs, such as those for food, sleep, and water-needs that deal with the physical aspects of behaviour and are considered unlearned.

Secondary needs, on the other hand, are psychological, which means that they are learned primarily through experience. These needs vary significantly by culture and by individual. This are needs such as the desire for power, achievement, and love.

Identifying and interpreting these needs are difficult because they are demonstrated in a variety of ways.

Secondary needs are responsible for most of the behaviour that a manager is concerned with and for the rewards a person seeks in an organization.

Several theorists, including Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, David McClelland, and Clayton Alderfer, have provided theories to help explain needs as a source of motivation.

Impact of leadership style on motivation in the organisation

Types of Leadership

Impact on Motivation in the organisation


Leaders pass enthusiasms to members thereby motivating them to work better. They look for initiatives, Motivation is through lob satisfaction and encouragement


This gives sense of accomplishment and the motivation brought in is achievement of the task set.


The motivational aspect here is threat and punishment.


This leadership style brings collective responsibility, achievement and self-actualisation as a means of job satisfaction


Brings in a sense of belonging and motivates individual through encouragement.

Types of Leadership

Motivation in the organisation


Participation in decision making Responsibility of an important job,Esteem needs


Job flexibility and autonomy


Creative and challenging work, Praise and recognition from boss


Self-actualization needs,Promotion to higher status job

Effects of Different motivational theory on the organisation

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory

Maslow defined need as a psychological or physiological deficiency that human needs to satisfy.

This need will affect a person's work, his behaviour and attitudes. Maslow formed a theory based on his definition of need that proposes that people are motivated by multiple needs and that these needs exist in a hierarchical order, unsatisfied need are motivators whist satisfied needs are not. This are referred to as progression need and deficit needs respectively.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Human Needs


Higher Level Needs

To Satisfy, Offer:

Creative and challenging work

Participation in decision making

Job flexibility and



Higher Level Needs

To Satisfy, Offer:

Esteem needs

Responsibility of an important job

Promotion to higher status job

Praise and recognition from boss

Lower Level Needs

To Satisfy, Offer:

Social needs

Friendly coworkers

Interaction with customers

Pleasant supervisor

Higher L Needs

To Satisfy, Offer:

Safety needs

Safe working conditions

Job security

Base compensation and benefits

Higher L Needs

To Satisfy, Offer:

Physiological needs

Rest and refreshment breaks

Physical comfort on the job

Reasonable work hours

Maslow's theory can assist management in understanding and satisfying the needs of their employees.

The usefulness of motivation in the work place

Employee motivation is a way to create excitement. Techniques can be cutting edge creative and new.

1. Business Promotion

This technique makes the company standout and increase morale of the work force, giving employees things like coffee mugs, pens, pencils, etc. All with your company's logo on them.

2. Surveys

Carrying out survey about problems and activities in the organisation will lead to more participation and involvement and will lead increase in morale.

3. Understanding Employees

Finding out about employees interest will go a long way to show one cares for them and will improve work ethics because it shows one cares for them, Employees will not fell like a numbers

4. Building Employee Recognition Program

These programs are designed to motivate employees through awards. The Use of awards like gift cards, days off, choice of shifts, etc, will create excitement

5. Enjoyable Work Environment

Creating a viable working e will help in motivating employees and increase performance. Having fun is also a great way to manage Stress. Example are chess or other board game or sports during break Or management team washing cars

Build Trust and Respect

One way to start building trust is to give employees special projects with deadlines that are important. In order for leaders to earn respect they need to treat others with respect

Roundtable Committee

The committee should consist of five people such mid-level managers, Department managers, etc. a representative needs to be elected who will meet management to discuss issues or problems within the organisation.

Explain the mechanism for developing effective team work in the organisation

Nature and groups and groups behaviour in an organisation


Work groups are divided into two namely, formal and informal groups.

Formal groups

These are group st up by management as part of orgnisation structure. They are defined in terms of their purpose and roles. The group will normally exist tho further the mission, of the organisation to have their policies and procedures and are officially recognised and have their own budget


These are employee centered groups they arise as a result of of having a common interest or shared values

Their loyalty are to the group members and their goals are decided but what they feel

Factors that may promote or inhibit team work in an organisation

The factors that will promote team work in an organisation are

Improvements in participants' confidence, attitudes, motivation and personal satisfaction

Greater clarity in expressing ideas through group discussion better understanding by individuals of the nature of their contribution and of the needs of other team members

Factors that will inhibit teamwork

So-called 'group think' can occur when a team is lulled into a false sense of satisfaction and loses its critical edge.

Dispute, loathing and disagreement will also prevent cohesive teanm wor.

Impact of technology on team Functioning

Technologies allows team to interact and complete task on time.

Time and distance are no more problems among team members as the can chat, email and carry out video conferencing from any path of the world.

In conclusion teams function better with advent of these technology and distance and time are no barriers.

Cliff note article, Motivation Theories: Individual Needs,articleId-8908.html(1)

Investigation into McDonalds ,

The Effects of CollaborativeTechnologies on Individual and Team

Leadership StylesChoosing the Right Style for the Situation

Journal of Comprehensive Research, Volume 5, Page 32

Groups and Group Behavior

Groups and Group Behavior

Dr. I. Chaneta

Faculty of Commerce

University of Zimbabwe

Effective Teamwork

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The Employee Motivation


The wall street journal , Leadership style (9)

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