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McDonalds organisation structure is similar to those of other companies. Structures can be defined as the way things are set out in an organisation to it consist of groups and individuals working together to achieve a common objective for the organisation.
Organisations structures is in the form of written documentation e.g. .Memorandum and articles of associations constitutions, by laws etc. the broad goals and purpose of the organisation, It reflects the interest, membership clientele and core values
The Five general types of organisational decisions are defined by structure are policy, management, structural. For example policy matters are decided by the board of directors. Formal office positions are also defined in the structure.
The franchisee determines how he or she runs his or her business. The Chief Executive officer/director (CEO) makes the strategic decision for each of his outlets. Usually bases each of his outlet on hierarchy and below him are his/her subordinates. The restaurant organisation structure is usually as depicted below. This represents the organisational structure prevalent in all franchisee of McDonald’s.
The corporation is based on matrix type of organisational structure with the CEO responsible for operation all over the world. The structure is based on regional, operational and functional.
Organisation cultures are set of customs, ways of working together and shared beliefs to achieve a common goal. This is unwritten. They generally evolve through conversation and they are an influx, constantly changing organisational culture. It interpret the meaning of things, Organisation cultures tells whether an action is bad or good, they give indications of how things are to be done when there are no formal procedures or policy.
In large organisations culture may dictate the objectives of the company.
McDonalds operates according to four values; quality, service, convenience and value. Part of their organisational culture is the delivery of uniform quality of food and service wherever the branch is located.
The cultures associated with McDonalds its System, striving continually to improve products and services, grow business profitably, give back to the community and operate business ethically It places the customer experience is at the foundation of what it does.
Comparing organisation structure and culture
The features of the structure of organisations are formal lines of authority and responsibility; It assists in defining the formal rights, the rewards and punishments on individual behaviour or groups. The structure is accepted on the basis of rules and procedure. It defines how the organisation works and its inflexible.
Organisational culture is the informal way an organisation behaves this arises as a long lived concept often passed down by word of mouth it’s an ideology centred, and defines the good and bad, the winning and losing. It defines the people, events and circumstances, processes information and objects that are important for organisational decision and progress.
CHARACTERISTICS OF CULTURE & STRUCTURE
Structural Features Cultural Features
Impact MacDonald’s of organisation structure and culture business on its business performance
It is obvious based on McDonalds missions that to gain more customers it needed to hire more staff hence more franchise given out hence more employee. This will affect structure.
McDonalds mission affect its culture by serving quality food to customers and to be social responsible. McDonalds gives back to the community e.g. through Ronald McDonalds House charity.
McDonald’s carefully considers its investment to its shareholders this is reflected in its culture that indicate McDonalds are committed to shareholders.
McDonald aims to provide quality and healthy food. This value reflects McDonald of profitability.
Factors which influence individual behaviour at work
People behave differently where they work for so many reasons and their behaviour is likely to be different from whom they are at home.
According to Michael Mattson and John Ivancevich established that behavioural factors that affect people at work are abilities and skills, demographic factors, attitudes, perception and personality.
1. Abilities and Skills
The experience qualification and physical ability will affect how a person behaves at work this will also depend on the nature of work being carried out. The managers play an important role in matching these to job requirement.
2. Demographic Factors
The nationality, socio economic background, age, race, education etc. will have a considerable impact on how a person behave at work
Psychologists, attitude can be defined attitude as tendency to respond favourably or unfavourably to a particular situation, individual or circumstances.
Perception is the cognitive process to interpret an environmental stimulus. Ability of a person to interpret a situation will affects how the person behaves at work.
5. Personality: Personality
The distinctive traits of a person will affect how he works with other or how he behaves in a working environment.
Other factors can be motivation, delegation of authorities and responsibilities, structure and culture of the organisation.
Different approaches to management and leadership
There different styles of management
There are different styles of management, namely
The Effectiveness of Different Leadership Styles In Different Organisation
Types of Leadership
This is particular to consultant. It is applicable in the process of transforming an old system of operation to a new system
These leaders look are concerned about initiatives that will add new value,
This leader passes e
nthusiasm i onto the team, he or she can need to be supported by “detail people.”
This leadership style starts with the idea that team members agree to obey their leader when they accept a job. The “transaction” usually involves the organization paying team members in return for their effort and compliance.
this leadership style clarifies everyone’s roles and responsibilities. Another benefit is that, because transactional leadership judges team members on performance, people who are ambitious or who are motivated by external rewards
. It can feel stifling, and it can lead to high staff turnover.
It has serious limitations for knowledge-based or creative work. However, it can be effective in other situations.
Types of Leadership
Leaders work “by the book.” They follow rules rigorously, and ensure that their people follow procedures precisely.
This is an appropriate leadership style for work involving serious safety risks (such as working with machinery, with toxic substances, or at dangerous heights) or where large sums of money are involved. Bureaucratic leadership is also useful in organizations where employees do routine tasks (as in manufacturing).
Bureaucratic leaders achieve their position because of their ability to conform to and uphold rules, not because of their qualifications or expertise. This can cause resentment when team members don’t value their expertise or advice.
it’s ineffective in teams and organizations that rely on flexibility, creativity, or innovation
These leaders inspire enthusiasm in their teams and are energetic in motivating others to move forward.
This excitement and commitment from teams is an enormous benefit.
That they can believe more in themselves than in their teams. This can create the risk that a project or even an entire organization might collapse if the leader leaves
Directly connected to the presence of the charismatic leader. Leadership carries great responsibility, and it needs a long-term commitment from the leader.
How organizational theory underpins principles and practices
classical and scientific management theorist
Organisation came up with different ways by which organisation could be well manage classical and scientific management theorist concern their self with clear division of labour and formulisation, hierarchy and managerial authority, standardisation and the best way of management. Among these theorist are Smith (1776), Marx (1867), Fayol (1919/ 1949), and weber (1924/1947) ( Cunnliffe, 2008).
Fayol defined management as the organising, planning, coordination control and commanding. Taylor focused on the most efficient way to manage an organisation. He believes management should aim to secure prosperity for both employer and employee.
He propounded scientific theories for management stating that work need to be analysed by selecting training and developing workers for each job( A. Cunnliffe, 2008).
These early theorist focused on the organisation and its structure these theory underpins the practise of today i.e. organisation structure, delegation functional responsibility etc.
System and contingency theorist (modernism
System and contingency theorist (modernism) some of which are Parsons (1951), Gouldner (1954), March and Simon (1958) focus on organisation as a complex system with inter related parts. They utilised an input and output model. They stated there is no one best way to achieving a purpose and that organisational practise will depend on the characteristic of each situation. They believed that all parts needs to fit to optimise efficiency. They believe system has to adapt to the changing environment. This theory situations in practise today as every organisation adapts to changing
The characteristics defined by them as stable or unstable environment, mechanistic/organic culture, control, commitment technology and routine complex are main principles of the system and contingency theorist. Most organisation are based on this principle and most organisation are based on the input and output concept.
Social construction theory
Social construction theorist are Berger and Luckmann ( 1966), Goffman (1959), Boyn (1991) their principles are based on enactment, sense making, organising as communities, technology as processes of social construction. Realities are constructed on social interaction through shared meanings.
Postmordernisation Theorist are Foucault (1973), Lyohard (1984), Harvey (1990), Copper and Burnel (1988), Hassard and Parker (1993), The main principles of postmordernisation are that they see organisation as systems of power, and as relationship where some group are oppressed by others, They see organisation as arenas of disorder, conflicts and contradictions. They question the main stream ideas of organisation, their purpose, there form and how they operate. They undercover the assumption of was is acceptable and right to expose the oppressions and inequalities. These are predominant in most organisations today. We see management conflict, relation between employers, employees and the trade union (A. Cunnliffe, 2008).
Conclusively all the theorist concept are obvious in any firms day to day operations.
E Different approaches to leadership and management
D. Goleman in his book the ‘Primal leadership’ analyses six different leadership styles .they are Affiliative., Visionary, Pacesetting, Coaching, Democratic, and Commanding.
He said the most effective leaders can move among these styles by adopting the one that best meets their needs and that its comes parts of the leaders reportoire
This style of management is suitable for managers that manages people that works as a group or team. It increases team harmony, increases morale improves communication this style also repairs trust in an organisation. This style also has its downside in that since its allows group praise it can lead allow poor performance of individuals and its best used with other management styles
This management style is best for firms the likes of Googles, Apples and technology firms or firms that need new directions.
High standards for performance are set and the leader. is “obsessive about doing things better and faster, and asks the same of everyone. The downside of this stle accoeding to Goleman is that this style can undercut morale and make people feel as if they are failing and that it. should be used sparingly.
It is a suitable style for with employees who show initiative and want more professional development. It’s a one on one management style its helps in improving individual performance and helping them achieving their goals
This style creates a group commitment by drawing on people’s knowledge and skill.,. Where organisation direction is unclears and requires collective decision making by a building a consensus agreement. It can be disastrous in times of crisis, when urgent events demand quick decisions.
The “military” style leadership its one of the least effective as it hardly praise and its mostly criticises it lowers morale and undercut job satisfaction
Ways of using motivational theories in organisation
Theories attempt to explain how motivation works in management circles, the most popular explanations of motivation are based on human needs.
The basic needs model, referred to as content theory of motivation, highlights the specific factors that motivate an individual
People have needs that they want satisfied. Some are primary needs, such as those for food, sleep, and water-needs that deal with the physical aspects of behaviour and are considered unlearned.
Secondary needs, on the other hand, are psychological, which means that they are learned primarily through experience. These needs vary significantly by culture and by individual. This are needs such as the desire for power, achievement, and love.
Identifying and interpreting these needs are difficult because they are demonstrated in a variety of ways.
Secondary needs are responsible for most of the behaviour that a manager is concerned with and for the rewards a person seeks in an organization.
Several theorists, including Abraham Maslow, Frederick Herzberg, David McClelland, and Clayton Alderfer, have provided theories to help explain needs as a source of motivation.
Impact of leadership style on motivation in the organisation
Types of Leadership
Impact on Motivation in the organisation
Leaders pass enthusiasms to members thereby motivating them to work better. They look for initiatives, Motivation is through lob satisfaction and encouragement
This gives sense of accomplishment and the motivation brought in is achievement of the task set.
The motivational aspect here is threat and punishment.
This leadership style brings collective responsibility, achievement and self-actualisation as a means of job satisfaction
Brings in a sense of belonging and motivates individual through encouragement.
Types of Leadership
Motivation in the organisation
Participation in decision making Responsibility of an important job,Esteem needs
Job flexibility and autonomy
Creative and challenging work, Praise and recognition from boss
Self-actualization needs,Promotion to higher status job
Effects of Different motivational theory on the organisation
Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory
Maslow defined need as a psychological or physiological deficiency that human needs to satisfy.
This need will affect a person’s work, his behaviour and attitudes. Maslow formed a theory based on his definition of need that proposes that people are motivated by multiple needs and that these needs exist in a hierarchical order, unsatisfied need are motivators whist satisfied needs are not. This are referred to as progression need and deficit needs respectively.
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
Higher Level Needs
To Satisfy, Offer:
Creative and challenging work
Participation in decision making
Job flexibility and
Higher Level Needs
To Satisfy, Offer:
Responsibility of an important job
Promotion to higher status job
Praise and recognition from boss
Lower Level Needs
To Satisfy, Offer:
Interaction with customers
Higher L Needs
To Satisfy, Offer:
Safe working conditions
Base compensation and benefits
Higher L Needs
To Satisfy, Offer:
Rest and refreshment breaks
Physical comfort on the job
Reasonable work hours
Maslow’s theory can assist management in understanding and satisfying the needs of their employees.
The usefulness of motivation in the work place
Employee motivation is a way to create excitement. Techniques can be cutting edge creative and new.
1. Business Promotion
This technique makes the company standout and increase morale of the work force, giving employees things like coffee mugs, pens, pencils, etc. All with your company’s logo on them.
Carrying out survey about problems and activities in the organisation will lead to more participation and involvement and will lead increase in morale.
3. Understanding Employees
Finding out about employees interest will go a long way to show one cares for them and will improve work ethics because it shows one cares for them, Employees will not fell like a numbers
4. Building Employee Recognition Program
These programs are designed to motivate employees through awards. The Use of awards like gift cards, days off, choice of shifts, etc, will create excitement
5. Enjoyable Work Environment
Creating a viable working e will help in motivating employees and increase performance. Having fun is also a great way to manage Stress. Example are chess or other board game or sports during break Or management team washing cars
Build Trust and Respect
One way to start building trust is to give employees special projects with deadlines that are important. In order for leaders to earn respect they need to treat others with respect
The committee should consist of five people such mid-level managers, Department managers, etc. a representative needs to be elected who will meet management to discuss issues or problems within the organisation.
Explain the mechanism for developing effective team work in the organisation
Nature and groups and groups behaviour in an organisation
FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS
Work groups are divided into two namely, formal and informal groups.
These are group st up by management as part of orgnisation structure. They are defined in terms of their purpose and roles. The group will normally exist tho further the mission, of the organisation to have their policies and procedures and are officially recognised and have their own budget
These are employee centered groups they arise as a result of of having a common interest or shared values
Their loyalty are to the group members and their goals are decided but what they feel
Factors that may promote or inhibit team work in an organisation
The factors that will promote team work in an organisation are
Improvements in participants’ confidence, attitudes, motivation and personal satisfaction
Greater clarity in expressing ideas through group discussion better understanding by individuals of the nature of their contribution and of the needs of other team members
Factors that will inhibit teamwork
So-called ‘group think’ can occur when a team is lulled into a false sense of satisfaction and loses its critical edge.
Dispute, loathing and disagreement will also prevent cohesive teanm wor.
Impact of technology on team Functioning
Technologies allows team to interact and complete task on time.
Time and distance are no more problems among team members as the can chat, email and carry out video conferencing from any path of the world.
In conclusion teams function better with advent of these technology and distance and time are no barriers.
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Journal of Comprehensive Research, Volume 5, Page 32
Groups and Group Behavior
Groups and Group Behavior
Dr. I. Chaneta
Faculty of Commerce
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