Every organization in the world gives importance to motivate their employees through various programs, procedures, tools and techniques which will support and help their employees,. Motivation is the key factor for an employee working anywhere. Authors have defined the concept of motivation as: the psychological process that gives behavior purpose and direction (Krietner 1995); a predisposition to behave in a purposive manner to achieve specific unmet needs (Buford, 1995). Motivation is an important point for managers in the organization because this is the thing which helps employees to work effectively and efficiently. People have the different behavior and needs so the managers or the senior person in the organization use the different tools to motivate the employees. In this research, values and motivation factors will be studying in the Pakistani culture that how it is changing and how it effects the motivation of employees. It is important for a manager to find what motivate employees. In this study we are also studying the values of employees in Pakistan that, to what they give more value, working environment or the benefits which are given to them and through which they motivate more, with their cooperative and friendly working environment or they motivate only with the benefits and compensation, such as (salary, rewards and encouragements).
1.2 Scope of the Research:
This research will be applicable for the organizations to manage the employee’s behavior and their motivation level through different motivation factors, and will leads to the manager to make a motivated environment for the employees at their workplace, so that employees can be motivated and work effectively and efficiently.
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1.3 Contextual framework:
In this study researcher will be studying the values of employees in Pakistan that, to what they give more value, working environment or the benefits which are given to them, and through which they motivate more, with their cooperative and friendly working environment or they motivate only with the benefits and compensation, such as (salary, rewards and encouragements).
1.4 Problem statement:
The effect of different motivation factors on the job satisfaction of the lower managers in the telecommunication industry of Pakistan.
1.5 Purpose of the research:
The purpose of research is to study the behavior of the employees in telecommunication sector of Pakistan and their values which will lead to their motivation and job satisfaction.
1.6 Research Question
What are the motivation factors through which employees are motivated in the telecommunication sector of Pakistan?
This research will help the organization to know more about the employee’s motivation factors which are changing in the dynamic environment. This will also help the managers to motivate and satisfied the employees with respect to their values what they perceive.
The research is conducting to identify those factors which are influencing on employees motivation in private organization of Karachi. For conducting this research, financial resources and time constraints will imply on this study as researchers can not choose the large number of organizations for data collection.
Over the last ten years the telecommunication industry has grown very rapidly in Pakistan, it is one of very effective industry which attracting the potential customers and the potential employees because of his rapid growth and development across all over the Pakistan. Pakistan is the world’s third fastest growing telecommunications market, adding on an average two million cellular subscribers per month (Joseph Wilson 2008). The telecom sector as a whole grew by 80% during the year 2007 compared to the average growth rate of 100% in the pervious four years (Wilson 2008).
Employees are very much connected with their companies where they work, they are very much sensitive about their organizations that how their organizations are accomplishing their needs and expectations. To accomplish these needs and the expectations, an organization and their managers needs to develop some strategies and programs to motivate and encourage the employees, so that the employees will be satisfied with their jobs and will also be loyal for their organizations where they work; which leads to increase in organization’s productivity, effectiveness and efficiency.
Motivation is the key which help the organizations to accomplish their goals and it directly affect the efficiency and effectiveness of an organization with respect to its productivity. Motivation is an important term, however hard to define; motivation is something that determines how a person will handle a situation in terms of strength and psychological energy (Anna Axelsson and Sandra Bokedal 2009).
There are two types of motivation, one is intrinsic and other one is extrinsic:
2.1 Intrinsic motivation
This motivation comes from the studies of social and educational psychologist. These types of motivation are seen in the students and the employees in the organization. Intrinsic motivation comes from rewards inherent to a task or activity itself – the enjoyment of a puzzle or the love of playing (Deci, E. 1972). Intrinsic motivation, deriving from within the person or from the activity itself, positively affects behaviour, performance, and well being (Ryan & Deci, 2000).
2.2 Extrinsic motivation
This type of the motivation which supports the intrinsic motivation, because when you do something you have to get some in behalf of that so these motivation is like money, incentive trophies etc. Luthan (1998) defines motivation as “a process that starts with a physiological deficiency or need that activates behaviour or a drive that is aimed at a goal incentive”. Therefore, the key to understanding the process of motivation lies in the meaning of and relationship among salary, wages and conditions of service.
Extrinsically motivated behaviours are actions that result in the attainment of externally administered rewards, including pay, material possessions, prestige, and positive evaluations from others (Thomas S. Bateman and J. Michael Crant 2001). Extrinsic motivation provides the individual satisfaction in performing a task that even if the individual doesn’t really like doing it, he or she continues to accomplish the work because of his or her anticipated rewards (Cory Schop 2009).
For using salary as a motivator, managers need to consider four major components of a salary structure, which are job rate, payment, personal or special allowances and long service. Job rate relates to the importance the organization attaches to each job. Payment is the thing which encourages employees by rewarding them according to their performance, personal or special allowances associated with factors such as scarcity of particular skills or certain categories of information professionals. Long service periphery benefits such as holidays with pay, pensions, and so on.
Money is the most powerful motivational strategy, as far back in 1911, Frederick Taylor and his scientific management associate described money as the most important factor in motivating the employees to achieve higher productivity. Taylor suggest that the incentive wage system leads to the worker high performance, commitment, and enough satisfactory. Katz in Sinclair (2005) explains that money has the power o attract, retain and motivate employees towards higher performance.
Benefits are forms of value, other than payment, that are provided to the employee in return for their contribution to the organization, that is, for doing their job (Carter McNamara 2002).
In this era of globalization, employees benefits are compulsory to motivate, encourage, and productive the employees so that they can work more effective and efficient. In benefits, there may be the things which are emotionally attached with the employees and may be facilitation provided them such as; health Insurance, Retirement plan, vacations, stock ownership plan etc. The benefits listed previously are tangible benefits. Intangible benefits are less direct, for example, appreciation from a boss, likelihood for promotion, nice office, etc (Carter McNamara 2002). But on the other hand these benefits could be expensive for the organization to provide, so organization also needs to see other ways to motivate employees which could be:
2.6 Work Environment
Employees are very much concern about the organizational culture and beliefs, which leads to the work environment of the particular organization, It depends on the Organizational culture which makes the environment healthy or bias, employees prefer the organizations where the cultural values are symmetrical with the employees values, so that they can adjust and work easily in such environment and may be more satisfied with their jobs. A properly designed work environment supports positive communication and therefore relationships among a company’s constituencies and contributes to a satisfied work force and customers (Hartman, Jackie L. And Ningkun Wang 2004). Rahat Kazmi has written in a post at Pakistan Times: “In addition to monitoring the staff’s relationships, a good example of employee/management communication is vital. Keeping an eye on staff interaction doesn’t need to be time consuming for the management team. He or she only needs to observe body language and listen for negative verbal clues to become aware of a problem. What happens after that is a matter of individual company policy”.
There may be supportive environment in an organization where the supervisors support and make a healthy relation with their subordinates by providing them the opportunities to participate and to deliver their views and ideas, and having the involvement of the employees in decision making processes, that will be helpful for motivating and satisfying the employees with their jobs, and they will be work more efficient and productive in such environment.
2.7 Factors affecting employee’s motivation
There are many factors which affect the employee’s motivation and this motivation has direct impact on the job.
2.7.1 Job Satisfaction
This is one of the most important factor s of the motivation. This is the factor which leads employee to high motivation and helps them working effectively and efficiently. Types of satisfaction
When you are working and if your job is not challenging so this will lead you to the dissatisfaction, so the structure of the job plays an important role in the satisfaction of the employees.
If you have the job and you are doing it in effective and efficient manner then the senior person should give some kind of appraisal to motivate you and inviting you to do that type of performance again and again.
Performance rating is also the important factor that leads you to satisfaction in the organization.
These are the types which are found in the organization, but when you talk about the conceptual satisfaction so this has four item scales of assessing.
The organization should change or enhance the system time to time.
The appraisal system results in the less work problems.
The organization or company should also notify that the employees are satisfied from the system or not.
The organization should also know that, these appraisal systems are not the waste of time.
This is the factor which is very hard to find in the organization. Appraisal is on the fair bases is very important in the organization. There are four important point from which you can interpret the appraisal fairness.
Performance rating in fair manner.
Appraisal system with fair means.
Justice to employees.
Fair distribution of justice.
2.7.3 Perceived Utility
This is the point which has the comparison with satisfaction and fairness. This perceived utility is relatively consistent. Perceived utility has the focus on the usefulness of the appraisal system. Perceived utility tells about the employee’s fairness and his perceives that how he perceives the particular job’s work and its fairness and how much he is getting the fair decision about himself within the organization by its management. Through this fairness employees relate their job satisfaction that on what extent they are getting the fair decisions that will lead to their job satisfaction.
2.7.4 Perceived Accuracy
Accuracy is very important in the organization and work specification there is the difference between the typical and accuracy reaction. Here perceived accuracy leads to the matching between the organization’s culture and the employee’s own values that how much he relate his own believes and values with the organization where he works. The accuracy should be there to perceiving the organizational culture and environment so that it will be more satisfied with his job and the working environment.
2.8 PROCESS THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
Some of the process theories of motivation will be examined, which will leads to the motivation factors for job satisfaction. These process theories may include:
Social learning theory
Goal setting theory and
2.8.1 Social learning theory
Learning plays an important role to motivate the employees and to get their job satisfaction. The behaviors within organizations sometimes are learn behavior. Learning can be in the sense of Perceptions, attitudes, goals, and emotional reactions. For Example; some kind of troubled happens in the organization which will be solved by the strategic planning and guiding the employees to resolve that problem with the supervisor’s gaudiness, can be a learning of employees. The terminologies used in organizations are learned; the way of living in organization and the organizational behavior are learned.
The Social learning theory of motivation is proposed by Albert Bandura of stanford University. He Illustrated that the people’s acquisition of new behavior by the inspiration of their role models. Social learning means acquiring a theory much of our behavior by observation and inspiration of others in our cultural context. The Bandura-inspired view of behavior is that it is a process of personal attributes and the environmental influences. According to Bandura, social learning theory explore that the behavior is continuously interact between the cognitive, behavior, and environmental variables.
Social learning theory introduces modeling, symbolism, and self-control (Xolani Enouch Tyilana, 2005). People may be inspired by their Parents, friends, heroes, and respected leaders because they identify with them. We all use symbolism to gaudiness for our behavior. For example, during driving a car we know that how much speed should be for driving on the particular track because we have in our mind about the accidents because of the over speed driving: we set the personal objectives and goals to motivate ourselves; we use our mentality to remember our customers. We also make efforts of self-control by not-smoking, not drinking and not physically attacking any person who make negative remarks about ourselves, family or any ethical issue.
A central part of social learning theory is the concept of self-efficacy, defined as the belief that one can perform adequately in a particular situation. Self-efficacy judgments influence our choices of tasks, situations, and companions, how much effort we’ll expend, and how long we’ll try.
2.8.2 Operant conditioning
Consequence of behavior leads to the learning with another perspective. This type of learning is called operant conditioning. The person closely associated with operant conditioning is the late world-famous behaviorist B.F. Skinner. Considerable principles of operant conditioning can assist managers attempting to influence behavior. One of the important principles of learning is Reinforcement. In a general sense, reinforcement is an external cause of behavior, while motivation is an internal cause.
When a positively valued consequence follows a response to a stimulus then the Positive reinforcement occurs. Thus, anything that increases the strength of response and induces repetitions of the behavior both is called Positive reinforcement. Factors such as raises, bonuses, or promotions or less tangible things such as praise or encouragement are all comes in the positive rein forcers. There will be no any measurable modification of behavior take place without reinforcement.
2.8.3 Expectancy theory
This theory is the process in which you choose or perform any activity related choosing. This theory tells the process of an individual person that how is make choices. In an organization this theory is important for the motivation of the employees. This theory is given by the victor vroom he gave three major points on which this theory is based
This is the important part which an individual think for the outcome like if i want money so I will work for the money I will not consider time. So due to this an individual sets their value to get something.
This is what you expect your first level outcome to change to the second level outcome like it believes that if we increase our effort than the performance will automatically increase. for example, if I work hard then I will get better results. This includes three following things.
The right sources must be available.(e.g. raw material, time).like the raw material should be available on right time at the right place, on other hand the timing of availability is more important.
You should have right skills to do your job, like the skills you have must be the same as the requirements of the job.
You should get support to do your job.(e.g. supervisor support or correct information on job).supervisor and the senior person of the firm or organization must help the younger ones about the job description and the things which are needed to complete the task. Because these are the people who knows about the working environment of the firm, they knows that how to work.
This is the belief that if you perform well then the outcome will be valued .for example, if i will do a good job then there would be some thing for me to. These are affected by three points.
You should understand the relationship between the performance and the outcome.
Trust the people who are helping you to reach the outcome.
The process should be transparent so it will decide who will get what outcome.
The whole expectancy theory revolves around the concept that there is the relationship between the people behaviour at work and their goals. Through this theory they got to know that is other factors are also very important like personality, skills, knowledge, experience and abilities of an individual person.
2.8.4 Equity theory
This theory explains the satisfaction in terms of the perception of legal and illegal, fair and unfair distribution of resources with interpersonal relationship. This theory is also known as the justice theory. It deals with all the issues related to justice like what is fair and what is unfair among the people and among the distribution of things. It is all about the equity between the inputs of the employee according to the output they are getting like if an employee is getting salary for 12 hours and he is working 10 hours so he is unfair with his job and this is not considered good in the organization. It is about he inputs and outcomes,
Input is described by the contribution of yours within the organization like time, effort, loyalty, hard work, commitment, ability, adaptability, flexibility, tolerance etc.
This is the thing which they get in by the organization like job security, esteem, salary, employee benefit, expense, reorganization, reputation, responsibility sense of achievement etc.
Every individual wants to maximize their outcome.
There must be systems in which groups can get the collective rewards through which they can work in groups. These work groups can involve the entire group member to work well in order to maximize the profit, so in this way they can work together in a group.
When individual know that they are participating well in an organization then they ratio of stress is very minimum and in this way the good the relation is with the company the employee will feel distressed.
2.8.5 Job design theory
This theory seek to indentify task characteristics of jobs, like how these different type of characteristics can combined to form different type of task, which also include the relationship to employee motivation, satisfaction and the performance. The aim of this theory is to improve the job satisfaction, outcome, quality and to reduce the employee problem. The basic points which come under this theory are.
What are the things that motivate the employee during the work like id the employee is working so what are the things which will help him doing that work and which satisfies him to complete the job. This includes the use of capacities, progress, career path, responsibilities etc
This is same as volume this is the ability to do something, to receive something or to absorb some thing.
Moving forward in a positive way is your progress this can help you in achieving your goals
The way where you want to go in the future with you professionalism and you work ability.
These are the task or job under you in which you are the one who will be responsible for the tasks.
Which things or characteristics are significant, like what are the things which are important during the job? Like proper scanning, technical analysis, internal system analysis, proposals for the change and implementation
Scanning is the process in which the manger keep on tracking things which are going around the organization this is to control the quality of the product and to know that how the employees of the organization is working.
To analyse the data with a technical approach is the key for the organization because these data can help them to grow the organization.
Internal system analysis
This analysis is within the organization to know that the organization is working well or not under the circumstance.
What you can change in the design that can be implemented. Like is you are working in the organization then what are the things which are changing in the jobs and which are the things that do help the organization to work more effectively.
The employee must be given freedom and independence to the structure, this will help them to take small decisions.
Managers must provide constant feedback like how the employees and working or performing so this will help the employees to know there status that where are they standing and where they want to go this will also help the employee to set their goals.
2.8.6 Goal setting theory
A goal is the object of action, the goal is what a person attempts to accomplish. This theory is given by the Edwin.A.Locke in this theory he tells about the setting of the goals and the attributes of the mental process of goal setting. This theory is for setting the goals which will help you to work more effectively and efficiently, everyone should set their personal goal to reach their, this goals vary person to person some of them sets small goals and have the ability to achieve that goals and some of them set the big goals which are for the longer time period.
The goal can affect the performance in following ways:
Through the goals you can have your narrow attention and direct effort towards them.
Through goals you can put more effort on your work for example if you running in a race and your goal is to win then you will put more and more effort to complete the laps in the minimum time so this will result in the achievement of the goal.
Through goals you can do more hard work to achieve the goals and get it by the time. This includes all the effort done to achieve the goal.
Through the implementation the motivation will improve on performance, plan, organize and control.
Goal setting attributes
Goal setting attributes has specificity, difficulty, intensity and commitment in it
Intermediate review has frequency, exchange of ideas and medication in it.
In final review you first discuss the things then analysis the development and then recycling will occur.
There is the limitation of goal setting, like in the organization a goal of the employee is different from the goal of the organization so this can create lots of conflict like the employee will work for his own goal not for company so in this manner the company will suffer, in this situation the company and the employee should work together to resolve the conflict and have a way on which both can go well.
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2.9 OTHER THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
2.9.1 The incentive theory of motivation
This theory gives us the basic concept of goals. If there is a goal the person will try to achieve that goal. In achieving goals there should be an award or recognition to that person on time because studies have shown that immediate rewards or recognition has greater effect on motivational level of a person. This theory tells us that if you want the person to repeat the same action which satisfy the needs then you have to give something to him; incentive, appreciation etc to raise his/her motivational level.
2.9.2 Drive reduction theory
This theory tells us that, all humans are born with certain physiological needs like hunger if you don’t eat then the state of hunger increase and negative state of tension is created but if you become satisfied than tension will reduced and the person will return to relaxation state. Many psychologists believed that all motivation depended upon the pleasure experienced when basic needs are met. An individual may be motivated to complete a task so it can be seen as a drive if that task is completed then the drive is reduced. If there is no need than problem can occurs. All types of needs are full fill when you satisfied your basic needs.
2.9.3 Cognitive dissonance theory
This theory tells, that if person having two contradictory ideas simultaneously or in a situation in which person has to choose between two belief or action then cognitive dissonance occurs. The greatest dissonance occurs when two alternatives are equally attractive or when one idea implies the opposite of another. When dissonance occurs people have motivational drive to reduce dissonance by changing their attitudes, behavior or by rationalizing them. It might be experienced as person is frustrated, embarrass, anger or feeling guilt. This theory comes in the action when there is some discomfort which is the result of the incompatibility between two cognitions.
2.9.4 Need hierarchy theory
Humans have different type of needs and this theory tells the needs of the human’s motivation, management training, and personal development in order to the importance. Indeed, Maslow’s ideas surrounding the Hierarchy of Needs concerning the responsibility of employers to provide a workplace environment that encourages and enables employees to fulfill their own unique potential (self-actualization) This theory is given by Abraham Maslow’s in his book Motivation and Personality (1954). Everyone has needs and we are motivated if our needs are full fill. This theory will tells how needs motivated us all. Leaders should understand that which needs are more important for employee motivation. As this model indicates that low level of need as physiological needs and safety needs must be satisfied first before high-level needs.
These are the lateral requirement for all human beings if these needs are not full fill then the human body can not continue function. Needs like food, breathing, water, sleep etc. humans should have these needs to survive if these are not available then human being will be motivated to satisfied them.
Once a person gets lower-level physiological needs, then his or her attention moves toward safety and security needs in order to be free from physical threats as well as emotional threats. These are the needs which you want to achieve like security of your body security of the employment, living in safe area medical insurance or financial reserves which is now a day’s very important for all employees. If these needs are not met then needs up the pyramids will not receive attention.
Love and belonging
After getting physiological and safety needs higher level of motivator awakens that is social needs involve feelings, affection or belongingness. These are the needs which are important to improve your life and these helps human to shape up their life with large connection groups (office, clubs, and culture) or with small groups like friendship, family etc. In the absence of these elements many people become loneliness, depressed, shy.
When the first three classes of needs are satisfied, the needs for esteem can become dominant. These involve needs for both self-esteem and for the esteem a person gets from others. When these needs are full fill person feels self confident and valuable as a person in the world. These types of needs are the motivators of the human like the external and the internal one. If people have low self esteemed then he will be looking for glory or fame which depends on others. Self esteem needs may be confidence, respect of others, respect by others etc. There are two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, recognition, fame, and attention. The higher one is the need for self-respect, the need for strength, competence, self-confidence, independence and freedom.
When all needs are satisfied then the need of self actualization activated. This is the last and the important stage of the needs, in this you achieve all the things and you start knowing yourself. This need is never fully satisfied because it required a person to think who is he, what he wants, and how he will get it. Self actualized people tend to have motivators like wisdom, honest, truth, justice etc. In order to reach this level person should have a clear understanding of other needs physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, and self esteem.
2.9.5 Herzberg two factor theory
This theory tells us about the two main factors
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