Human Resource Management is essential part of management, which is involved to the managing people working within the organizations. In other words Human Resource Management means, employment of people, developing their capacities, skills, maintaining and compensating their services related to the job and organizational demand.
From the point of the business practice Human Resource Management involves several processes, like:
Recruitment & Selection (Which we will discuss further);
Induction & Orientation;
Training and Development;
Employee benefits management;
Personnel cost planning;
The basic functions of Human Resource Management include staffing, recruiting and training of employees, ensure their high performance, and manage the benefits and rewards, personal policies, employee records.
Recruitment it is process by which companies appeal candidates to fill present and future work positions, and the appropriate method varies from company to company. Many recruitment methods are available, including internet and print advertisements, outsourcing agencies and employee referrals, that perform recruitment perform recruitment services for the company, or on a fixed-fee arrangement, like a consulting relationship, or on a performance-based basis where the fee is a percentage of the employee's salary. In some ways, employee will pay the fees associated
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with such outsourced services like (GRS Consulting), but more often the company will pay these fees.
Recruitment and selection it's a process of attracting, screening and selecting qualified people for a vacant position. Large scale organizations often use services of the recruiting companies, which help to find a best employee in short period of time.
One of the important functions of Human Resource Management is Recruitment and Selection of the best qualified employees. It's essential that HR Manager selects individuals with skills, experience and background that precisely match the requirements of job vacancy. To put the right candidate to the right position, Human Resource Manager must ensure that new employee will increase productivity and contribute success to the organization.
Contemporary recruitment industry consists of five types of agencies:
recruitment websites and job search engines
head hunters for executives and professional recruitment
employer branding strategy
Recruitment includes several stages, like advertising, screening, selection of potential candidates using interviews.
The job description contains activities, responsibilities and objectives to be achieved. The specification outlines the skills, traits and aptitudes necessary for the desired level of performance, and should be written in indicative terms so that the evidence needed for effective assessment can be collected. Sometimes the job design is not done correctly, which means, that how job is built up not only affects performance levels, it also influences the satisfaction obtained by the post-holder. Well-designed jobs can motivate people and accommodate their personal and career development. They also can make employer to look forward at how its objectives can be achieved.
Poor job design can lead to unfair treatment and discrimination. This refers to the part time jobs where, holders are unable to perform the whole range of tasks available to full timers or have limited access to the development opportunities.
Good job design must be started with the initial analysis of what the organization requires in terms of its business plans. It should be more than a look at past, successful performance. It should be related closely to the future needs of the organization and its operations in terms of following:
Can be reasonably expected of the post-holder
Will be required in future to maintain success
Needs to be to achieve new objectives
Will lead to improved individual and organizational performance
The first stage of the analysis presents the opportunity for past assumptions and historical models to be challenged. We are building up the pictures of the type of people we think are best suited to certain jobs and places in the organization. These pictures are limited by our own experiences of people and images of t we will most likely lead to future success.
This certain images are vast, as their based on incomplete information, prejudices, and false assumptions. If new job descriptions and employee specifications are based on the requirements of the job to be done in the future, some of the traditional stereotypes can be eliminated.
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Once the vacancy came out, in general its accepted that the first stage in recruiting the person to fill it is to prepare the job description - but really it should be a second step. The first should be the design of job, since its more than a collection of tasks. It should have meaning and purpose. It must be related to the objective and the part of organization in which it is located. It should also capable of being done by human being. A job can be impossible to perform in following ways:
Its poor design make individual feel not be successful
Its component tasks can be disjointed and unrelated.
If there too many duties or too few, it may be senseless
It can be unrewarding, so that employee is demotivated
The range of skills required can be too wide to be found in any one individual.
. A job analysis establishes the requirements of the job that is being filled or created. A job analysis focuses on work activities, human behaviors, performance standards, job context, machines, tools, equipment and work aids, etc.
Information of job analysis used for writing job specifications and job descriptions.
Job analysis - It is special procedure through which you define tasks of these characteristics of the people to hire for them a job. The supervisor or human resource specialist usually collects several of the following types of information through the job analysis:
-Job activities. First, they collect information about the actual job's work activities, such as selling, typing, painting cleaning or teaching. Also this list possible includes such: how, why, and when the worker performs each activity.
-Behaviors of people. The Human Resource Management specialist also can collect information about human behaviors like sensing, communicating, deciding, and writing. Included here would be information regarding job requirement such a lifting weights or walking long distances.
-Performance standards. The employer may also want information about the job's performance standards. Management will use these standards to appraise employees.
-Machines, tools, equipment, and work aids. This one of category involve information regarding materials processed, knowledge dealt with or applied, tools used, and services rendered.
-Work context. Involve information about such matters as work schedule, as organizational, and the physical working conditions, and social context.
For example: Number of humans with whom the employee would normally interact. Information regarding about people jobs requirements, such as job-related experience, skills or knowledge's and required personal attributes.
Principles and Steps in Job analysis.
In Job analysis we can describe four principles and five steps.
Step #1. Decide how to use the information.
Step #2. Review relevant background information.
Step #3. Select representative positions.
Step #4. Conduct the analysis.
Step #5. Verify with the worker and supervisor.
Principle #1. Recruitment and selection.
The job analysis provides information about how and what the human characteristics are required to perform these activities and what job entails. Job analysis information, one of the form of job specifications and descriptions, also helps decide for managers what sort of people to hire and recruit.
Principle #2. Compensation.
The Job analysis information is indispensable for estimating the value of each job and its appropriate compensation. Compensation is one of form of insurance that provides such as medical care, bonus and salary, usually depends on the job's required experiences in education level and skill, degree of responsibility. On all factors you can assess though job analysis.
Follow as above we can say that job analysis provides information to determine the relative deserving of each job and thus earmark type (class).
Principle #3. Performance Appraisal.
Performance appraisal compares each employee's actual performance with their performance standard. Doing for check requires knowledge of job's responsibilities and standards.
Furthermore, many managers use job analysis to find what these performance standards and duties are.
Principle #4. Discovering unassigned duties.
The job analysis also can help discover unassigned duties. For example: Siemens Corporation company's production manager says she is responsible for a dozen or so duties, such as production scheduling and law material purchasing. So there missing, nevertheless, is any reference to managing raw material inventories. Later on we have learnt that non of other manufacturing personnel was responsible for inventory management.. You know from your review of the other jobs like these that someone should be managing inventories. Thanks to job analysis you have uncovered an essential unassigned duty.
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As you know recruitment process based on assigning the right person to the right position, with the use of different selection methods.
Referees and interviews are used most commonly, but other methods are available depending on the specific requirement of position. The other selection methods include:
Skill performance work sample, personality test,physical evaluation.
Interview is a procedure designed to obtain information from a person through oral responses to oral inquire.
Basic types of interviews: Directive; nondirective
In interviewing process usually who can undermine success in an interview by next criteria: First impressions; job misunderstanding; candidate order error; interview behavior; personal characteristics; nonverbal behavior management.