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In the current context there are more competitive for the business. Many companies are producing same items to the market with different trademark. They are running their business with a vision. For successful vision achievement they have to achieve their goals. So they are in a position to run their organization better than their competitors. So for the successful organisational environment, they have to satisfy their employees.
In the present context, when you are working in the organisation, you may think "is this the right organisation for you?" In my point the many answers will be "No". The main reason for this answer "Managers have lack of knowledge about how to manage organisational behaviour". Due to this less knowledge, managers straggling to handle employee's problems in a proper way and they are not guiding the employees in a line to achieving organisation's goal. Because of this many qualified employees are trying to find a job in other organization where having a high-quality management. If qualified employees leave the organisation, organisation's goal achievement result will be negative. So the managers should have jam-packed knowledge about organisational behaviour.
In this point you will think what is organisational behaviour? There are many definitions for this but simply can say, for a act getting different responds from different people and the way of reaction between two people in the office situation. So good manager will observe this and he could identify that who is proficient and who wants to get more knowledge. If the employee satisfied with his job, they will be more productive and their respond also will be satisfied. For example, if manager employed who is a young, shy and softly spoken girl, manager cannot put her in the role of marketing. Instead, manager can place her in a low stress position that would suit her nature.
So the organisational behaviour is not just about keeping employees happy. It is about placing staff in a position that suits their personality and experience as well as helping employees to nurture in a way that they become more of an asset to the business.
Organisational behaviour is an inevitable process in the organisations. The organisation's goals are achieving by their managers, so they should run the organisation effectively. Here we are analysing some important organisational behaviours which knowledge helps to managers. In the organisational environment, all behaviours are interconnected. Manager has to identify the employee's behaviour and he has to make the link with other behaviours to effectively run the organisation. For an example if a person who is working efficiently in the marketing field with an extraversion personality, we need to motivate him as well as we have to make a job satisfaction for him. So here personality, motivation and job satisfaction behaviours are interconnected. Here I am analysing some important organisational behaviour about what is behaviour? How these behaviours will help to the managers for decision making? What are the theories has to consider when decision making? Etc. So this will helps to the managers who are having lack of knowledge about organisational behaviour.
Organisational Behaviour importance of today's context
What is personality? Until now there is no any agreement on the exact meaning of personality. But there are many ways to describe the personality (i.e strong, weak or polite). My description about personality is "The kind of ability which people having". All people they are not having equal mentality, person to person it will differ. So when manager while working with them, he/she can identify their personality and he/she can categorize them with "Big Five" personality traits. If manager assign a job to a person in inside the office who is having more extraversion, his all talents are shrinking inside the office and he/she won't get effective result from him. But if manager assign him as a marketing person, he/she will get more effective and efficient result from him.
Motivation is the process to encourage the employee to work effectively to achieve the organisational goal. Manager has to identify the system to motivate his/her employees. Without an appropriate technique manager cannot satisfy each and every employee. So initially manager has to identify the needs and based on that needs he/she can motivate the employee by provide incentives. There are many theories from many researchers to identify the needs. But Maslow's hierarchy of need theory and Herzberg's two factor theories are mostly consider by decision makers.
Motivational system can be identified by categorize the employee's needs under these theories. For an example if an employee has a need for job security, manager can motivate him by giving long term contract, job related training programme etc.
3.3 Job Satisfaction
What is job satisfaction? How manager can satisfy the employee? Simply can say that "getting positive result from the one employee's job appraisal or job experience", job satisfaction is one of the important attitude. In the job satisfaction many internal factors will influence like the work itself, Payment, Promotion opportunities, Supervision and Co-workers, but in the meanwhile some external factors also influencing. For an example one person is working in the developed area with all internal & external facilities. But suddenly management has transferred him to the remote area with same job, where is no external facilities like his previous worked area (travelling facilities, good food etc). When they observed his performance after transfer, it was lesser than previous. So manager has to take action to enhance satisfaction for an example Make jobs more fun, have fair pay, design jobs to make them satisfying and providing office transportation or allowance.
As we discussed earlier, the different personalities are working in organization. There should have monitoring and controlling between staff, so they need a proper leadership. How manager can find correct leadership? What kind of characteristics he/she should have? This type of questions will arise before assign the leader. There are many definitions for leadership. According to Useem, leadership is a matter of making a difference. It entails changing an organisation and making active choices among plausible alternatives, and depends on the development of others and mobilising them to get the job done. Manager can ask a question why managers can't be a leader? As per Watson's 7-S organizational framework he suggests that whereas managers tend towards reliance on strategy, structure, and systems, leaders have an inherent inclination for utilisation of the 'soft' Ss of style, staff, skills, and shared goals. Also manager can see the different characteristic between Manager and Leader as follows.
A copy An original
Focus on systems and structure Focuses on people
Relies on control Inspires trust
Short-range view Long-range perspective
Asks how and when Asks what and why
Eye on the bottom line Eye on the horizon
Accepts the status quo Challenges the status quo
Classic good soldier Own person
Does things right Does the right things
When manager intend to recruit or position a leader, he/she should identify above characteristic from that employee.
There are different styles are following by leaders among their group.
Autocratic - This style is dominating the staff by his decision.
Democratic - This style is making decision among consult with others.
Laissez-Faire - This style is following the systems as it is.
It will helps to the managers to identify the correct leader style to the appropriate group.
Group behaviour is two or more individuals, interrelating and co-dependent, who have come together to achieve particular goals. Group behaviour starts from the beginnings that contribute to the groups efficiencies. So manager should know why group behaviour is important? How groups are working? How to develop the groups? What are the characteristics groups should have?
While working in the group, employee can reduce the insecurity of 'standing alone', recognition and status will be provided by others to the group members, possibilities are in the group for achievement which could not achieve as an individual, goal achievement period will be less.
Forming : characterized by uncertainly.
Storming : characterized by intergroup
Norming : characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness
Performing : when is fully functional
Adjourning : This presents the end of the group, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance.
Based on above structure if manager form the group, the behaviour of the group will be efficacy for organisation's goal achievement.
Training & Development
Manager is the responsible person to get more work from employees. From the above examples he/she can come across that someone capable someone incapable to handle specific job. So manager has to make everyone as capable workers. What is training programme? How can do this? What are the better ways to conducting training programmes to staff? This type of questions will arise from manager. There are many definitions for training. Steinmez said "Training is a short-term process utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which non-managerial personnel learn technical knowledge and skill" and David de Cenzo and S.P. Robbins said "Training involves changing of skills, knowledge, attitude or social behaviour" (Nirmal Singh, HRM, p404).
Before go for a training, manager has to identify the lacking part of employee. There are certain steps to discover the training needs
Analysing Jobs and Men: if the men are less capable to perform the particular jobs they can be given training to increase their skills.
Collecting Employee's and Managerial Opinions: The training section may either by interviews or questionnaires obtain views of different people regarding necessary and desirable training programmes.
Anticipating Requirements of Different Jobs: As a manager, you can forecast earlier the manpower requirement on the basis of long-term plans such as business expansion, new technology etc. Training may be given to the existing employees to enable them to meet the requirements of new jobs in the future.
Once manager identify the needs, he/she has to plan the training methods. The training programmes should conducted by well trained trainers.
Development is the process of transition of an employee from a lower level of ability, skill and knowledge to that of higher level. This transition is influenced by education, training, work experience and environment. Developments are mostly considered for the managerial level staff.
In every organisation change is inevitable and unavoidable. The organisation which fails to change is sure to fail, because change is required to maintain stability to some extent in the functioning of organisation. The managers always keen on these changes. There are two main forces will involve in changes.
Internal forces: These forces may either be derived from the change in external environment or may be because of management induced forces. Internal forces mainly include the following:
Top management and its philosophy and corporate policy.
Retirement, promotion, resignation and transfer of key functionaries of the organisation.
Change is the perception, attitude, feelings, beliefs and expectations of the employees working in the organisation.
Change is internal environment of the organisation.
External forces: These forces include all factors of external environment which directly or indirectly affect the functioning of an organisation. Some of them are as under.
Socio Culture: Education, population dynamics, rate of urbanisation, social traditions and customs will force the organisation for changes.
Economic: It will includes the demand, competition, price mechanism, buying capacity, distribution of income, cost and quality and availability of various resources.
Political and Legal: In the political level major opposition party, political stability, morality and values will force the organisation.
Technology: In the technology level new techniques of production, innovation of new process etc. Will force the organisation.
Work environment: in this environment customer loyalty, supplier regularity, community attitude and recognition of society will force the organisation
Once manager identified the factors for changes, he/she should plan to make changes. There are few steps to be followed to make changes.
Step 1 - Preparing for changeÂ (Preparation, assessment and strategy development)
Step 2 - Managing changeÂ (Detailed planning and change management implementation)
Collect and analyze feedback
Diagnose gaps and manage resistance
Implement corrective actions and celebrate successes
Preparing for change
Identify change management Strategy
Arrange change management Team
Develop sponsorship model
Develop change management plan
Implement plansStep 3 - Reinforcing changeÂ (Data gathering, corrective action and recognition)
Above organisational behaviour analysis exposed that how organisational behaviours knowledge is very important to manage the organisation. Each and every behaviours are important because they are inter-connected with each one. If group behaviours are not satisfied, they can go for a training programme. As well as if Leadership style changed, we can identify the lacking part for change and based on that can be motivated or making job satisfaction. Like this all behaviours are linked with other. So when organisation is planned to place a manager, they need to test their behaviour knowledge.
So I hope that above my analysis will help to the managers, who are having poor knowledge about organisational behaviour.