Project: Planet Employability
Report Title: To examine the impact of healthy lifestyle choices through volunteering engagement in the UK
Over the years, UK unemployment rose by many reasons. One of the reasons is that lack of skills and Knowledge. Therefore, Volunteering is an essential part of employment because it is helping to increase the employability skills such as communication skills, team work, problem solving, planning and organisation skills and confident and more skills. Therefore, I am going to examine the impact of healthy lifestyle choices through volunteering engagement in the UK. Through my research, I am going to identify the impact of volunteering in securing employment, examine how youths make healthy lifestyle choices and identify what skills youths can develop through volunteering to increase employability skills in youths through volunteering. There are many literature reviews examined about youth volunteering. In this literature review, I am going to critically analyse the different sources for find out the author’s opinion about impact of healthy lifestyle choices through volunteering engagement in the UK.
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Duguid, Mundel and Schugurensky (2013) define that Volunteering has for main characteristics which are freely chosen, unpaid, part of organisation, and benefit for the community and more participation in social movements. They also said that volunteering activities tend not to be individually directed, but it is collectively organised. Volunteering enhance employability (Zimmeck, 2010). According to Lukka and Ellis Paine (2001), volunteering includes a wide range of activities, undertaken by a diverse range of people and driven by many different motivations. Volunteering might help to development of ‘work attitudes’ and behaviours (Krahn et al., 2002). Volunteering fits well as one of the range of mechanisms promoted the employability in the UK (Smith, 2010)
To identify the impact of volunteering in securing employment
Thomas (2011) identifies the following positive impact of volunteering for introduced and securing employment.Â Volunteering is a great way to get introduced as an employer in an organisation. Volunteering is helping for people specially youth to prove themselves to the employer. Also, it allows gaining valuable work experience, skills, knowledge and expanding network connection .Volunteering help to try different jobs without commitment to the long haul.
According to Musick and Wilson (2007) Volunteering leads to better jobs and they said that, there is major reason why it should improve a person’s changes for getting a better job. The first reason is that, volunteers do better because they apply directly to their job. Also they said volunteer work able to develop one’s changes in the labour market by increasing one’s stock of human capital. Secondly, volunteering builds social networks, which help to get a good job easily. Volunteering forges make a connection to people who might contribute advice, information and further connection and they increase the chances of getting a good job, particularly if those persons have economic and cultural capital. According to their research, it shows that volunteers have many social contracts than non-volunteers because they attend many organisation meetings, have more friends. They have found the following results from the survey of teenage volunteers; 28 percent youth volunteers said help them “get my foot in the door at a place where I would like to work”, 29 percent expected to “make new contacts that might help my future career” and two thirds learned about new career options as a result of their volunteering, and just over half had developed new career goals. Furthermore they observed both occupational status and income have positive effect by volunteering. Average, volunteers earned 7 percentages more than non-volunteers by education, youth development and health.
Duguid, Mundel, and Schugurensky (2013) said that, volunteer work is an important role in nurturing active, critical and engaged citizens and vibrant communities. One study found that, in 2006/7, 6% of volunteers had received qualifications through volunteering (Low et al., 2007).
On other hand, Lake (2016) said that, there are some negative impacts of volunteering such as time commitment, lack of pay, personal conflict and impact on heath. Volunteering can be time consuming and it makes emotional rewarding. Also, Lake said that, volunteering increase the stress or negative emotions in some situations and its lead to deterioration of volunteers’ physical health.
To examine how youths make healthy lifestyle choices
South, white and Gamsu ( 2013 ) said that, Volunteering can impact positively on many aspects of the volunteer’s own heath such as longevity, adoption of healthy life styles, ability to cope with own ill health, family relationship, quality of life, self-esteem and social support. Also, they said volunteering may reduce stress and depression.
Astor (2013) believed that, choosing the right place to do volunteer will similar to choosing hobby. This statement shows that, volunteering is a good choice to make healthier lifestyles. It is a fun and easy way to explore the interests and passions.
Brueggemann (2013) found volunteering increase the personal growth and well-being, physical health benefits and mental health benefits. Moreover, Volunteering increases youth’s happiness, life satisfaction, self esteem and well-being. It boosts youth’s immune and nervous system and reduces heart rate and blood pressure. Volunteers have less loneliness, sadness and depression. From Breggemann, I can see youth can make healthy lifestyles by volunteering. Similar to Brueggemann, Thoits and Hewitt (2001) said that volunteering provides higher levels of happiness, life-satisfaction, self-esteem, a sense of control over life, and physical health, as well as lower levels of depression.
To identify what skills youths can develop through volunteering
Hillage and Pollard (1998) said that employability is not only about moving into employment; it relates to job retention and skill development.
Godwin (1998) mentioned that, training provides volunteers with good knowledge and skills needed to carry out their assigned tasks successfully. Training provides opportunity for personal growth and improvement to volunteers. Effective listening, analyze information, mange and resolve conflict are very important skills to any jobs. Therefore, youth can develop these skills through volunteering activities.
According to Foster (1998), Volunteering is an excellent way of building up skills and increasing the employability. Foster found through studies, Young people has lacking skills such as initiative, motivation, self- discipline and ability to effective communication. In the same time, more than 75% human resources directors believed from survey that, candidate who listed volunteering on an application form had self-confidence, teamwork skills and communication skills above average. Therefore, youths can improve self-confidence, team work skills and communication skills by volunteering.
Similarly, Sequeira (2008) mentioned that, volunteers can develop self motivation from recruiting, training, motivating and rewarding your volunteering. Furthermore, Volunteer can develop organisation skills and increase their flexibility, dedication and reliability from volunteering activities.
There are number of studies directly have explored the link between volunteering and employability. From the studies, I can identify that, volunteering has number ofÂ Â positive impact and it will help to get employability. Furthermore, some authors argued volunteering make healthy lifestyles. I agree their arguments because, if youth on volunteering, they spend more time with volunteering activities, and it’s not lead to wrong direction. Therefore, youth can have health life styles by volunteering. According to studies, volunteering makes positive impact to individuals such as enjoyment and well-being and also it is creating positive impact on employability such as skills development. Others said, volunteering is creating negative impact such as time commitment and lack of pay. From overall studies, Volunteering is essential to get better employability.
Astor,B.(2013) AARP Roadmap for the Rest of Your Life: Smart Choices About Money, Health, Work, Lifestyle … and Pursuing Your Dreams.[Online]Available at:
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=nzuPnlW9dL4C&pg=PT98&dq=healthy+lifestyle+choices+in+volunteering&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjyi879z5fRAhWHNlAKHatCAAYQ6AEILzAB#v=onepage&q=healthy%20lifestyle%20choices%20in%20volunteering&f=false [Assessed on:21st December]
Breggemenn,W.(2013)Â The Practice of Macro Social Work.[Online] Available at:
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=PzI0CklCWCoC&pg=PA70&dq=how+does+volunteering+make+changes+to+youth&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwi5k-6s05fRAhXTe1AKHescCY4Q6AEIVDAI#v=onepage&q=how%20does%20volunteering%20make%20changes%20to%20youth&f=false.[Assessed on:23rd December 2016]
Duguid,F.,Mündel,K and Schugurensky,D.(2013) Volunteer Work, Informal Learning and Social Action.[Online]AvailableÂ at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2c5EAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA37&dq=impact++of+volunteering&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjFtIrq8pvRAhWVN1AKHQZjCJY4ChDoAQhNMAg#v=onepage&q=impact%20%20of%20volunteering&f=false. [Assessed on: 20 th December 2016].
Duguid,F.,Mundel,K.and Schugurensky,D (2013) Volunteer Work, Informal Learning and Social Action.[Online]Available at : https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2c5EAAAAQBAJ&pg=PA195&dq=definition+of+volunteering&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj2xcuKlYjRAhWMYFAKHV0jDhIQ6AEIQjAD#v=onepage&q=definition%20of%20volunteering&f=falseÂ [Assessed on:19th of December 2016].
Foster,V.(1998) Developing Your Employment Skills.[Online]Available at:
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=XB-vqk2CbGoC&pg=PT75&dq=communication+skills++volunteering&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjK5cWP65bRAhUNNlAKHYCKCyUQ6AEIWDAI#v=onepage&q=communication%20skills%20%20volunteering&f=false [Assessed on:24th December 2016]
Godwin,T.(1998) Peer Justice and Youth Empowerment: An Implementation Guide for Teen Court Programs.[online] Available at:
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=JJFIHNyPuhwC&pg=PA115&dq=identify+what+skills+youths+can+develop+through+volunteering&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjC2bHb4pbRAhURe1AKHUBIA0cQ6AEIMzAA#v=onepage&q=identify%20what%20skills%20youths%20can%20develop%20through%20volunteering&f=false [Assessed on:23rd of December 2016]
Hillage, J. and Pollard, E.(1998) Employability: Developing a framework for policy analysis. Research BriefÂ 85,London: Department for Education and employment
Krahn, H.,Lowe,G.and Lehmann,W.(2002) ‘Acquisition of employability skills by high school students’,Canadian Public Policy,28 (2):275-96
Lake,R. (2016 ) Disadvantages of Volunteer Work.[online]Available at: http://peopleof.oureverydaylife.com/disadvantages-volunteer-work-2250.html.[Assessed on:31st December 2016]
Low,N.,Butt,S.,Ellis Paine,A. And Davis Smith,J.(2007) Helping Out: A national survey of volunteering and charitable giving. London: Cabinet Office.
Musick,M. And Wilson,J.(2007) Volunteers: A Social Profile.[Online] Available at:
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=u8Tabf5HcRcC&printsec=frontcover&dq=impact+of+volunteering&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiJ1JXkv5LRAhUNM1AKHRbBBkkQ6AEINTAB#v=onepage&q=impact%20of%20volunteering&f=false [Assessed on: 19th December].
Smith,V.(2010) ‘Review Article: Enhancing Employabilty:Human,cultural and social capital in an ear of turbulent unpredictability’,Human Relations,63 (2):279-303.
Sequeira,M.(2008) 365 Ways to Motivate and Reward Your Nonprofit Volunteers Every Day: With Little Or No Money.[Online]Available at:
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=BtbqlLpoqScC&pg=PA72&dq=what+skills+make+successful+volunteer&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwietrHY-pbRAhUaOlAKHZ6sCgc4ChDoAQglMAI#v=onepage&q=what%20skills%20make%20successful%20volunteer&f=false [Assessed on:26th December 2016]
South,J.,White,J and Gamsu,M (2013) People-centred Public Health.[Online] Available at:
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=m4frjV-LatwC&pg=PA61&dq=how+does++volunteering+reduce+stress&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwj_jLWiy5fRAhULeVAKHTOUAvYQ6AEILjAA#v=onepage&q=how%20does%20%20volunteering%20reduce%20stress&f=false.[Assessed on:21st December 2016]
Thoits, P.A and Hewitt, L.N. (2001) “Volunteer Work and Well-Being” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 42(2):115-131
Thomas,J.(2011) Work Abilities: A Guide for Persons With Disabilities Seeking Employment.[Online] Available at: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=f6ulcnIure8C&pg=PA36&dq=impact+of+volunteering+in+securing+employment&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjkjoaXoIjRAhXGOlAKHdbHA6QQ6AEITTAF#v=onepage&q=impact%20of%20volunteering%20in%20securing%20employment&f=false [Assessed on:19th December 2016].
Zimmeck,M. (2010) ‘Government and Volunteering: Towards a history of policy and practice’ in C. Rochester,A.Ellis Paine and S. Howlett, Volunteering and Society in the 21st Century, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.
Lukka,P.and Ellis Paine,A. (2001,2007) ‘An Exclusive Construct? Exploring different cultural concepts of volunteering’, Voluntary Action 3(3)87-109 reprinted in J.Davis Smith and M.Locke (eds) Volunteering and the Test of Time:Essays for policy, organisation and research. London: Institute for Volunteering Research.
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