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Human Resource Management theories focus on methods of recruitment and selection and highlight the advantages of interviews, general assessment and psychometric testing as employee selection process. The recruitment process could be internal or external or could also be online and involves the stages of recruitment policies, advertising, job description, job application process, interviews, , decision making, legislation and selection and training (Korsten 2003,Jones et al, 2006). Examples of recruitment policies within healthcare sector and business or industrial sectors could provide insights on how recruitment policies are set and managerial objectives are defined.
Successful recruitment methods include a thorough analysis of the job and the labor market conditions and interviews as well as psychometric tests to determine the potentialities of applicants. Small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) also focus on interviews and assessment with emphasis on job analysis, emotional intelligence in new or inexperienced applicants and corporate social responsibility (CSR). Other techniques of selection that have been described include various types of interviews, in tray exercise, role play, group activity, etc.
Recruitment is almost central to any management process and failure in recruitment can create difficulties for any company including an adverse effect on its profitability and inappropriate levels of staffing or skills. Inadequate recruitment can lead to labour shortages, or problems in management decision making and the recruitment process could itself be improved by following management theories. The recruitment process could be improved in sophistication with Rodgers seven point plan, Munro-Frasers five-fold grading system, psychological tests, personal interviews, etc. Recommendations for specific and differentiated selection systems for different professions and specializations have been given. A new national selection system for psychiatrists, anesthetists and dental surgeons has been proposed within the UK health sector.
Recruitment is however not just a simple selection process and requires management decision making and extensive planning to employ the most suitable manpower. Competition among business organisations for recruiting the best potential has increased focus on innovation, and management decision making and the selectors aim to recruit only the best candidates who would suit the corporate culture, ethics and climate specific to the organisation (Terpstra, 1994). This would mean that the management would specifically look for potential candidates capable of team work as being a team player would be crucial in any junior management position. Human Management resource approaches within any business organisation are focused on meeting corporate objectives and realization of strategic plans through training of personnel to ultimately improve company performance and profits (Korsten, 2003). The process of recruitment does not however end with application and selection of the right people but involves maintaining and retaining the employees chosen. Despite a well drawn plan on recruitment and selection and involvement of qualified management team, recruitment processes followed by companies can face significant obstacles in implementation. Theories of HRM may provide insights on the best approaches to recruitment although companies will have to use their in house management skills to apply generic theories within specific organizational contexts.
Human resources are the most important assets of an organisation. The success or failure of an organisation is largely dependent on the calibre of the people working therein. Without positive and creative contributions from people, organisations cannot progress and prosper. In order to achieve the goals of organisations, therefore, people with requisite skills, qualifications and experience needed to be recruited.
Recruitment is the process of locating and encouraging potential applicants to apply for existing or anticipated job openings. It is actually a linking function, joining those with jobs to fill and those seeking jobs.
(RAO, V.S.P. 2008. Human Resource Management text and cases. 2nd edn. Newdelhi; Anuragjain.)
Recruitment is the first part of the process of filling a vacancy. It includes examining the vacancy and considerations of sources of suitable candidates, making contacts with those candidates and attracting application forms them.
Selection is the next stage. Assessing the candidates by various means, and making a choice followed by an offer of employment.
(GRAHAM, HT. & BENNET, R. 1995)
The purpose and importance of recruitment
The purpose and importance of recruitment is
1. To attract and encourage more and more candidates to apply in the organisation, thereby to create a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates.
2. To determine present and future needs of the organisation in conjunction with its personnel planning and job analysis activities.
3. To increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.
4. To help increase the success rate of selection process by decreasing number of visibly under qualified or over qualified applicants.
5. To reduce the probability that applicants once recruited and selected will leave the organisation only after a short period.
6. To meet the organisations legal and social obligations regarding the composition of its work force.
7. To increase organisation and individual effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources for all types of job applicants.
The recruitment and selection is the major function of the human resource department and recruitment process is the very first step towards creating the competitive strength and the strategic advantage for the organisations. The process of recruitment begins with searching the suitable candidates, follows through the selection and ends with appointing the candidates. However, both recruitment and selection are the two phases of employment process; they differ in the individual execution as below.
Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs where as selection involves the series of steps by which candidates are screened for choosing the most suitable persons for the posts. The basic rationale of recruitment is to generate a talent pool of candidates to enable the selection of best candidates, whereas the basic purpose of selection process is to choose the right candidate to fill the range of positions.
Recruitment process involves a systematic procedure from sourcing the applicants to arranging and conducting the interviews and needs many resources and time. A common recruitment process looks like below.
1. Identifying the vacancy
The recruitment process begins with Human Resource department receiving requisitions for recruitment from any department of the organisation. These include,
>posts to be filled,
>number of persons,
>duties to be performed,
2. Preparing job description and person specification
3. Locating and developing the sources of required number and type of employees.
4. Managing the process.
5. Short-listing and identifying the prospective employee with required characteristics.
6. Arranging the interviews with the selected candidates
7. Conducting the interview and decision-making.
The selection process immediately follows this recruitment process. That is the final interviews and decision-making, conveying the decision and the appointment formalities.